Systems Engineering In Retrospect and In Prospect - INCOSE UK

Document Sample
Systems Engineering In Retrospect and In Prospect - INCOSE UK Powered By Docstoc
					INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  Systems Engineering -
                                   In Retrospect and In
                                         Prospect
                                           Peter Robson
                                    Systems Engineering Consultant




PGR
                                  Overview of Paper


                                  • Introduction
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  • Generic Systems Engineering
                                  • Systems Engineering Maturity
                                     – Performance
                                     – Methodology
                                     – Focus
                                     – Life Cycle
                                  • In Retrospect
                                  • In Prospect
                                  • Conclusions

PGR
                                    Disclaimers

                                  • My views only!
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  • Examples come primarily from defence background
                                     – but read across / translate to other sectors

                                  • Examples are mostly end customer – prime supplier
                                     – but don’t forget that prime suppliers are customers down
                                       the supply chain

                                  • Not an analysis of thirty years of systems theory
                                     – but subjective identification of key issues



PGR
                                  Introduction

                                  • Resurgence of national interest in systems
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    engineering during the last decade
                                  • DTI’s Foresight Systems Engineering Working
                                    Party
                                  • MOD’s initiative on ‘Smart’ Procurement’
                                  • Importance of systems engineering to other
                                    sectors of industry
                                  • Signs that the resurgence has not taken
                                    sufficient root
                                  • Systems engineering is a shared interest
                                    throughout the whole supply-and-use chain for a
                                    project or product

PGR
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                  Thesis



                                        “Complementary systems
                                   engineering capabilities are needed
                                     within and between the various
                                    enterprises in the supply chain, in
                                    particular between customers and
                                                suppliers”


PGR
                                  Generic Systems Engineering

                                  • What is a System?
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                      – “A system is an interacting combination of elements,
                                        viewed in relation to function”
                                      – the human element
                                      – emergent properties
                                  •   What is Systems Engineering?
                                      – “Systems engineering is the art and science of creating
                                        complex systems” (Hitchins)
                                      – Discovery, a specialist type that involves significant
                                        analysis, particularly of the problem space (Sheard)
                                      – Program Systems Engineering, a co-ordination or
                                        generalist type that emphasises the solution space and
                                        technical and human interfaces (Sheard)
                                      – Approach, a process type that can (and should) be
                                        performed by any engineer (Sheard)
PGR
                                  Generic Systems Engineering

                                  • The Human Foundation of Systems Engineering
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    – Propositions about Humans and Problems
                                    – Propositions about Knowledge
                                    – Propositions about Systems Engineering
                                  • Systems Hierarchies




                                     Constituents               Systems engineering
                                     of a system                     hierarchy
PGR
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                  Structure based on SE Maturity Model




                                   based on Brian Mar’s “Systems Engineering Maturity Model”
                                                         NCOSE 1993
PGR
                                  Performance

                                              Have we
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    just promised to provide
                                           SE (Level 1)
                                   or have we demonstrated
                                            it (Level 2)
                                       or have we made it
                                      repeatable (Level 3)
                                       or have we already
                                          improved our
                                      (repeatable) systems
                                      engineering process
                                             (Level 4)?


PGR
                                  The Best of Cost-Plus :
                                  The heady days of Ptarmigan
                                  • Succinct top-level User requirement
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  • Strong MOD/SRDE/Industry team built-up
                                    through earlier studies and demonstrator
                                    activities
                                  • Green-field approach to management and
                                    technical processes (top-down)
                                  • Time to think first then act
                                  • Trade-offs ‘round the table’ - an integrated
                                    project team!
                                  • How do we recapture the best of this?

PGR
                                  The Worst of Fixed-Price

                                  • The requirement is assumed complete and fixed
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  • Implementation defined as part of the
                                    requirement
                                  • Lip-service paid to whole-life costs
                                  • Jump off the cliff if you want to win
                                     – Don’t bother to explain the potential problems and how
                                       they’ve been allowed for in the price
                                     – The customer won’t be impressed, he’s looking for
                                       someone that doesn’t have problems
                                  • Sort it out after you’ve won
                                     – You’re bound to make a loss reworking and retesting
                                     – The customer will slag you off because of late delivery
                                     – Next time, someone else can jump!

PGR
                                  Becoming Smarter?

                                  • Match the chosen procurement approach to the
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    feasibility of the systems engineering involved
                                     – A cry for “faster, cheaper, better” in accordance with
                                       the principles of systems engineering is unlikely to be
                                       successful unless complemented by other changes
                                  • Recognise precedented ‘project systems’ should
                                    be delivering the ‘unprecedented systems’
                                  • Complete the bridges between
                                     – systems engineering and project management
                                     – customer and supplier
                                  • Customers must have a full systems engineering
                                    capability
                                     – education and training in SE process, methods and
                                       tools
PGR
                                  Laws & Principles

                                  • Foresight SEWP Report
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                     – Build the right system
                                     – Build the system right

                                  • EIA/IS 632 Standard
                                     – The right things should be done
                                     – The right things should be done at the right time
                                     – The right things should be done by the right people
                                     – The right things should be done right the first time

                                  • Simple, even trivial, statements but often
                                    forgotten and difficult to achieve

PGR
                                  Methodology

                                                        Do we think SE
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                                is just documents (Level 1)
                                                  or about producing a self-
                                                       consistent set of
                                                  requirements, functions
                                                and architectures (Level 2)
                                                  or are we able to simulate
                                                  our systems dynamically
                                                  before trying to build them
                                                           (Level 3)
                                                or have we done all this and
                                                   have now optimised our
                                                     approach (Level 4)?



PGR
                                  Methodology

                                  • Level 1 - documents, documents and more documents
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001



                                  • Level 2 - process together with recognition that SE is about
                                    ‘joined up information’
                                     – base on needs  design  analysis not requirements 
                                       analysis  design
                                     – ‘process’ not ‘lifecycle’
                                     – but more than ‘process’, more than ‘information’ - emphasis
                                       on design or architecting
                                     – systems engineering plans
                                     – systems engineering tools
                                     – ‘tribalism’ becomes more visible
                                  • Level 3 - dynamic interactions between system elements
                                     – discover emergent properties sooner!
                                  • Becoming smarter - does concurrency help?
                                     – handle increased concurrency in the ‘project production
                                       system’ with care!
PGR
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                  Focus


                                          Are we doing SE
                                      on our products only for
                                    those customers that have
                                       demanded it (Level 1)
                                      or do we apply SE to the
                                     process as well but again
                                     only at customer demand
                                              (Level 2)
                                   or are we mature enough to
                                   apply SE to all our products
                                     because we believe in SE
                                     as a contractor (Level 3)
                                       or do we apply it to our
                                     processes as well (Level
                                                 4)?
PGR
                                  Focus

                                  • Dimension reflects a contractor’s motivation or
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    enlightened self-interest
                                  • Focus metric is defined as two state pairs
                                     – is systems engineering driven by the customer or the
                                       producer (contractor)?
                                     – is systems engineering used to develop the product or
                                       the process?
                                  • Level 1 harks back to the days when the contract
                                    would stipulate the applicable standards
                                  • Relates to the role of systems engineering
                                    standards and maturity models



PGR
                                  External standards
                                  - just what are they for?
                                  • Provide an external and believable reference
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                     – rather like a consultant, only impersonal and cheaper!
                                  • Level the playing field for procurers and suppliers
                                  • Capture of best practice
                                  • Avoid inappropriate practice
                                     – e.g. misapplication of software-based systems approaches to
                                       levels of systems well above software
                                  • Establish a common language
                                     – eliminate the need for the SE Babel Fish!
                                  • Aid to the conduct of Program Systems Engineering
                                     – not so useful for mandating that “the fundamental concepts
                                       of generic systems engineering shall be followed”




PGR
                                  Key Issues for SE Standards

                                  • Essence of SE v detailed systematic engineering
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  • Needs  Design  Analysis rather than
                                    Requirements  Analysis  Design?
                                  • Process v Life Cycles?
                                  • Synthesis v Decomposition?
                                  • Hard (Products) or Hard  Soft (Services)?
                                  • SE component of SW standards?
                                  • Project management - in or out?
                                  • Humans - in or out?
                                  • Software engineering - in or out?



PGR
                                  Capability Maturity Models
                                  - do they help?
                                  • EIA 731 SECM
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                     – can really help an organisation assess its capability to
                                       carry out systems engineering
                                     – not a standard for systems engineering, or for a
                                       systems engineering process
                                     – encourages systematic engineering in a more capable
                                       way
                                  • EIA 731 status and intended use




PGR
                                  EIA 731 status and intended use

                                   “This Interim Standard is intended
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  solely to be used for self-development,
                                  self-improvement, and self-appraisal.
                                   Organizations should not apply this
                                    Interim Standard to suppliers as a
                                     means of source selection or as a
                                      means of qualification to be a
                                                 supplier.”
                                                         EIA 731 Part 1 Section 2.3
PGR
                                  Capability Maturity Models
                                  - do they help?
                                  • EIA 731 SECM
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001



                                      – can really help an organisation assess its capability to carry
                                        out systems engineering
                                      – not a standard for systems engineering, or for a systems
                                        engineering process
                                      – encourages systematic engineering in a more capable way
                                  • EIA 731 status and intended use
                                      – but customers using SECM in source selection to help give
                                        confidence in the outcome of a resultant contract
                                  • Pursuit of ‘Focus maturity’
                                      – mixture of self-assessment and third-party assessment on an
                                        annual cycle
                                  •   Customers need to apply SECM to themselves
                                      – SE is not done only by suppliers
                                      – SE is a critical capability for customers who want their
                                        projects to succeed
PGR
                                  The tyranny of requirements

                                  • The apparent inability of customers to ‘focus’ on
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    the wider aspects of systems engineering is a
                                    major cause of project failure
                                  • Customers must aspire to more than ‘systematic
                                    requirements engineering’
                                     – even though this contains much good practice
                                     – e.g. establish a minimal and abstracted set of project
                                       requirements, fully traceable and verifiable and which
                                       do not constrain the creativity of both customer and
                                       supplier
                                  • Over-emphasis on functional requirements at the
                                    expense of non-functional requirements
                                     – desired ‘emergent properties’ often relate to NFRs


PGR
PGR
      INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                        Requirements and Options
                                  The tyranny of requirements
                                  - quote from a past INCOSE President
                                  “If someone is trying to contract for a system, and they can
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  properly identify all the necessary ‘requirements’, then it makes
                                  sense to do so. The preference then usually becomes: “meet the
                                  requirements, and pick the lowest cost.” But the reality is, in
                                  every complex system I've seen, “most ‘requirements’ aren't.”
                                  Given the right combination, nearly any ‘requirement’ will be
                                  relaxed to obtain some other gain. The real preferences are
                                  hidden behind the ‘requirements’ in some operational analysis
                                  space. This is the ‘real’ reason behind the recent Acquisition
                                  Reform initiatives to contract based on performance
                                  specifications - but even these initiatives don't go far enough. As
                                  soon as someone lists a set of ‘requirements’ without indicating
                                  what makes one system better than another, they've lost the
                                  information for comparison.”
                                                                                       Eric Honour
PGR
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                  Life Cycle


                                                       Do we apply SE
                                                  only during the concept
                                                phase of projects (Level 1)
                                                       or throughout the
                                                development phase (Level
                                                               2)
                                               or throughout production and
                                                      delivery (Level 3)
                                                or does SE form the basis
                                                   for all project activities,
                                                     including operation,
                                                       modification and
                                               decommissioning (Level 4)?
PGR
                                  Life Cycle

                                  • Lifecycles are well appreciated
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                     – but the ordering of the four levels of maturity is telling
                                  • Processes associated with all stages of the
                                    lifecycle are active throughout the lifecycle
                                  • Stakeholders associated with all stages of the
                                    lifecycle need to be active throughout the
                                    lifecycle as well
                                     – Sponsor, User, Procurer, Technical Adviser, Supplier,
                                       Operator, Maintainer, ….
                                  • Exclusion of suppliers during the formative work
                                    on a project significantly increases the risk to the
                                    project


PGR
PGR
      INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                        SE Maturity of UK Industry
                                  The ‘People Problem’

                                  • Common factor many problems is ‘people’ rather
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    than technical issues
                                     – particularly true for Program Systems Engineering
                                     – SE is not the responsibility of a single ‘tribe’ of Systems
                                       Engineers within industry
                                     – Project management must use SE principles to design
                                       projects
                                     – Software engineers (and other engineering disciplines)
                                       must adopt a SE approach, which complements that on
                                       the overall project
                                     – Customers must carry out SE activities in cooperation
                                       with their suppliers
                                  • So – what are the prospects for Systems
                                    Engineering?

PGR
                                  In Prospect

                                  • Overview
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                  • Barriers to SE excellence
                                  • SE research objectives
                                  • Management of SE research projects/programmes
                                  • Barriers in a SE research programme
                                  • Conclusions




PGR
                                  In Prospect - Overview

                                  • SE has had many major successes
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                     – but it clear that much remains to be done

                                  • What are its prospects for the coming decade?
                                  • What aspects need to be tackled?
                                  • The ‘SERF’ Report
                                     – Boardman, J, Tully, C & Rose, M; ‘Systems
                                       Engineering: A Research Framework’; Report published
                                       by De Montfort University, 1997

                                  • Update of personal input to the study


PGR
                                  Barriers to SE excellence

                                  • Lack of understanding of the potential of SE within industry
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001



                                  • Ill-considered systems procurements
                                  • Poor conceptual understanding of SE
                                     – i.e. regarded only as a engineering specialisation, domain by
                                       domain
                                  • Lack of training, both on and off job
                                  • Lack of recognised qualifications
                                  • Reluctance to apply SE to other than deliverable engineering
                                    projects
                                     – i.e. not to project or business processes or to service-providing
                                       systems
                                  • Too close association of SE with software engineering
                                     – leading to demarcation issues which give impression that SE
                                       only applies to computer-based systems
                                  • Over-reliance on SECM and (potentially) CMMI models for SE
                                    capability improvement
                                  • Over-specialisation in UK educational system (leading to
PGR
                                    fragmentation of engineering disciplines)
                                  Barriers to SE excellence
                                  •   Lack of understanding of the potential of SE within industry
                                  •
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001



                                      Ill-considered systems procurements
                                  •   Poor conceptual understanding of SE
                                  •   Lack of training, both on and off job
                                  •   Lack of recognised qualifications
                                  •   Reluctance to apply SE to other than deliverable engineering
                                      projects
                                  •   Too close association of SE with software engineering
                                  •   Over-reliance on SECM and (potentially) CMMI models for SE
                                      capability improvement
                                  •   Over-specialisation in UK educational system (leading to
                                      fragmentation of engineering disciplines)


                                   The ‘People Problem’ is very apparent in the above list.
                                   For systems engineering to take its proper place in the
                                  future, these barriers need to be removed or steps taken
                                                      to overcome them.
PGR
                                  Systems Engineering Research
                                  Objectives
                                  •   Generic system architectures for complex systems
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001



                                  •   Taxonomies for systems
                                  •   Approaches to requirements elicitation and subsequent cost/benefit
                                      analysis to facilitate trade-offs
                                  •   Generic SE process with per-domain interpretations
                                  •   Techniques for information-based SE
                                       – e.g. to allow greater abstraction than process-based SE
                                  •   Interaction of SE with project management
                                  •   Application of SE to project design
                                       – i.e. to the system for producing the system
                                  •   Methods for system behavioural and performance modelling
                                  •   SE tool integration & interfacing
                                  •   Assessment of quality of a system design and appropriate metrics
                                  •   SE processes tailored to evolving systems and to ‘systems of
                                      systems’ rather than just to unprecedented systems
                                  •   SE applied to human aspects of systems and to human
                                      organisations in general

PGR
                                       Systems Engineering Research
                                       Objectives
                                   •    Generic system architectures for complex systems
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001



                                   •    Taxonomies for systems
                                   •    Approaches to requirements elicitation and subsequent cost/benefit analysis to facilitate
                                        trade-offs
                                   •    Generic SE process with per-domain interpretations
                                   •    Techniques for information-based SE
                                   •    Interaction of SE with project management
                                   •    Application of SE to project design
                                   •    Methods for system behavioural and performance modelling
                                   •    SE tool integration & interfacing
                                   •    Assessment of quality of a system design and appropriate metrics
                                   •    SE processes tailored to evolving systems and to ‘systems of systems’ rather than just
                                        to unprecedented systems
                                   •    SE applied to human aspects of systems and to human organisations in general

                                  Work on many topics is on-going; no claims for originality!
                                  The need for more work on and a better understanding of
                                     ‘soft’ systems engineering is apparent, together with
                                  techniques to facilitate ‘read across’ from one application
PGR
                                                       domain to another.
                                   Management of SE research projects/
                                   programmes
                                   • National Systems Engineering Research Agenda
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                     supported by Government, Academia and
                                     Industry (not tied to specific engineering
                                     disciplines or domains)
                                   • Evolution of INCOSE UK Chapter into THE
                                     recognised body for Systems Engineering (not
                                     tied to specific engineering disciplines or
                                     domains
                                   • Network of excellence for systems engineering,
                                     provided in association with INCOSE
                                  The DTI’s System Integration Initiative was a major
                                  achievement of the Foresight work but it has not been
                                  adequately consolidated by the Systems Engineering
                                  National Advisory Committee or networks of excellence.
PGR
                                  Barriers in a systems engineering
                                  research programme
                                  • Emphasis on discipline boundaries in academia
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001




                                    and engineering institutions
                                  • Lack of formally trained and industrially
                                    experienced academic staff
                                  • Unwillingness/inability of industry to release
                                    experienced SE staff to help overcome
                                    academia's shortfalls
                                  • INCOSE UK Chapter may not be able to evolve
                                    beyond group of "enthusiasts“
                                     – hence be unable to exercise influence over the national
                                       agenda


                                  These barriers need to be tackled to assure the future
                                                 of systems engineering.
PGR
INCOSE UK Spring Symposium 2001
                                  Conclusions


                                  “In some ways, the whole paper is a
                                  conclusion, or rather an interim conclusion.
                                  Perhaps the point that stands out above all
                                  others is the extent of the ‘People Problem’;
                                  this is far more likely to hold back the
                                  advancement of systems engineering than a
                                  lack of systems theory.”



PGR

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:5/7/2013
language:Latin
pages:38