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17-1 Chapter 17 The Creation and Diffusion of Consumer Culture Culture Production Process 17-2 Cultural Production Systems • The set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating and marketing a cultural product is a Cultural Production System (CPS). It consists of: 17-3 – Creative Subsystem - responsible for generating new symbols and/or products. – Managerial Subsystem - responsible for selecting, making tangible, mass producing, and managing the distribution of new symbols and/or products. – Communications Subsystem - responsible for giving meaning to the new product and communicating these symbolic attributes to the consumer. High Culture and Popular Culture • Culture Production Systems create many diverse kinds of products, such as Arts and Crafts: – An Art Product is viewed primarily as an object of aesthetic contemplation without any functional value. – A Craft Product is admired because of the beauty with which it performs some function. 17-4 • Mass culture churns out products specifically for a mass market and many follow a Cultural Formula where certain roles and props occur consistently such as in detective or romance novels. Reality Engineering 17-5 Reality Engineering Occurs as Elements of Popular Culture are Appropriated by Marketers and Converted to Vehicles for Promotional Strategies. Reality Engineering is Accelerating due to the Popularity of Product Placement. Product Placement is the Insertion of Specific Products/ Brand Names in Movies & TV. Media Images Appear to Significantly Influence Consumers’ Perceptions of Reality. Diffusion of Innovations 17-6 Adopter Categories • Innovators - 2.5% of the population, the first to buy, will buy novel products. • Early Adopters - 13.5 % of the population, share many characteristics with the Innovators, but they have a higher degree or concern for social acceptance. • Early and Late Majority - 68% of the population, mainstream public, interested in new things, but not too new. • Laggards - 16% of the population, the last to adopt a product. 17-7 Types of Innovations 17-8 Symbolic Innovation Communicates a New Social Meaning Technological Innovation Involves Some Functional Change Behavioral Demands of Innovations Degree to Which an Innovation Demands Changes in Behavior 17-9 Discontinuous Innovation Creates Major Changes in the Way We Live Dynamically Continuous Innovation More Pronounced Change in the Existing Product Continuous Innovation Modification of an Existing Product Prerequisites for Successful Adoption Relative Advantage Must Give Advantages Other Products Don’t Have Must Fit Consumer’s Lifestyle 17-10 Compatibility Observability Ones That are Observable Spread Faster Product Characteristics for Successful Adoption Complexity Lower The Better Trialability Reduce Risk by Letting Consumer Try it The Fashion System Fashion is the Process of Social Diffusion by Which a New Style is Adopted by Some Group(s) of Consumers. 17-11 Cultural Categories Affect Many Different Products and Styles Collective Selection Process by Which Certain Symbolic Alternatives are Chosen Over Others Group Products by Categories Costumes Worn by Celebrities Can Affect Fashion Behavioral Science Perspective on Fashion Psychological 17-12 Economic Models of Fashion Sociological Medical 17-13 Behavioral Science Perspective on Fashion • Psychological Models of Fashion – Erogenous Zones 17-14 Fashions Have Accentuated Different Parts of the Female Anatomy Throughout History 17-15 Are We at the Mercy of Fashion Designers? • Do you believe there is a “designer conspiracy” because they are the ones who determine what is “in” and what is “out” in fashion? 17-16 Economic Model of Fashion • Parody Display • Prestige-Exclusivity Effect • Snob Effect 17-17 Sociological Models of Fashion • • • • Trickle-Down Theory Mass Fashion Trickle-Across Theory Trickle-Up 17-18 Medical Model of Fashion • Meme Theory • Tipping Point Fashion Life-Cycle Acceleration General Acceptance 17-19 Decline Rise Innovation Obsolescence Introduction stages Acceptance stages Regression stages A Normal Fashion Cycle Cycles of Fashion Adoption • Introduction Stages – Product is used by a small number of Innovators. 17-20 • Acceptance Stages – Product enjoys increased social visibility and acceptance by large segments of the population. – A Classic is a fashion with an extremely long acceptance cycle. – A Fad is a short-lived fashion. • Regression Stages – Product reaches a state of social saturation as it becomes overused, and sinks into decline and obsolesce as new products rise to take its place. 17-21 Fads, Fashions and Classics Fad or Trend? 17-22 Questions to Ask to Determine if a Trend, Which Lasts for Some Time, is Occurring Include: Does it Fit With Basic Lifestyle Changes? What are the Benefits? Can it be Personalized? Is it a Trend or a Side Effect? What Other Changes Have Occurred in the Market? Who Has Adopted the Change? Think Globally, Act Locally Two Views Exist Regarding the Necessity of Developing Separate Marketing Plans for Each Culture. 17-23 Etic Perspective Adopting a Standardized Strategy Which Focuses on Commonalties Across Cultures. Emic Perspective Adopting a Localized Strategy Which Focuses on Variations Within a Culture. Determining Whether to Utilize the Etic or Emic Perspective • Cultural differences relevant to marketers. – Tastes and styles, – Advertising preferences and regulations, – Cultural norms toward taboos and sexuality. 17-24 • To maximize the chances of success for multicultural advertising campaigns, marketers should target those who share a common worldview, who may include: – Affluent people who are “global citizens”, and – Young people who are influenced by the media. The Diffusion of Western Consumer Culture Creolization Occurs When Foreign Influences are Absorbed and Integrated With Local Meanings The West is a Net Exporter of Popular Culture 17-25 The U.S. Invades Asia Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies Signs That the Western Culture Invasion is Slowing
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