Teaching Primary and Secondary Sources – with the Salem Witch by pptfiles


									Primary and Secondary Sources –

     the Salem Witch Trials of 1692
    What are primary and secondary
• Primary sources are documents, recordings, or
  written accounts created at the time being studies –
  by a credible source: letters, photographs, songs,
  videos, diaries, interviews(with actual person),
  excerpts from documents or publications, and even
  articles of clothing
• Secondary sources are accounts of the past created
  by people writing about events sometime after they
  actually happened : biographies, plays, books written
  about a time period, and interviews(with someone
  having knowledge of a person in history or an event)
                       Take the Quiz…
1. A biography of the marriage between Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton.
      (primary / secondary)
2. Charles Darwin's book on evolution, The Origin of Species. (primary /
3. Excerpts from the Bill of Rights. (primary / secondary)
4. The autobiography of any person. (primary / secondary)
5. An interview with your grandfather about your great-grandfather's
    childhood. (primary / secondary)
6. An editorial attacking the current economic policy. (primary / secondary)
7. An interview with a survivor from the Titanic. (primary / secondary)
8. A survey you conducted to see if the majority of students ride the bus.
    (primary / secondary)
9. A book by a journalist that highlights the major historic events of the 19th
    century. (primary / secondary)
                 The Answers….
1.   Secondary
2.   Primary
3.   Primary
4.   Primary
5.   Secondary
6.   Primary
7.   Primary
8.   Primary
9.   Secondary
• Break up into groups of 4 to 5 people
• Have one member of each group leave the
• The remaining group members will be
  participating in the first part of the activity
                 Part Two….
• Distribute index cards and pencils to group
  members who remained in the room
• Allow 1 minute for them to illustrate what they
  recall from the previous slide
• Bring waiting group member back in
• Give that member all of the index cards form the
  rest of the group
• Ask that person to use the completed cards of
  their group members to illustrate accurately what
  the group viewed on the screen
                The Results….
• What did you find?
• Could they accurately illustrate what the
  group had seen?
• Does this activity indicate the reliability of
  some primary sources?
• Why?
          The Witch Trials….
From June through September of 1692, nineteen
men and women, who were all convicted of
witchcraft, were taken to Gallows Hill, an area
near Salem Village, for hanging. Another man of
over eighty years was pressed to death under
heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on
witchcraft charges. Hundreds of others faced
accusations of witchcraft; dozens spent months in
jail, suffering without trials, until the hysteria
that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended
as quickly as it had begun.
     Possible Causes of the Hysteria
1.   Strong belief that Satan was acting in the world - disease, natural
     catastrophes, and bad fortune
2.    A belief that Satan recruited witches and wizards to work for him.
3.    A belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain
4.   Wild imaginations!
5.   Confessing "witches" adding credibility to earlier charges.
6.   Old feuds (disputes within congregation, property disputes)
     between the accusers and the accused spurring charges of
7.   Boredom!
                       (APRIL 4, 1692):
                        Primary Source
                         Salem Aprill. 4'th 1692 There Being Complaint this day made
                         (Before us) by capt Jonat Walcott, and Lt Natheniell Ingersull
                         both of Salem Village, in Behalfe of theire Majesties for
                         themselfes and also for severall of their Neighbours Against
                         Sarah Cloyce the wife of peter Cloyce of Salem Village; and
                         Elizabeth Proctor the wife of John Proctor of Salem farmes for
                         high Suspition of Sundry acts of Witchcraft donne or
                         Committed by them upon the bodys of Abigail Williams, and
                         John Indian both of Mr Sam parris his family of Salem Village
                         and mary Walcott daughterof the abovesaid Complainants, And
                         Ann Putnam and Marcy Lewis of the famyly of Thomas Putnam
                         of Salem Village whereby great hurt and dammage hath beene
                         donne to the Bodys of s'd persons above named therefore
                         Craved Justice.
                         You are therefore in theire Majest's names hereby required to
                         apprehend and bring before us Sarah Cloyce the wife of peter
                         Cloyce of Salem Village and Elizabeth proctor the wife of John
                         Procter of Salem farmes; on Munday Morneing Next being the
                         Eleventh day of this Instant Aprill aboute Eleven of the Clock, at
                         the publike Meeting house in the Towne, in order to theire
                         Examination Relateing to the premesis aboves'd and here of
                         you are. not to faile Dated Salem Aprill 8'th 1692
                         To George Herick Marshall of the County of essex
Artist Rendition of The Trial of Rebecca Nurse

             Secondary Source
                          (Summary of Evidence v. Sarah Good)

                                                     Primary Source
Titabes Confession & Examinacon ag't. her selfe & Sarah good abstracted
Charges Sarah Good to hurt the Children & would have had her done it 5. were with her last night & would have. had her hurt
     the Children w'ch she refused & that Good was one of them
Good with others are very strong & pull her with them to Mr. putnams & make her hurt the Child. Good rode with her upon
     Apoole behind her, takeing hold of one another doth not know how they goe for she never sees trees nor path but are
     presently th -
good [ther] tell her she must kill some body with a knife & would have had her killed Tho: putnams Child last night the Child at
     the same time afirmed she would have had her cutt of her own head if not Titabe would doe it & complained of a knife
     cutting her
Good came to her last night when her Mr. was at prayer & would not let her hear hath one yellow bird & stopped her Eares in
     prayer time, the yellow bird hath been seen by the Children & Titubee saw it suck Good between the forefinger & long
     finger upon the right hand
Saw Good [ther] practice witchcraft.
Saw Good have a Catt besides the bird & a thing all over hair [ther]
Sarah Good appeared like a wolfe to Hubbard going to proctors & saw it sent by Good to Hubbard
good [ther] hurt the Children again & the Children affirme the same Hubbard knew th[em] not being blinded by them & was
     once or twice taken dumb herslefe i:e: Titube
Good cause her to pinch the Children in their own persons
Saw Goods name in the booke, & the devell told her they made these marks & said to her she made ther marke & it was the
     same day she went to prison
Good [ther] came to ride abroad with her & the man shewed her Goods mark in the book
Good [ther] pinched her on the leggs & being searched found it soe after confession
Nota S. G. mumbled when she went away from Mr Parrass & the children after hurt
Dorothy Goods Charge ag't. her mother Sarah Good. That she had three birds one black, one yellow & that these birds hurt the
     Children & afflicted persons.
           Excerpt from letter of Gov. William Phips (1692-1693)

                             Primary Source

When I first arrived I found this
province miserably harrassed with a
most Horrible witchcraft or
Possession of Devills which had broke
in upon severall Townes, some score
of poor people were taken with
preternaturall torments some scalded
with brimstone some had pins stuck
in their flesh others hurried into the
fire and water and some dragged out
of their houses and carried over the
tops of trees and hills for many Miles
together; it hath been represented to
mee much like that of Sweden about
thirty years agoe, and there were
many committed to prision upon
suspicion of Whichcraft before my
                  I Walk in Dread –
The Diary of Deliverance Trembley, Witness to the Salem Witch Trials

                         Secondary Source

                             Tuesday ye 1st of March, 1692
                             The four afflictred girls…were brought to the front
                             of the room, screeching and crying out as they laid
                             their eyes on the prisoner. Their fear flooded the

                             AuthorLisa Rowe Fraustino admits to always
                             being fascinated with the work of the super-
                             natural. She says, “sifting through 300 years of
                             facts and fiction turned out to be a formidable
                             task….so many conflicting stories.”
           In Your Opinion….
• In this circumstance, which source provides
  you with more information regarding the
  witch trials?
• Is there a “best” type of source?
• The “best” source for your purpose depends
  on the reliability of the source.
• A well balanced project will incorporate
  various sources – both primary and secondary.
                                   The Dead
          Nineteen accused witches were hanged on Gallows Hill in 1692:
   June 10
Bridget Bishop
   July 19                                    Giles Corey
Rebecca Nurse             An accused witch (or wizard, as men were called)
Sarah Good                who was pressed to death between large stones
Susannah Martin           when he refused to plead guilty or not guilty
Elizabeth Howe
Sarah Wildes
   August 19
George Burroughs                   Other accused witches died in prison:
Martha Carrier                                Sarah Osborn
John Willard
George Jacobs, Sr.                           Roger Toothaker
John Proctor                                  Lyndia Dustin
   September 22                                Ann Foster
Martha Corey
Mary Eastey                (As many as thirteen others may have died in prison – sources are
Ann Pudeator                                          conflicting)
Alice Parker
Mary Parker
Wilmott Redd
Margaret Scott
Samuel Wardwell

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