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					 Chapter 4 WTO Rules of
Multilateral Trading System
          In Goods




                 12-Oct-2006   1
       Table of contents          包括教材的第8、9、10、
                                  12、13、14章的内容


4.1 Comparison of           第一节 GATT1947与
   GATT1947 and GATT 1994    GATT1994的比较
4.2 Dumping and             第二节 倾销与反倾销规则
   Antidumping Law          第三节 补贴与反补贴规则
4.3 Subsidies and           第四节 保障措施
   Countervailing Duties    第五节 非关税措施 (包括技
                             术性贸易措施、卫生与植物
4.4 Safeguards Measures
                             检疫检验措施、海关估价规
4.5 Non-tariff Barriers      则、进口许可证程序、原产
4.6 Trade-Related            地规则、装运前检验规则)
   Investment Measures,     第六节 贸易与投资措施
   (TRIMs)
                       Overview             2
      Overview of WTO “goods”
      Agreements     See page14 at textbook

• The legal system of Trade in Goods is the most
  important part of WTO.The Multilateral
  Agreements on Trade in Goods comprise
  • Part one: GATT 1994
  • Part two: Agreements on 12 Specific fields.


• 货物贸易法律制度是WTO法律制度的重要组成部分。
  有关货物贸易方面的多边协定可分为两部分:
  • GATT1994;
  • 有关货物贸易具体领域的12个协定                               3
          Agreements on 12 Specific
          fields
•   Agreement on Agriculture
•   Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
•   Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
•   Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
•   Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)
•   Agreement on Implementation of Article VI (Anti-Dumping
    code)
•   Agreement on Implementation of Article VII (Customs
    Valuation code)
•   Agreement on Pre-shipment Inspection
•   Agreement on Rules of Origin
•   Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures
•   Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
•   Agreement on Safeguards                                4
4.1 Comparison of GATT1947 and
          GATT 1994




                            5
    4.1.1 GATT 1947-General
• The GATT1947 was in force “provisionally” in
  1948. Later on, it was amended in 1949, 1955
  and 1965. It was terminated in 1996, however,
  the provisions of the GATT 1947 are
  integrated into the GATT 1994

• GATT1947于1948年临时生效后,为了适应国际
  贸易的发展变化,先后在1949,1955 和1965年
  经过三次修改。GATT1947文本是GATT1994的基
  础。
                                             6
    4.1.1 GATT 1947-Structure
• Totally 38 provisions in GATT1947(4 parts)

• GATT1947共38条,由序言和以下4部分组成。
   • 1.1-2条是总协定的核心部分。其中第1条规定了最惠国待遇
     原则,这是总协定多边贸易体制的基石。第2条减让表明确了
     各缔约方的关税减让义务。
   • 2.3-23条。主要是关于国民待遇原则、非歧视原则、限制与
     取消非关税壁垒措施及各项例外的内容。具体的实体性的规定
     都反映在这部分当中。
   • 3.24-35条 。规定了总协定的适用范围、运行方式、加入与
     退出及争端解决程序。
   • 4.36-38条。是1965年增加的。是针对发展中国家特殊需要所
     做的规定。

                                               7
     4.1.2 GATT 1994-General
• A WTO Agreement
  • One of the multilateral agreements annexed to
    the WTO Agreement.
  • An international treaty binding upon all WTO
    members
• Scope of Application
  • Only concerned with trade in goods.
  • Further liberalizing trade in goods through
    reduction of tariff and other trade barrier and
    elimination discrimination
                                                 8
        4.1.2 GATT 1994-Structure
 • The GATT 1994 assembles legal provisions
   from different sources. It consists of
I.   the provisions of the GATT     1. 《1947年关贸总协定》
     1947                           2. 1994年以前依
II. legal instruments                  GATT1947达成的各种
     concluded under the GATT          法律文件
     1947                           3. 乌拉圭回合达成的解
III. Understandings concluded          释《1947年关贸总协
     during the Uruguay Round          定》 有关条款的6个
     on the interpretation of the      谅解
     provision of the GATT1947,     4. 马拉喀什议定书(关
IV. Marrakesh Protocol of              税减让表)
     Tariff Concessions                          9
4.1.2 GATT 1994-Structure




                            10
        4.1.2 GATT 1994-Structure
• 1.GATT 1947的各项条款
  • GATT1994的最重要的部分。
• 2.世贸组织协定生效日前已经生效的关贸总协定的其他法律文
  件
  •   WTO成立前的关税减让议定书
  •   各缔约方的加入议定书
  •   依GATT1947给予的仍然有效的豁免(准予免除义务的规定)
  •   缔约方全体作出的其他决定。
• 3.乌拉圭回合对GATT 1994达成的6项谅解。
  •   (1)关于解释第2条第1款b项的谅解;
  •   (2)关于解释第17条国营贸易企业的谅解;
  •   (3)关于解释总协定国际收支条款(12、18条)的谅解;
  •   (4)关于解释第24条的谅解;(建立关税同盟和自由贸易区)
  •   (5)关于豁免总协定义务的谅解(25条);
  •   (6)关于解释总协定第28条的谅解。
• 4.GATT1994马拉喀什议定书。即GATT1994的减让表      11
     4.1.3 Comparison of GATT 1947
     GATT 1994
             GATT1947            GATT1994
Nature       Be in force         Be permanent
             provisionally;      and stable
             Right to reserve
Member       Contracting party   Member
called
Provisions              \        Made some
                                 explanation

   •GATT1994《GATT 1994》是指(1)指乌拉圭回合结束后的总协定;(2)
   是以1947年总协定为基础而经修正,补充而成的新的总协定,并不是
   GATT 1947的简单翻版,不能将两者混为一谈。              12

				
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