ch 7 by gegouzhen12


									Build it and they will come

         Chapter 7
           How important are the facilities?

Two approaches are possible for applying the
   concepts in this chapter that appear on the
   following slides:
1. Take the class to a sporting event to evaluate
   the physical environment of the game, or
2. Assign class members to visit a game of their
   choosing and to present their findings in class.
                       Class Instructions:
                                1. Attend a game approved by your instructor.
                                2. Take digital pictures of each sportscape factor.
                                3. Present your pictures in Powerpoint & provide your evaluations,
                                and suggestions for improvements in class (10-15 minutes).

     Sportscape Factor         Description                                                                  Facility Score
1    Parking access            Ease of entry, ample parking, convenience, ease of exit

2    Architectural design      Attractive & interesting structural design; exterior appearance;
         and appearance             landscaping

3    Interior décor            Color schemes, wall décor, lighting, ambience

4    Facility layout           Visibility, ease of going wherever you want to go

5    Wayfinding signage        Signage directing fans to seats, restrooms, services & exits; wayfinding
6    Facility space            Enough space in restrooms, walkways, concessions, and seating areas to
                                   accommodate fans
7    Seat comfort              Knee room, elbow room, seat space & comfort; unobstructed view

8    Equipment quality         Functionally and aesthetically pleasing; in good order & repair

9    Scoreboards & Sound       Quality of information: exciting, interesting, timely, & complete; Sound
         Systems                   quality: music selection, volume & clarity

10   Cleanliness               Restrooms, walkways, concessions, seating areas

11   Perceived crowding        Feeling restricted, cramped, stuffy, & constrained due to facility layout,
                                    wayfinding signage, and space
What’s wrong with these
Or, why did the Mavericks & Stars
 move to the American Airlines
Uninviting exterior of Reunion Arena, Dallas, Texas
Poor graphics on dot-matrix scoreboard.    Cramped seating area.

  Narrow hallways with crummy food.       Limited stats & game info.
          How we respond to places…

A good crowd arouses fans—which can be either distressing or exciting!
How do you feel at a crowded
             Excitement & Pleasure
              Data from over 3000 fans at six SEC football stadiums.





                 low crowd                       high crowd
                            Perceived Crowding


     5.000                                                    m ale
     4.500                                                    fem ale


                low crowd                    high crowd
                            Perceived Crowding
On a 1-7 scale, these graphs show that crowded NCAA football
stadiums decrease excitement & pleasure—particularly for males.
          Displeasure & Boredom
           Data from over 3000 fans at six SEC football stadiums.

                                                           m ale
                                                           fem ale
             low crowd                        high crowd
                         Perceived Crowding

                                                           m ale
                                                           fem ale
             low crowd                        high crowd
                         Perceived Crowding
Similarly, negative feelings (displeasure & boredom) increase
when the stadium is crowded—particularly for males.
          Why should we care about
            perceived crowding?
1. All of the sportscape factors influence
   perceived crowding.
2. Perceived crowding influences how we
   feel about a place.
3. How we feel about a place determines
   whether or not we will stay (exit) and
   return (or not).
4. Whether you stay or return determines
   how much you spend money at a place.
Eight great service & safety
               Tip #1 It’s not just hotdogs,
                    popcorn & beer.
• When you go to the game, to what do you
  compare the food? How are you deciding
  whether or not you want to eat at the game?
• Due to upper income levels of frequent fans and
  how often they are there, which is the least
  critical element in their buying decisions?
   – Price
   – Quality
   – Variety
• Let’s take a trip to Invesco Field
           Tip #2 Improving food service
              means higher per caps.
• The average per capita concessions at pro
  sporting events and shows (concerts, etc.) ranges
  from $4-$7.50. Overall per caps are around $15
  (including parking, souvenirs, etc.).
  – The key is in recruiting and retaining quality employees,
    with an emphasis on retention.
  – Using not-for-profit groups can give you a solid and
    consistent source of workers.
  – High-end seating requires specially trained concierge
    service to serve premium seat holders.
  – Encouraging advance call-in orders (cell phone or
    online) can increase revenue & service quality.
        Tip #3 Think high-tech

As more fans move to 3G communication devices, teams
   can connect with fans 1-on-1 throughout the game.
         Tip #4 It’s more about offering
      entertainment than holding a sporting

• Beyond the highly identified fan, who is
  the team’s principle target?
• How should your facility be designed to
  accommodate this primary target
             Tip #5 The key to food service success
                 is developing a signature item.
• Whatever the menu and variety of items, teams must have a
  signature item that fans actually prefer over other food
  offered outside of the park

• Examples: BBQ Rendevous Nachos (AutoZone Park,
  Memphis, TN); Hand-rolled pretzels (Pretzelry, Busch
  Stadium), Pierogies (Jacobs Field, Cleveland), clam
  chowder (Fenway Park, Boston)

• Partnerships with fan favorites are increasingly popular:
  Krispy Kreme at Qualcomm Park (San Diego); Outback
  Steakhouse at PNC Park (Pittsburgh); Wolfgang Puck at
  Dodger Stadium (LA)
     What would you offer at a local sports venue as a signature item?
            Tip #6 Spectator liability is a reality that
                     cannot be ignored.
• Hockey puck death: Brittanie Cecil (NHL, Columbus,
  OH, 2003)
• Car racing: 29 died & 70 injured by race cars & flying
  parts at U.S. auto racing events since 1999.
• Six spectators struck by lightening at 1991 Open at
  Hazeltine National Golf Course (Minneapolis), including
  one fatality.
• 39 people died & 375 others injured in crowd panic
  during a soccer game in Brussells, Belgium (1985).
Point: Make sure you have ample commercial property
  insurance, which has been going up at about a
  30% rate. Also, you probably can’t get covered for
                 Tip #7 Be proactive to prevent fan
1.       Provide written and announced warnings (viz., warn
         fans of the danger of balls flying from field)
     •      Approximately 35-40 balls go into the stands per MLB game;
            most often injured are fans along 1st & 3rd base lines.
2.       Train attendants to look for potential injurious
         situations, including disruptive fans.
     •      Attendants should never be facing away from the fans
            (i.e., watching the game)—they should always be facing the
            fans (and not leaning on railing).
3.       Inspect premises for dangerous walkways—
     •      slips and falls at golf tournaments outnumber the claims from
            being hit by balls.
         Tip #8 Do background checks on
          security and service personnel.
• In post 9-11 days, you just never know.
• While most sports organizations do background
  checks on full-time employees, about a third
  don’t check backgrounds of part-timers—who
  are more likely to be candidates for terrorist
• Point: do background check (call past employer
  & residence) on all employees if working at a
  large sports venue.
Time is a great healer, but a
      poor beautician.
           ~Lucille S. Harper

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