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chap3

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									CHAPTER 3

  CAMERAS
         CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
•   Explore the History of motion picture Cameras;

•   Gain an understanding of the Technical equipment
    used for motion picture Recording;

•   Transcend basic functions to be able to manipulate the
    features of Digital Video Equipment to create Highly
    Controlled Images;

•   Survey Movements in the Traditional Arts that can
    be applied to Video Production.
            HISTORY OF
       THE MOTION PICTURES

    Pre-Cinema
•   Persistence of vision - 130 A.D
•   Magic lantern -1600s
•   Thaumatrope - 1825
•   Zoetrope -1834
•   Series photography – 1878
      Eadweard Muybridge
                FILM
•   35mm film

•   16mm

•   8mm

•   Super-16

•   Super-8

•   70mm
                         VIDEO
•   1926
    First public
    demonstration of a
    video system

•   1927
    First video broadcast
    VIDEO STORAGE: Videotape

•   2-inch reel-to-reel

•   1”

•   U-Matic

•   VHS
    VIDEO STORAGE: Videotape
•   Digital Betacam

•   DVC-Pro

•   Mini-DV

•   DVCam

•   Digital-S

•   Digital-8
          VIDEO STORAGE
       Drive and Optical Storage
•   Memory cards



•   Hard drives



•   In-camera read-write media (DVD)
               VIDEO SYSTEMS
•   NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) -
    “Standard Television”
        525 lines; 4:3 aspect ratio

•   High-Definition Video –
       1,080 lines; 16:9 aspect ratio

•   PAL (Phase-Alternating Line) –
       625 lines of horizontal resolution

•   24P –
        24 frames per second using progressive scanning
            THE CAMERA TEAM
•   Director of
    photography (DP)

•   Camera operator

•   Focus puller

•   Clapper/Loader

•   Dolly grip

•   Second unit
    DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
      Imaging for Digital Video

•   CCD – Charge-Coupled Device



•   CMOS – Complementary
          Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor
    DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
              Lens
Magnification:
• Compound Lenses
     (zoom lenses)
• Prime Lenses

     (fixed focal-
     length lenses)
• Wide-angle lens

• Telephoto lens
     DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
               Lens
                   Focus
•   Focal point
•   Auto focus
•   Setting focus
•   Proper exposure
•   Creative exposure
•   Internal light meter
•   Manual aperture overrides
     DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
               Lens

   f-stops
DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
          Lens

          Depth of field




  “Courtesy of RiverDream Productions”
     DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
               Lens

•   Maximum sharpness setting


•   Macro setting


•   Lens hood
     DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
         The Camera Body
•   Power switch

•   Batteries and
      A/C power

•   Start/Stop
    Button.
       "REC."
    DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
        The Camera Body
•   The Tally Light

•   The Viewfinder
      Eyepiece
      View screen

•   Microphone

•   The Headphone Jack
     DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
         The Camera Body
•   The Playback Control Buttons

•   The Media Storage

•   The Handgrip

•   Time Code Indicator
    DIGITAL VIDEO CAMERAS
        The Camera Body
•   Shutter Speed
•   Gain
•   Aspect Ratio
           4:3
           16:9
•   Image Stabilization
•   Backlight Feature
•   White Balance
TRIPODS
          ADVANCED CAMERA
          SUPPORT SYSTEMS
•   Steadycam

•   Jib arm

•   Camera cranes

•   Vehicle mounts

•   Marine housings
        APPROACHES IN
       CINEMATOGRAPHY
       AND VIDEOGRAPHY
Determine the “look” of a project

Four Distinct Approaches
• Realism

• Expressionism and Film Noir

• Impressionism

• Surrealism
          APPROACHES IN
         CINEMATOGRAPHY
         AND VIDEOGRAPHY
Realism

•   Sharp focus
•   Realistic lighting
           APPROACHES IN
          CINEMATOGRAPHY
          AND VIDEOGRAPHY
Expressionism and Film Noir

•   Dark in visual tone
•   Stylized lighting cast from severe angles
•   Bizarre and fantastic stories
•   “Film Noir”
         APPROACHES IN
        CINEMATOGRAPHY
        AND VIDEOGRAPHY
Impressionism

•   “Golden Age of Hollywood”
•   Diffused images
•   Impression of some emotional state
•   Twinkling eyes and fog-filtered
•   A romantic memory
          APPROACHES IN
         CINEMATOGRAPHY
         AND VIDEOGRAPHY
Surrealism

•   “Beyond reality” or “above reality”
•   Concrete irrationality
•   Psychoanalytic psychology; Dream
    analysis
                    EXERCISES
1.   Design and shoot a Two-Minute Master Scene. Use
     the technical information in this chapter to realize the
     Principles of the Visual Language you learned in
     Chapter 2.
2.   Shoot some camera tests. Can you create a Shallow
     Depth of Field? How can you take that same
     composition and convert it into one with a Deep Depth
     of Field? Practice Hand-Held camera work. Describe
     how you could improvise a Dolly Shot with available
     resources.
3.   Of the artistic approaches introduced in this chapter,
     which is your favorite artistic approach: Realism,
     Expressionism, Impressionism, or Surrealism?
     Write a scene in this style and outline how you portray
     this approach Visually.
                  Copyright 2008 Taylor and Francis

								
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