Pest control procedures manual by rolo14

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									Pest control procedures manual
Rodents


May 2009
Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................... 3             3.0 Rats – on open land .............................................................22
1.0 Mice – within dwellings ........................................................ 4                                 3.1        Environmental assessments                                                        22
       1.1         Method of treatment                                                                       4                    3.1.1 What and where the rodent
                   1.1.1 First visit ........................................................................4                             problems are? ..........................................................22
                   1.1.2 Infestation not present ...........................................4                                     3.1.2 Protected species that may be present
                   1.1.3 Uncertain conclusion ...............................................4                                             in or near the treatment site .............................22
                   1.1.4 Infestation confirmed..............................................5                                     3.1.3 What alternative environmental measures
                   1.1.5 If premises are free from excessive                                                                               would be appropriate? .........................................22
                           alternative food sources .........................................5                                    3.1.4 What is the risk to non-target species
                   1.1.6 Decide on method of treatment .........................5                                                          that have been identified? .................................23
                   1.1.7 Second or subsequent visits ..................................6                                          3.1.5 What is the treatment designed to achieve
                   1.1.8 If baits have been taken.........................................6                                                and how will success be measured?................23
                   1.1.9 Baits not taken but other signs                                                                          3.1.6 What is expected from the client? ..................23
                           of infestation present ..............................................7                                 3.1.7 What follow up measures are required? .......23
                   1.1.10 Completion ..................................................................7               3.2        First visit                                                                      23
       1.2         Block Treatments                                                                          8         3.3        Second or subsequent visits                                                      24
                   1.2.1 First visit ........................................................................8         3.4        Completion                                                                       24
                   1.2.2 Infestation not present ...........................................8
                   1.2.3 Uncertain conclusion ...............................................8                   4.0 Rat treatment in privately
                   1.2.4 Infestation confirmed..............................................8                        owned drains and sewers ...................................................25
                   1.2.5 If premises are free from excessive                                                                      4.1         Introduction .............................................................25
                           alternative food sources .........................................9                                    4.2         Health and Safety ..................................................25
                   1.2.6 Decide on method of treatment .........................9                                                 4.3         Initial Survey ............................................................25
                   1.2.7 Second or subsequent visits ...............................10                                            4.4         Control ........................................................................25
                   1.2.8 If baits have been taken......................................11                                         4.5         Completion ...............................................................26
                   1.2.9 Baits not taken but other signs
                           of infestation present ...........................................11                  5.0 Disposal of rodenticides and rodent bodies ................28
                   1.2.10 Completion ...............................................................12
                                                                                                                                  5.1         Legal background ...................................................28
                                                                                                                                  5.2         Methodology: excess, out of date,
2.0 Rats – within dwellings.......................................................13                                                          obsolete unusable stock ......................................29
       2.1         Method of treatment                                                                    13                      5.3         Methodology: rodent bodies .............................29
                   2.1.1 First visit .....................................................................13
                   2.1.2 Infestation not present ........................................13                      6.0 Storage of rodenticides ......................................................30
                   2.1.3 Uncertain conclusion ............................................13
                                                                                                                 7.0 Useful addresses...................................................................31
       2.2         Live rat in property                                                                   14
                   2.2.1 Options to consider ...............................................14
                   2.2.2 Catch and kill............................................................14
                   2.2.3 Trapping .....................................................................14
       2.3         Poison baits                                                                           15
                   2.3.1 Infestation confirmed...........................................15
                   2.3.2 If premises are free from excessive
                           alternative food sources ......................................15
                   2.3.3 Decide on method of treatment ......................15
                   2.3.4 Second or subsequent visits ...............................16
                   2.3.5 If baits have been taken......................................16
                   2.3.6 Baits not taken but other signs
                           of infestation present ...........................................17
                   2.3.7 Completion ...............................................................17
       2.4         Block treatments                                                                       18
                   2.4.1 First visit .....................................................................18
                   2.4.2 Infestation not present ........................................18
                   2.4.3 Uncertain conclusion ............................................18
                   2.4.4 Infestation confirmed...........................................18
                   2.4.5 If premises are free from excessive
                           alternative food sources ......................................19
                   2.4.6 Decide on method of treatment ......................19
                   2.4.7 Second or subsequent visits ...............................20
                   2.4.8 If baits have been taken......................................20
                   2.4.9 Baits not taken but other signs
                           of infestation present ...........................................20
                   2.4.10 Completion ...............................................................21




2
Introduction
The control of rats and mice presents a daily challenge
to the pest control industry, as public and private
sector technicians alike must provide an effective
service whilst being able to meet ever increasing safety
controls and customer expectations. The need for safe,
effective and efficient treatments is paramount and
this manual aims to provide the standard by which
such treatments should be completed.

This manual is therefore intentionally prescriptive,
but it does not intend to dictate the methods by
which pest control technicians organise their work if
the same level of service and safety is achieved - for
example, the use of computerised records or ISO
accredited quality systems.

It is hoped that by clearly stating the minimum
requirements that a pest control technician should
take into account when conducting any rodent
treatment, consistent standards can be achieved
throughout the industry that will allow it to develop
and improve for the future.




                                                           3
1.0 Mice - within dwellings
     An infestation of mice can develop very quickly both               As a minimum, the following details
     vertically and horizontally in a building due to their             must be recorded:
     ability to move through very small spaces and holes
     in a constant search for food and shelter. Mice are                (i)     Details of the premises (including any
     recognised as potential carriers of many diseases                          specific job reference)
     presenting a risk to human health, as well as causing              (ii)    Name of pest control technician who
     damage to property and stock.                                              attended
                                                                        (iii)   The date of visit
     1.1     Method of treatment                                        (iv)    The areas surveyed (taking account
     1.1.1   First visit                                                        of accessibility of areas, for example
             Confirm the existence of any infestation/                          designated confined spaces)
             activity by completing a full site survey of the           (v)     The result of the survey confirming that
             whole premises and identify signs of current                       an infestation/activity was not identified
             mice activity – fresh droppings, footprints,               (vi)    Any other information that may be of
             gnawing, smear marks, odour, damage to food                        relevance (standard of hygiene, proofing,
             cartons etc. Sufficient details must be taken to                   activity in adjacent properties etc)
             ensure accurate records can be made, noting
             the areas where evidence of an infestation/                Close down the job making such comments on
             activity has been found and possible entry                 the job sheet or electronic record.
             points.
                                                                1.1.3   Uncertain conclusion
             Based on the evidence from the survey,                     If there is no evidence of any infestation/
             confirm the distribution of any infestation/               activity and either the occupier will not accept
             activity and record the details. Details of                the situation, or there are reasons to believe
             contributory factors should also be recorded,              that there may be mice (entering from an
             including damage to structure, poor house                  adjoining property), then lay strategically
             keeping or poor standards of hygiene.                      placed non-toxic baits. Occupiers must be
                                                                        shown the locations of the non-toxic baits
             Advise the occupier of health risks due to mice            and informed that children and pets are
             being present (food contamination etc.).                   not allowed access to these baits. Note: it is
                                                                        recommended that the occupier be advised
     1.1.2   Infestation not present                                    of the difference between an infestation
             Explain to the occupier that there is no                   (breeding population) and a casual intruder
             evidence of an infestation/activity and                    (one off occurrence).
             reassure the occupier that a revisit can be
             arranged if any complaint reoccurs.                        Provide information and advice to the
                                                                        occupier on improving standards of hygiene,
                                                                        housekeeping and proofing requirements.

                                                                        Inform the occupier that a revisit will be made
                                                                        within two to three weeks.
4
                                                                  (ii)  Name of pest control technician who
                                                                        attended
                                                                  (iii) The date of visit
                                                                  (iv) The areas surveyed
                                                                  (v) The evidence of infestation/activity,
                                                                        including any contributory factors
                                                                  (vi) The reasons for non-treatment
                                                                  (vii) Any other information that may
                                                                        be of relevance

                                                                  Report circumstances to relevant supervisor/
                                                                  manager.

                                                          1.1.5   If premises are free from excessive
                                                                  alternative food sources
                                                                  Identify any likely entry points including:
        As a minimum, the following information must
        be recorded:                                              (i)     Gaps under external doors
                                                                  (ii)    Gaps around water, drainage, gas or
        (i)   Details of the premises (including any                      electricity services
              specific job reference)                             (iii)   Damaged air vents
        (ii) Name of pest control technician who                  (iv)    Any other points that allow access from
              attended                                                    the exterior to the interior of the building
        (iii) The date of visit
        (iv) The areas surveyed                                   The pest control technician shall adopt a risk
        (v) The evidence of potential infestation/                based approach, based on the information
              activity                                            gathered on-site, as to whether any openings
        (vi) The location, amount and type of                     or gaps within the property should be
              non-toxic bait used (including suitable             sealed before or at the end of a treatment
              diagram)                                            programme.
        (vii) Any other information that may be
              of relevance                                        Accordingly, bring all defects to the attention
                                                                  of the occupier and ask for remedial works to
1.1.4   Infestation confirmed                                     be carried out. Explain to the occupier the
        Evaluate hygiene/housekeeping and proofing                works that are required to be carried out to
        standards and identify alternative food sources           exclude mice from the property.
        and waste retention areas.
                                                                  If the local authority or other client
        Where significant quantities of food are                  organisation manages the property, written
        open and available to rodents no treatment                details of any recommendations for proofing
        should be commenced. Occupiers should be                  or repair must be provided to the appropriate
        informed that a further appointment could                 office for action. All advice on proofing is to
        be made as soon as the standards of hygiene               be provided by the pest control technician or
        and housekeeping have been improved. Tact                 supervisor.
        and diplomacy are required to explain that
        rodents will not take toxic baits if other food   1.1.6   Decide on method of treatment
        sources are readily available. If necessary,              If an existing treatment is, or has been carried
        show the occupier examples of poor practice               out, in the premises by another pest control
        (for example, presence of cat/dog food as                 company, the pest control technician will not
        a potential source of attraction for mice).               commence any treatment until the occupier
        However, this approach may not always be                  gives firm assurance that the other contract
        required where the pest control technician                has been terminated and all baits previously
        assesses the risk from alternative food sources           laid are removed or authority is given for their
        to be minimal and the occupier’s cooperation              removal.
        has been obtained.
                                                                  Before any treatment is applied a full
        Where necessary, adherence to appropriate                 written on-site risk assessment must be
        health and safety procedures must be ensured              carried out to provide the correct health and
        to avoid potentially aggressive confrontations.           safety information. As a minimum, the risk
                                                                  assessment should take into account the
        Notes will need to be comprehensive in                    presence of young children, pets and elderly/
        describing reasons for the non-treatment                  infirmed individuals.
        and explanations provided. Consideration of
        the need for enforcement action is required               Based upon the on-site risk assessment, the
        if conditions do not improve sufficiently to              pest control technician may consider the use
        permit an effective treatment.                            of traps, which should be located accordingly.
                                                                  Traps can be baited using fruit, vegetables,
        As a minimum, the following information must              chocolate or other suitable foodstuff obtained
        be recorded:                                              from the occupier and placed safely on the
                                                                  trap. The implications of the use of traps
        (i)   Details of the premises (including any
              specific job reference)
                                                                                                                    5
    should be explained to the occupier and                    level of activity and manufacturer’s label
    arrangements made to call the next day to                  requirements.
    inspect the trap, or request the occupier to
    notify immediately if it is noticed that a mouse           Identify any adjacent premises either
    is caught on the trap.                                     immediately above or below or immediately
                                                               to either side which may be ‘at risk’ of
    Bait preparations, which are known to work                 infestation. Where possible, contact and survey
    in the area, should be used as a matter of                 ‘at risk’ premises horizontally and vertically
    routine. The experience of the pest control                adjacent immediately, including any common
    technician is fundamental in determining                   parts. If this is not possible due to time or
    which baits should be used.                                other constraints record details of property
                                                               numbers, street or block to identify them for
    The placement of many small baits will be                  future survey and treatment as necessary.
    preferred to a few large baits. Bait stations
    may be placed in close proximity to each other     1.1.7   Second or subsequent visits
    to good effect. Sufficient quantities                      Carry out a survey of the whole premises
    of bait should be placed so as to ensure that              for evidence of mouse activity and make a
    sufficient bait remains until the next scheduled           suitable record.
    visit (based upon the manufacturer’s label
    requirements).                                             Confirm infestation/activity by visual
                                                               examination of all baiting points and any
    Not more than one type of rodenticide                      other evidence such as mouse droppings,
    bait (where the active ingredient is taken                 mouse urine stains or gnaw/teeth marks/
    as the defining pesticide type) should be                  chewing on packaging and foodstuffs.
    laid in any premises at any time; however
    formulations can be varied depending upon                  Observe the amount of takes of the
    the characteristics of the site.                           rodenticide and make a suitable record, for
                                                               example. “N/T” - No Take, “P/T” - Part Take and
    Baits must be laid in accordance with                      “C/T” - Complete Take.
    manufacturer’s label requirements and will
    always be protected from ready access                      Re-evaluate hygiene and housekeeping
    by children and pets, using lockable stations              standards within the premises.
    if appropriate.
                                                               Re-examine previously identified means of
    Explain the nature of the treatment and any                mouse access to the property to confirm
    specific safety requirements to the occupier.              whether proofing works have been carried out.
    Occupiers must be shown the locations of the
    baits and informed that children and pets are              If substantial changes have occurred that
    not allowed access to these baits. Provide an              could affect the safety and/or success of the
    appropriately annotated (safety data sheet)                treatment, a new on-site risk assessment
    advice sheet to the occupier highlighting the              should be completed. Additionally, if a
    premises address, the date, what product has               different pest control technician attends the
    been used and what action to take in cases of              premises, a record must be kept as to whether
    an emergency – including contact telephone                 the pest control technician agrees with the
    number.                                                    existing on-site risk assessment. Where the
                                                               pest control technician disagrees with the
    As a minimum, the following information must               assessment, a new on-site risk assessment
    be recorded:                                               must be completed and any discrepancies
                                                               reported to the supervisor/manager.
    (i)    Details of the premises (including any
           specific job reference)                     1.1.8   If baits have been taken
    (ii) Name of pest control technician who                   Replenish baiting points as appropriate,
           attended                                            however block baits can be rotated or loose
    (iii) The date of visit                                    bait evened out to provide a “fresh” surface for
    (iv) The areas surveyed                                    the next visit.
    (v) The evidence of infestation/activity,
           including any contributory factors                  Lay additional baiting stations as indicated
    (vi) Relevant site information including the               by any new signs of activity. Where possible,
           presence of young children, pets and                old bait stations should be reused in order to
           elderly infirmed people                             increase the opportunity of mice using the bait
    (vii) The location, amount and type of                     station through the smell of other mice.
           rodenticide used (including suitable
           diagram)                                            A record must be kept of all rodenticide used
    (viii) Any other information that may                      when replenishing baiting points or providing
           be of relevance                                     additional bait stations.

    Estimate timing of the next visit and inform               Sufficient quantities of bait should be placed
    the occupier accordingly. This will generally              so as to ensure that there is bait remaining
    be within seven days dependent upon the                    at the time of the next visit. Where bait




6
                   consumption is high, it will be necessary to               Ensure that horizontally and vertically adjacent
                   increase the frequency of visits to ensure that            premises have been identified for a survey.
                   this is achieved. (If infestation is due to field
                   mice rather than house mice, baits may be                  Continue substituting alternative formulations
                   hoarded rather than eaten.)                                using the same method above until an
                                                                              acceptable alternative is found and baits
                   As a minimum, the following information must               are taken. More than one type of toxic bait
                   be recorded:                                               must not be used in any premises at the
                                                                              same time (where the active ingredient is
                   (i)    Details of the premises (including any              taken as the defining pesticide type, however
                          specific job reference)                             formulations can be varied depending upon
                   (ii) Name of pest control technician who                   the characteristics of the site) except by prior
                          attended                                            approval of an appropriate senior pest control
                   (iii) The date of visit                                    technician.
                   (iv) Any changes in the premises that could
                          affect the safety or success of the                 Where all bait preparations have been tried
                          treatment (completing a new on-site risk            and no takes are recorded, the matter must be
                          assessment if necessary)                            referred to an appropriate senior pest control
                   (v) The evidence that the infestation/                     technician for consideration of alternative
                          activity still exists                               control methods.
                   (vi) The number of takes observed and the
                          amount of new rodenticide used                      As a minimum, the following information must
                   (vii) The location, amount and type                        be recorded:
                          of rodenticide used for any new bait
                          stations (including amendments                      (i)    Details of the premises (including any
                          to the baiting diagram)                                    specific job reference)
                   (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried            (ii) Name of pest control technician who
                          out or still outstanding                                   attended
                   (ix) Any other information that                            (iii) The date of visit
                          may be of relevance                                 (iv) Any changes in the premises that could
                                                                                     affect the safety or success of the
                   Explain nature of treatment, hygiene/                             treatment (completing a new on-site risk
                   housekeeping requirements and any safety                          assessment if necessary)
                   requirements to the occupier.                              (v) The evidence that the infestation/
                                                                                     activity still exists
                   Estimate timing of the next visit and inform               (vi) The number of takes observed and the
                   the occupier accordingly. This will generally                     amount of new rodenticide used
                   be within seven days dependent upon the                    (vii) The location, amount and type of
                   level of activity and manufacturer’s label                        rodenticide used for any new bait
                   requirements.                                                     stations (including amendments to the
                                                                                     baiting diagram)
           1.1.9   Baits not taken but other signs                            (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried
                   of infestation present                                            out or still outstanding
                   On first and second revisits, inspect and refresh          (ix) Any other information that may
                   baits (where necessary) and note any findings                     be of relevance
                   to prove the presence of mice.
                                                                              Having provided the owner suitable
                                                                              opportunity to remedy the defects, and if
                                                                              the remedial work remains uncompleted,
The pest control technician must                                              local authorities have the power to serve
                                                                              a legal notice on the owner to ensure that
be certain that no evidence of activity                                       the appropriate repairs are completed as
                                                                              soon as possible. The tenure of the property
is present in any part of the property                                        has implications for these responsibilities,
                                                                              particularly as proofing works may not be the
                                                                              responsibility of the individual occupier.
                   After the second revisit using a single bait
                   type, where no bait takes have been observed,       1.1.10 Completion
                   the pest control technician should remove all              When all bait takes cease completely and no
                   baits from the premises and re-bait using an               further signs of infestation/activity are noted
                   alternative preparation using the same pattern             remove all accessible bait and bait materials
                   as above.                                                  from the premises and return to the depot
                                                                              for authorised disposal. All rodent bodies and
                   Examine bait placement points and                          redundant rodenticide should only be disposed
                   re-evaluate their efficacy. (Relatively small              of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.
                   distances can alter the level of bait takes from
                   a baiting point.)                                          Explain the situation to the occupier and
                                                                              restate any outstanding preventative works,
                   Record the changes to the baiting regime on                proofing or hygiene/housekeeping issues that
                   each occasion. Issue a new rodenticide safety              require attention.
                   data sheet/advice sheet to the occupier and
                   update the on-site risk assessment.

                                                                                                                              7
            Close down the job and maintain suitable                     (vii) The result of the survey confirming that
            permanent record of all notes, on-site risk                         an infestation/activity was not identified
            assessments, bait location records, copy letters             (viii) Any other information that may
            and other relevant documents.                                       be of relevance

    1.2     Block treatments                                             Close down the job making such comments
    1.2.1   First visit                                                  on the job sheet or electronic record.
            If request for service centres on a single
            dwelling within a larger block of dwellings (for     1.2.3   Uncertain conclusion
            example, flats or terraced housing) confirm the              Ensure all dwellings and communal areas
            existence of any infestation/activity in initial             outlined above have been surveyed including
            dwelling by completing a full survey of the                  those that adjoin the original source of the
            whole premises and identify signs of current                 complaint to identify any signs of activity.
            mouse activity – fresh droppings, footprints,                If there is no evidence of any infestation/
            gnawing, smear marks, odour, damage to food                  activity and either the occupier(s) will not
            cartons etc.                                                 accept the situation, or there are reasons to
                                                                         believe that there may be mice (entering from
            Sufficient details must be taken to ensure                   an adjoining dwelling or other area), then
            accurate records can be made, noting the                     lay strategically placed non-toxic baits and/
            areas where evidence of an infestation/activity              or tracking board/dust plates. Occupiers must
            has been confirmed. Care should be taken to                  be shown the locations of the non-toxic baits/
            examine all areas of the property including                  tracking plates and informed that children
            communal halls, lofts, bins stores, garages                  and pets are not allowed access to these baits.
            etc. In addition, the external of the property               Note: it is recommended that the occupier(s)
            as a whole should be examined to obtain any                  be advised of the difference between an
            evidence of activity outlined above.                         infestation (breeding population) and a casual
                                                                         intruder (one off occurrence).
            Based on the evidence from the survey confirm
            the distribution of any infestation/activity                 Provide information and advice to the
            and record the details. Details of contributory              occupiers on improving standards of hygiene,
            factors should also be recorded, including                   housekeeping and proofing requirements.
            damage to structure, poor house keeping
            or poor standards of hygiene. Advise the                     If no signs of activity are found, inform all
            occupier(s) of health risks due to mice being                occupiers that a revisit will be made within
            present (food contamination etc).                            two to three weeks as a precaution.

            The pest control technician must consider                    As a minimum, the following information must
            the property as a whole, and not individual                  be recorded:
            dwellings, when making any assessment.
            Depending upon the size and nature of the                    (i)   Details of each individual dwelling within
            property and the extent of any infestation/                        the property (including any specific job
            activity, consideration should be given to                         reference)
            obtaining senior pest control technician                     (ii) Name of pest control technician
            involvement as a number of agencies may                            who attended
            need to be involved in the treatment to secure               (iii) The date of visit
            control from the outset. Such agencies may                   (iv) Details of all areas surveyed (including
            include environmental health officers, housing                     any dwellings where access was denied)
            officers or representatives of any other client              (v) The evidence of potential infestation
            organisation who manages the property                              /activity
            and representatives of the occupants of the                  (vi) The location, amount and type of
            property.                                                          non-toxic bait used (including suitable
                                                                               diagram)
    1.2.2   Infestation not present                                      (vii) Any other information that may
            The pest control technician must be certain                        be of relevance
            that no evidence of activity is present in any
            part of the property. Where conclusions are          1.2.4   Infestation confirmed
            uncertain, follow the advice given in the next               Evaluate hygiene/housekeeping and proofing
            section. Explain to the occupiers that there                 standards and identify alternative food sources
            is no evidence of an infestation/activity and                and waste retention areas.
            reassure the occupiers that a revisit can be
            arranged if any complaint reoccurs.                          Where significant quantities of food are open
                                                                         and available to rodents no treatment should
            As a minimum, the following details must be                  be commenced. Occupiers should be informed
            recorded:                                                    that a further appointment could be made
                                                                         as soon as the standards of hygiene and
            (i)     Details of each individual dwelling within           housekeeping have been improved.
                    the property (including any specific job             Tact and diplomacy are required to explain
                    reference)                                           that rodents will not take toxic baits if other
            (ii)    Name of pest control technician who                  food sources are readily available. If necessary,
                    attended                                             show the occupier examples of poor practice
            (iii)   The date of visit                                    (for example, presence of cat/dog food as
            (iv)    Details of all areas surveyed                        a potential source of attraction for mice).

8
        However, this approach may not always be                       works that are required to be carried out to
        required where the pest control technician                     exclude mice from the property.
        assesses the risk from alternative food sources                If the local authority or other client
        to be minimal and the occupier’s cooperation                   organisation manages the property, written
        has been obtained.                                             details of any recommendations for proofing
                                                                       or repair must be provided to the appropriate
        Where necessary, adherence to appropriate                      office for action. All advice on proofing is to be
        health and safety procedures must be ensured                   provided by the pest control technician
        to avoid potentially aggressive confrontations.                or supervisor.

        Notes will need to be comprehensive in                 1.2.6   Decide on method of treatment
        describing reasons for the non-treatment and                   If an existing treatment is, or has been carried
        explanations provided. Consideration
        of the need for enforcement action is required
        if conditions do not improve sufficiently
        to permit an effective treatment for the entire
        block of dwellings. Therefore a coordinated
        approach of treatment and enforcement is
        required.

        As a minimum, the following information must
        be recorded:

        (i)   Details of each individual dwelling and/
              or common parts (including any specific
              job reference)
        (ii) Name of pest control technician who
              attended
        (iii) The date of visit
        (iv) Details of all areas surveyed
        (v) The evidence of potential infestation/
              activity
        (vi) The location, amount and type
              of non-toxic bait used (including suitable               out, in any part of the premises by another
              diagram)                                                 pest control company, the pest control
        (vii) Any other information that may                           technician will not commence any treatment
              be of relevance                                          until the individual occupier and/or landlord
                                                                       gives firm assurance that the other contract
        Report circumstances to relevant supervisor/                   has been terminated and all baits previously
        manager.                                                       laid are removed or authority is given for their
                                                                       removal.
1.2.5   If premises are free from excessive
        alternative food sources                                       Before, any treatment is applied a full
        The pest control technician must consider                      written on-site risk assessment must be
        the property as a whole, and not individual                    carried out to provide the correct health and
        dwellings when formulating the treatment                       safety information. As a minimum, the risk
        strategy.                                                      assessment should take into account the
                                                                       presence of young children, pets, elderly/
        Identify any likely entry points including:                    infirmed individuals and other non-target
                                                                       species.
        (i)     Gaps under external doors
        (ii)    Gaps around water, drainage,                           Based upon the on-site risk assessment, the
                gas or electricity services                            pest control technician may consider the use
        (iii)   Damaged air vents                                      of traps, which should be located accordingly.
        (iv)    Any other points that allow access from                Traps can be baited using fruit, vegetables,
                the exterior to the interior of the building           chocolate or other suitable foodstuff obtained
                                                                       from the occupier and placed safely on the
        The pest control technician shall adopt a risk                 trap. The implications of the use of traps
        based approach, based on the information                       should be explained to the occupier(s) and
        gathered on-site, as to whether any openings                   arrangements made to call the next day to
        or gaps within the property should be                          inspect the trap, or request the occupier to
        sealed before or at the end of a treatment                     notify immediately if it is noticed that a mouse
        programme. Dependent upon the size and                         is caught on the trap.
        nature of the property, significant detailed
        notes (including photography) will be                          Bait preparations, which are known to work
        required, and consideration should be given to                 in the area, should be used as a matter of
        allocating sufficient resources to implement                   routine. The experience of the pest control
        the treatment strategy.                                        technician is fundamental in determining
                                                                       which baits should be used.
        Accordingly, bring all defects to the attention                The placement of many small baits will be
        of the occupier and ask for remedial works                     preferred to a few large baits. Bait stations
        to be carried out. Explain to the occupier the                 may be placed in close proximity to each

                                                                                                                          9
               other to good effect. Sufficient quantities of             (vii) The location, amount and type
               bait should be placed so as to ensure that                        of rodenticide used (including suitable
               sufficient bait remains until the next scheduled                  diagram) of each dwelling and
               visit (based upon the manufacturer’s label                        communal area(s)
               requirements).                                             (viii) Any other information that may
                                                                                 be of relevance
               Not more than one type of rodenticide
               bait (where the active ingredient is taken                 Estimate timing of the next visit and inform
               as the defining pesticide type) should be                  the occupier(s) accordingly. This will generally
               laid in any premises at any time; however                  be within seven days dependent upon the
               formulations can be varied depending upon                  level of activity and manufacturer’s label
               the characteristics of the site.                           requirements.

               Baits must be laid in accordance with              1.2.7   Second or subsequent visits
               manufacturer label requirements and will                   Carry out a survey of the whole premises
               always be protected from ready access by                   (including each dwelling and common parts)
               children and pets, using lockable stations if              for evidence of mouse activity and make a
               appropriate.                                               suitable record.

               Explain the nature of the treatment and any                Confirm infestation/activity by visual
               specific safety requirements to each occupier.             examination of all baiting points and any
               Provide an appropriately annotated (safety                 other evidence such as mouse droppings,
               data sheet), advice sheet to each occupier                 mouse urine stains or gnaw/teeth marks/
               highlighting the premises address date, what               chewing of packaging and foodstuffs.
               product has been used and what action to take
               in cases of an emergency, including contact                Observe the amount of takes of the
               telephone number.                                          rodenticide and make a suitable record, for
                                                                          example. “N/T” - No Take, “P/T” - Part Take and
               As a minimum, the following information must               “C/T” - Complete Take.
               be recorded:                                               Re-evaluate hygiene and housekeeping
                                                                          standards within the entire premises (including
               (i)     Details of each individual dwelling and/           each dwelling and common parts).
                       or common parts(including any specific
                       job reference)                                     Re-examine previously identified means of
               (ii)    Name of pest control technician who                access to the whole of the property to confirm
                       attended                                           whether proofing works have been carried out.
               (iii)   The date of visit
               (iv)    Details of all areas surveyed                      If substantial changes have occurred that
               (v)     The evidence of infestation/activity,              could affect the safety and/or success of the
                       including any contributory factors                 treatment, a new on-site risk assessment
               (vi)    Relevant site information including the            should be completed. Additionally, if a
                       presence of young children, pets and               different pest control technician attends the
                       elderly infirmed people                            premises, a record must be kept as to whether
                                                                          the pest control technician agrees with the


Baits must be laid in accordance with manufacturer instructions
and will always be protected from ready access by children and pets
10
        existing on-site risk assessment. Where the         throughout a block of dwellings is likely to be
        pest control technician disagrees with the          significant and therefore any incidents where
        assessment, a new on-site risk assessment           rodenticide is not being taken, but evidence
        must be completed and any discrepancies             of activity still exists should be dealt with
        reported to the supervisor/manager.                 seriously.

1.2.8   If baits have been taken                            After the second revisit using a single bait
        Replenish baiting points as appropriate,            type, where no bait takes have been observed,
        however block baits can be rotated or loose         the pest control technician should remove
        bait evened out to provide a “fresh” surface for    all baits from the entire of the premises and
        the next visit.                                     re-bait using an alternative preparation using
                                                            the same pattern as above – or a combination
        Lay additional baiting stations as indicated        where this is appropriate for the premises
        by any new signs of activity. Where possible,       type (suitable senior pest control technician
        old bait stations should be reused in order to      approval should be sought.)
        increase the opportunity of mice using the bait
        station through the smell of other mice.            Examine bait placement points and
                                                            re-evaluate their efficacy. (Relatively small
        A record must be kept of all rodenticide used       distances can alter the level of bait takes from
        when replenishing baiting points or providing       a baiting point).
        additional bait stations.
                                                            Record the change of bait on each occasion.
        Sufficient quantities of bait should be placed      Issue a new rodenticide safety data sheet/
        so as to ensure that there is bait remaining        advice sheet to each occupier and update the
        at the time of the next visit. Where bait           on-site risk assessment.
        consumption is high, it will be necessary to
        increase the frequency of visits to ensure that     Continue substituting alternative formulations
        this is achieved. (If infestation is due to field   using the same method above until an
        mice rather than house mice, baits may be           acceptable alternative is found and baits are
        hoarded rather than eaten.)                         taken. A senior pest control technician should
                                                            decide upon the bait used throughout the
        As a minimum, the following information must        entire property (including each dwelling and
        be recorded:                                        common parts) and be advised of any requests
                                                            to change the formulations if control is not
        (i)    Details of each individual dwelling and/     achieved.
               or common parts (including any specific
               job reference)                               As a minimum, the following information must
        (ii) Name of pest control technician                be recorded:
               who attended
        (iii) The date of visit                             (i)    Details of each dwelling and/or common
        (iv) Any changes in the premises that could                parts (including any specific job
               affect the safety or success of the                 reference)
               treatment (completing a new on-site risk     (ii) Name of pest control technician
               assessment if necessary)                            who attended
        (v) The evidence that the infestation/              (iii) The date of visit
               activity still exists                        (iv) Any changes in the premises that could
        (vi) The number of takes observed and the                  affect the safety or success of the
               amount of new rodenticide used                      treatment (completing a new on-site risk
        (vii) The location, amount and type of                     assessment if necessary)
               rodenticide used for any new bait            (v) The evidence that the infestation/
               stations (including amendments to the               activity still exists
               baiting diagram)                             (vi) The number of takes observed and the
        (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried            amount of new rodenticide used
               out or still outstanding                     (vii) The location, amount and type
        (ix) Any other information that may                        of rodenticide used for any new bait
               be of relevance                                     stations (including amendments to the
                                                                   baiting diagram)
        Explain nature of treatment, hygiene/               (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried
        housekeeping requirements and any safety                   out or still outstanding
        requirements to the occupier(s).                    (ix) Any other information that may
                                                                   be of relevance
        Estimate timing of the next visit and inform        Having provided the owner suitable
        the occupier accordingly. This will generally       opportunity to remedy the defects, and if the
        be within seven days dependent upon the             work remains uncompleted, Local Authorities
        level of activity and manufacturer’s label          have the power to serve a legal notice on the
        requirements.                                       owner to ensure that the appropriate repairs
                                                            are completed as soon as possible.
1.2.9   Baits not taken but other signs of infestation
        present
        On first and second revisits, inspect and refresh
        baits (where necessary) and note any findings
        to prove the presence of mice. Mouse activity

                                                                                                          11
            The tenure of the property has implications for    Explain the situation to the occupier and
            these responsibilities, particularly as proofing   restate any outstanding preventative remedial
            works may not be the responsibility of the         works, proofing or hygiene/housekeeping
            individual occupier. For local authorities,        issues that require attention.
            consideration should be given to Part 1
            of the Housing Act 2004 or Part III of the         Close down the job and maintain suitable
            Environmental Protection Act 1990. This may        permanent record of all notes, on-site risk
            therefore require liaison with the appropriate     assessments, bait location records, copy letters
            officer within the local authority who has         and other relevant documents.
            responsibility for housing conditions.

     1.2.10 Completion
            When all bait takes cease completely and no
            further signs of infestation/activity are noted
            remove all accessible bait and bait materials
            from the premises and return to the depot
            for authorised disposal. All rodent bodies and
            redundant rodenticide should only be disposed
            of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.




12
2.0 Rats - within dwellings
     Of all pests that infest domestic premises, rats           2.1.2   Infestation not present
     cause greater damage and distress than any other                   Explain to the occupier that there is no
     pest. They are frequently known to gnaw through                    evidence of an infestation/activity and
     plumbing and electrical cabling, doors and frames                  reassure the occupier that a revisit can be
     and even structural timbers, which coupled with their              arranged if any complaint reoccurs.
     known disease carrying capabilities, makes them a
     high priority for treatment for the occupiers of all               As a minimum, the following details must be
     residential properties.                                            recorded:

                                                                        (i)     Details of the premises (including any
     2.1     Method of treatment                                                specific job reference)
     2.1.1   First visit                                                (ii)    Name of pest control technician who
             Confirm the existence of any infestation/                          attended
             activity by completing a full site survey of the           (iii)   The date of visit
             whole premises and identify signs of current               (iv)    The areas surveyed (taking account
             rat activity – fresh droppings, footprints,                        of accessibility of areas, for example
             gnawing, smear marks, odour, damage to food                        designated confined spaces)
             cartons etc. Sufficient details must be taken to           (v)     The result of the survey confirming that
             ensure accurate records can be made, noting                        an infestation/activity was not identified
             the areas where evidence of an infestation/                (vi)    Any other information that may be of
             activity has been found and possible entry                         relevance (standard of hygiene, proofing,
             points.                                                            activity in adjacent properties etc)

             Based on the evidence from the survey confirm              Close down the job making such comments
             the distribution of any infestation/activity               on the job sheet or electronic record.
             and record the details. Details of contributory
             factors should also be recorded, including         2.1.3   Uncertain conclusion
             damage to structure, poor house keeping or                 If there is no evidence of any infestation/
             poor standards of hygiene.                                 activity and either the occupier will not accept
                                                                        the situation, or there are reasons to believe
             Advise the occupier of health risks due to rats            that there may be rats (entering from an
             being present (food contamination etc.).                   adjoining property) then lay strategically
                                                                        placed non-toxic baits. Occupiers must be
                                                                        shown the locations of the non-toxic baits
                                                                        and informed that children and pets are
                                                                        not allowed access to these baits. Note: it is

                                                                                                                       13
                                                                          The pest control technician must determine
                                                                          the best method of treatment.

                                                                  2.2.2   Catch and kill
                                                                          This method is potentially dangerous from
                                                                          a health and safety perspective and great
                                                                          care must be taken not to run into or fall over
                                                                          furniture/static objects or damage furniture in
                                                                          the heat of the chase. Furthermore, to ensure
                                                                          the rat is killed outright with the first blow, the
                                                                          pest control technician must be competent to
                                                                          use this method humanely and safely.

                                                                          The use of an air pistol to despatch live rats
                                                                          may also be used where it is considered safe
                                                                          to do so. All pest control technicians must
                                                                          be competent and trained in the use of air
                                                                          weapons and a thorough risk assessment
                                                                          completed. No other person must be present
                                                                          in the same room when the air pistol is used.
                                                                          The air pistol is only to be used when the pest
                                                                          control technician has satisfied themselves
                                                                          that the rat has been cornered and a close
             advisable that the occupier be advised of the                up shot can be taken. Safety glasses must be
             difference between an infestation (breeding                  worn during this operation. Alternatively, the
             population) and a casual intruder (one off                   rat could be chased into a live trap and then
             occurrence).                                                 taken outside of the property (for example, a
                                                                          garden or yard area) to be despatched with an
             Provide information and advice to the                        air pistol.
             occupier on improving standards of hygiene,
             housekeeping and proofing requirements.                      Clean any blood spillage from surfaces using
                                                                          wipes and disinfectants and dispose of safely.
             Inform the occupier that a revisit will be made
             within one to two weeks.                                     All dead rats should be disposed of as detailed
                                                                          in Section 5.0, pg 28., using protective gloves.
             As a minimum, the following information must
             be recorded:                                                 Advise and show the occupier any necessary
                                                                          proofing works to prevent future infestation/
             (i)   Details of the premises (including any                 activity. Examine the areas from which rats
                   specific job reference)                                may have entered the building to see if further
             (ii) Name of pest control technician who                     treatment is required.
                   attended
             (iii) The date of visit                                      If the pest control technician is satisfied
             (iv) The areas surveyed                                      that the captured rat was the only rat in the
             (v) The evidence of potential infestation/                   property, close down the job and maintain
                   activity                                               suitable permanent record of all notes,
             (vi) The location, amount and type of                        on-site risk assessments and other relevant
                   non-toxic bait used (including suitable                documents. If the pest control technician
                   diagram)                                               believes further rats may be present, the source
             (vii) Any other information that may be of                   of the activity should be determined and the
                   relevance                                              matter referred to a supervisor/manager for
                                                                          determination of further treatment.
     2.2     Live rat in property
     2.2.1   Options to consider                                          Close down the job and maintain suitable
             Advise occupier of options, which are:                       permanent record of all notes, on-site risk
                                                                          assessments, bait location records, copy letters
             (i)     Catch and kill                                       and other relevant documents.
             (ii)    Trapping
             (iii)   Placement of rodenticide baits               2.2.3   Trapping
                                                                          First visit
             Pest control technicians may attempt to                      More than one trap should be employed
             physically catch and kill the rat if it is running           where suitable locations can be identified
             around freely and causing distress.                          for placement. Bait the traps using fruit,
                                                                          vegetables, chocolate or other suitable
             Trapping, which would result in a dead rat                   foodstuff obtained from the occupier and
             being retained in the trap used, will require the            place safely on the trap. Ensure that the trap is
             occupier to contact the Pest control technician              set with the kill platform at right angles to the
             for collection and disposal of the dead animal.              wall. This will allow rats to approach the trap
                                                                          from either side.
             Placement of rodenticide baits could result
             in the death of the rat within the structure of
             the building, creating an unpleasant odour for
             some time (seven to 10 days, or longer).
14
        Explain the nature of the treatment to the                   Where necessary, adherence to appropriate
        occupier and stress the hazards of contact                   health and safety procedures must be ensured
        with the trap, especially if children or pets                to avoid potentially aggressive confrontations.
        are present. Advise the occupier as to any                   Notes will need to be comprehensive in
        necessary proofing requirements to prevent                   describing reasons for the non-treatment
        further infestation/activity by showing the                  and explanations provided. Consideration of
        occupier the issues concerned.                               the need for enforcement action is required
                                                                     if conditions do not improve sufficiently to
        Arrange to call the next day to inspect the trap,            permit an effective treatment.
        or request the occupier to notify immediately
        if it is noticed that a rat is caught on the trap.           As a minimum, the following information must
        Revisit the same day of notification to remove               be recorded:
        the rat.
                                                                     (i)   Details of the premises (including any
        Second visit                                                       specific job reference)
        Inspect the trap for evidence of rat                         (ii) Name of pest control technician who
        interference with bait or trap. If no catch has                    attended
        occurred re-bait and reset the trap if necessary.            (iii) The date of visit
        Consider relocating the trap/s.                              (iv) The areas surveyed
                                                                     (v) The evidence of infestation/activity,
        Re-survey the whole premises for further                           including any contributory factors
        evidence of infestation/activity and note any                (vi) The reasons for non-treatment
        signs of new movement or damage. Advise the                  (vii) Any other information that may be of
        occupier of the situation and restate safety                       relevance
        and/or proofing advice as required.
                                                                     Report circumstances to relevant supervisor/
        Arrange to call next day to inspect the trap.                manager.

        Third visit                                          2.3.2   If premises are free from excessive
        Inspect the trap for signs of activity. If no                alternative food sources
        evidence of rodent activity at the trap can be               Identify any likely entry points including:
        found re-survey the whole of the property for
        evidence of infestation/activity.                            (i)     Gaps under external doors
                                                                     (ii)    Gaps around water, drainage, gas or
        If no evidence of activity is found within                           electricity services
        the property, advise the occupier as to any                  (iii)   Damaged air vents
        necessary proofing requirements to prevent                   (iv)    Any other points that allow access from
        further infestation/activity by showing the                          the exterior to the interior of the building
        occupier the issues concerned. Close down the
        job and maintain suitable permanent record of                The pest control technician shall adopt a risk
        all notes, on-site risk assessments, bait location           based approach, based on the information
        records, copy letters and other relevant                     gathered on-site, as to whether any openings
        documents.                                                   or gaps within the property should be
                                                                     sealed before or at the end of a treatment
        When there are obvious signs of an active rat                programme.
        infestation, advise the occupier to consider
        the use of poison baits and reinforce proofing               Accordingly, bring all defects to the attention
        recommendations.                                             of the occupier and ask for remedial works to
                                                                     be carried out. Explain to the occupier the
2.3     Poison baits                                                 works that are required to be carried out to
2.3.1   Infestation confirmed                                        exclude rats from the property.
        Evaluate hygiene/housekeeping and proofing
        standards and identify alternative food sources              If the local authority or other client
        and waste retention areas.                                   organisation manages the property, written
                                                                     details of any recommendations for proofing
        Where significant quantities of food are open                or repair must be provided to the appropriate
        and available to rodents no treatment should                 office for action. All advice on proofing is to
        be commenced. Occupiers should be informed                   be provided by the pest control technician or
        that a further appointment could be made                     supervisor.
        as soon as the standards of hygiene and
        housekeeping have been improved. Tact and            2.3.3   Decide on method of treatment
        diplomacy are required to explain that rodents               If an existing treatment is, or has been carried
        will not take toxic baits if other food sources              out, in the premises by another pest control
        are readily available. If necessary, show the                company, the pest control technician will not
        occupier examples of poor practice. However,                 commence any treatment until the occupier
        this approach may not always be required                     gives firm assurance that the other contract
        where the pest control technician assesses                   has been terminated and all baits previously
        the risk from alternative food sources to be                 laid are removed or authority is given for their
        minimal and the occupier’s cooperation has                   removal.
        been obtained.



                                                                                                                            15
     Before, any treatment is applied a full                  Advise the occupier as to the risk of smells
     written on-site risk assessment must be                  being generated from dead carcasses and
     carried out to provide the correct health and            the possibility of these smells persisting for a
     safety information. As a minimum, the risk               period of time (seven to 10 days, or longer).
     assessment should take into account the
     presence of young children, pets and elderly/    2.3.4   Second or subsequent visits
     infirmed individuals.                                    Carry out a survey of the whole premises for
                                                              evidence of rat activity and make a suitable
     Bait preparations, which are known to work               record.
     in the area, should be used as a matter of
     routine. The experience of the pest control              Confirm infestation/activity by visual
     technician is fundamental in determining                 examination of all baiting points and any
     which baits should be used.                              other evidence such as droppings, footprints,
                                                              smear marks or gnaw/teeth marks/chewing on
     Bait stations should be located where evidence           packaging and foodstuffs.
     of rat activity has been observed. Sufficient
     quantities of bait should be placed so as                Observe the amount of takes of the
     to ensure that bait remains until the next               rodenticide and make a suitable record, for
     scheduled visit.                                         example. “N/T” - No Take, “P/T” - Part Take and
                                                              “C/T” - Complete Take.
     Not more than one type of rodenticide
     bait (where the active ingredient is taken               Re-evaluate hygiene and housekeeping
     as the defining pesticide type) should be                standards within the premises.
     laid in any premises at any time; however
     formulations can be varied depending upon                Re-examine previously identified routes of
     the characteristics of the site.                         entry to the property to confirm whether
                                                              proofing works have been carried out.
     Baits must be laid in accordance with
     manufacturer’s label requirements and will               If substantial changes have occurred that
     always be protected from ready access by                 could affect the safety and/or success of the
     children and pets, using lockable stations if            treatment, a new on-site risk assessment
     appropriate.                                             should be completed. Additionally, if a
                                                              different pest control technician attends the
     Explain the nature of the treatment and any              premises, a record must be kept as to whether
     specific safety requirements to the occupier.            the pest control technician agrees with the
     Occupiers must be shown the locations of the             existing on-site risk assessment. Where the
     baits and informed that children and pets are            pest control technician disagrees with the
     not allowed access to these baits. Provide an            assessment, a new on-site risk assessment
     appropriately annotated (safety data sheet)              must be completed and any discrepancies
     advice sheet to the occupier highlighting the            reported to the supervisor/manager.
     premises address, the date, what product has
     been used and what action to take in cases of    2.3.5   If baits have been taken
     an emergency – including a contact telephone             Replenish baiting points as appropriate,
     number. Neophobia should be explained to the             however block baits can be rotated or loose
     occupier to account for the time taken for the           bait evened out to provide a “fresh” surface for
     treatment to be effective.                               the next visit.

     As a minimum, the following information                  Lay additional baiting stations as indicated by
     must be recorded:                                        any new signs of activity.

     (i)    Details of the premises (including any            A record must be kept of all rodenticide used
            specific job reference)                           when replenishing baiting points or providing
     (ii) Name of pest control technician who                 additional bait stations.
            attended
     (iii) The date of visit                                  Sufficient quantities of bait should be placed
     (iv) The areas surveyed                                  so as to ensure that there is bait remaining
     (v) The evidence of infestation/activity,                at the time of the next visit. Where bait
            including any contributory factors                consumption is high, it will be necessary to
     (vi) Relevant site information including the             increase the frequency of visits to ensure that
            presence of young children, pets and              this is achieved.
            elderly infirmed people
     (vii) The location, amount and type                      As a minimum, the following information
            of rodenticide used (including suitable           must be recorded:
            diagram)
     (viii) Any other information that may                    (i)     Details of the premises (including any
            be of relevance                                           specific job reference)
                                                              (ii)    Name of pest control technician who
     Estimate timing of the next visit and inform                     attended
     the occupier accordingly. This will generally            (iii)   The date of visit
     be within seven days dependent upon the                  (iv)    Any changes in the premises that could
     level of activity and manufacturer’s label                       affect the safety or success of the
     requirements.                                                    treatment (completing a new on-site risk
                                                                      assessment if necessary)
16
                   (v)    The evidence that the infestation/                    Where all bait preparations have been tried
                          activity still exists                                 and no takes are recorded, the matter must be
                   (vi) The number of takes observed and the                    referred to an appropriate senior pest control
                          amount of new rodenticide used                        technician for consideration of alternative bait
                   (vii) The location, amount and type of                       preparations.
                          rodenticide used for any new bait
                          stations (including amendments to the                 As a minimum, the following information
                          baiting diagram)                                      must be recorded:
                   (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried
                          out or still outstanding                              (i)    Details of the premises (including any
                   (ix) Any other information that may be                              specific job reference)
                          of relevance                                          (ii) Name of pest control technician who
                                                                                       attended
                   Explain nature of treatment, hygiene/                        (iii) The date of visit
                   housekeeping requirements and any safety                     (iv) Any changes in the premises that could
                   requirements to the occupier.                                       affect the safety or success of the
                                                                                       treatment (completing a new on-site risk
                   Estimate timing of the next visit and inform                        assessment if necessary)
                   the occupier accordingly. This will generally                (v) The evidence that the infestation/
                   be within seven days dependent upon the                             activity still exists
                   level of activity and manufacturer’s label                   (vi) The number of takes observed and the
                   requirements.                                                       amount of new rodenticide used
                                                                                (vii) The location, amount and type of
           2.3.6   Baits not taken but other signs                                     rodenticide used for any new bait
                   of infestation present                                              stations (including amendments to the
                   On first and second revisits, inspect and refresh                   baiting diagram)
                   baits (where necessary) and note any findings                (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried
                   to identify prove the presence of rats.                             out or still outstanding
                                                                                (ix) Any other information that may
                   After the second revisit using a single bait type,                  be of relevance
                   where no bait takes have been observed, the
                   pest control technician should remove all baits              Where activity continues for prolonged periods,
                   from the entire premises and re-bait using an                consider the potential for hidden methods of
                   alternative preparation using the same pattern               entry resulting in rats entering the property
                   as above – or a combination where this is                    for example potential defects in the drainage
                   appropriate for the premises type (suitable                  system.
                   senior pest control technician approval should
                   be sought).                                                  Having provided the owner suitable
                                                                                opportunity to remedy the defects, and if
                   Examine bait placement points and re evaluate                the remedial work remains uncompleted,
                   their efficacy. Relatively small distances can               local authorities have the power to serve
                   alter the level of bait takes from a baiting                 a legal notice on the owner to ensure that
                   point.                                                       the appropriate repairs are completed as
                                                                                soon as possible. The tenure of the property
                   Record the change of bait on each occasion.                  has implications for these responsibilities,
                   Issue a new rodenticide safety data sheet/                   particularly as proofing works may not be the
                   advice sheet to the occupier and update the                  responsibility of the individual occupier. For
                   on-site risk assessment.                                     local authorities, consideration should be given
                                                                                to Part 1 of the Housing Act 2004 or Part III
                                                                                of the Environmental Protection Act 1990.
                                                                                This may therefore require liaison with the
Provide information and advice                                                  appropriate officer within the local authority
                                                                                who has responsibility for housing conditions.
to the occupiers on improving
                                                                        2.3.7   Completion
standards of hygiene, housekeeping                                              When all bait takes cease completely and no
                                                                                further signs of infestation/activity are noted
and proofing requirements                                                       remove all accessible bait and bait materials
                                                                                from the premises and return to the depot
                                                                                for authorised disposal. All rodent bodies and
                   Continue substituting alternative formulations               redundant rodenticide should only be disposed
                   using the same method above until an                         of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.
                   acceptable alternative is found and baits are
                   taken. More than one type of toxic bait must                 Explain the situation to the occupier and
                   not be used in any premises at the same time                 restate any outstanding preventative works,
                   except by prior approval of an appropriate                   proofing or hygiene/housekeeping issues that
                   senior pest control technician (where the active             require attention.
                   ingredient is taken as the defining pesticide
                   type. However formulations can be varied                     Close down the job and maintain suitable
                   depending upon the characteristics of the site).             permanent record of all notes, on-site risk
                                                                                assessments, bait location records, copy letters
                                                                                and other relevant documents.

                                                                                                                              17
     2.4     Block treatments                                             Close down the job making such comments
     2.4.1   First visit                                                  on the job sheet or electronic record.
             If request for service centres on a single
             dwelling within a larger block of dwellings (i.e.    2.4.3   Uncertain conclusion
             flats or terraced housing) confirm the existence             Ensure all dwellings and communal areas
             of any infestation/activity in initial dwelling by           outlined above have been surveyed including
             completing a full survey of the whole premises               those that adjoin the original source of the
             and identify signs of current rat activity –                 complaint to identify any signs of activity.
             grease smears and scuffs along runs, gnawing                 If there is no evidence of any infestation/
             damage to woodwork, pipes and cables etc or                  activity and either the occupier will not
             the presence of rat droppings.                               accept the situation, or there are reasons to
                                                                          believe that there may be rats (entering from
             Sufficient details must be taken to ensure                   an adjoining dwelling or other area) then
             accurate records can be made, noting the                     lay strategically placed non-toxic baits and/
             areas where evidence of an infestation/activity              or tracking plates. Occupiers must be shown
             has been confirmed. Care should be taken to                  the locations of the non-toxic baits/tracking
             examine all areas of the property including                  plates and informed that children and pets
             communal halls, lofts, bins, stores, garages                 are not allowed access to these baits. Note:
             etc. In addition, the external of the property               it is advisable that the occupier(s) be advised
             as a whole should be examined to obtain any                  of the difference between an infestation
             evidence of activity outlined above.                         (breeding population) and a casual intruder
                                                                          (one off occurrence).
             Based on the evidence from the survey confirm
             the distribution of any infestation/activity                 Provide information and advice to the
             and record the details. Details of contributory              occupiers on improving standards of hygiene,
             factors should also be recorded, including                   housekeeping and proofing requirements.
             damage to structure, poor house keeping
             or poor standards of hygiene. Advise the                     If no signs of activity are found, inform all
             occupier(s) of health risks due to rats being                occupiers that a revisit will be made within two
             present (Weil’s disease, food contamination                  to three weeks as a precaution.
             etc.).
                                                                          As a minimum, the following information must
             The pest control technician must consider                    be recorded:
             the property as a whole, and not individual
             dwellings, when making any assessment.                       (i)   Details of each individual dwelling
             Depending upon the size and nature of the                          within the property (including any
             property and the extent of any infestation/                        specific job reference)
             activity, consideration should be given to                   (ii) Name of pest control technician
             obtaining senior pest control technician                           who attended
             involvement as a number of agencies may                      (iii) The date of visit
             need to be involved in the treatment to secure               (iv) Details of all areas surveyed (including
             control from the outset. Such agencies may                         any dwellings where access was denied)
             include environmental health officers, housing               (v) The evidence of potential infestation/
             officers or representatives of any other client                    activity
             organisation who manages the property                        (vi) The location, amount and type
             and representatives of the occupants of the                        of non-toxic bait used (including
             property.                                                          suitable diagram)
                                                                          (vii) Any other information that may
     2.4.2   Infestation not present                                            be of relevance
             The pest control technician must be certain
             that no evidence of activity is present in any       2.4.4   Infestation confirmed
             part of the property. Where conclusions are                  Evaluate hygiene/housekeeping and proofing
             uncertain, follow the advice given in the next               standards and identify alternative food sources
             section. Explain to the occupiers that there                 and waste retention areas.
             is no evidence of an infestation/activity and
             reassure the occupiers that a revisit can be                 Where significant quantities of food are open
             arranged if any complaint reoccurs.                          and available to rodents no treatment should
                                                                          be commenced. Occupiers should be informed
             As a minimum, the following details must be                  that a further appointment could be made
             recorded:                                                    as soon as the standards of hygiene and
                                                                          housekeeping have been improved. Tact and
             (i)     Details of each individual dwelling within           diplomacy are required to explain that rodents
                     the property (including any specific job             will not take toxic baits if other food sources
                     reference)                                           are readily available. If necessary, show the
             (ii)    Name of pest control technician who                  occupier examples of poor practice. However,
                     attended                                             this approach may not always be required
             (iii)   The date of visit                                    where the pest control technician assesses
             (iv)    Details of all areas surveyed                        the risk from alternative food sources to be
             (v)     The result of the survey confirming that             minimal and the occupier’s cooperation has
                     an infestation/activity was not identified           been obtained.
             (vi)    Any other information that may be of
                     relevance

18
        Where necessary, adherence to appropriate                      or repair must be provided to the appropriate
        health and safety procedures must be ensured                   office for action. All advice on proofing is to
        to avoid potentially aggressive confrontations.                be provided by the pest control technician or
                                                                       Supervisor.
        Notes will need to be comprehensive in
        describing reasons for the non-treatment               2.4.6   Decide on method of treatment
        and explanations provided. Consideration of                    If an existing treatment is, or has been carried
        the need for enforcement action is required                    out, in the premises by another pest control
        if conditions do not improve sufficiently to                   company, the pest control technician will not
        permit an effective treatment for the entire                   commence any treatment until the occupier
        block of dwellings. Therefore a coordinated                    gives firm assurance that the other contract
        approach of treatment and enforcement is                       has been terminated and all baits previously
        required.                                                      laid are removed or authority is given for their
                                                                       removal.
        As a minimum, the following information must
        be recorded:                                                   Before, any treatment is applied a full
                                                                       written on-site risk assessment must be
        (i)   Details of each individual dwelling and/                 carried out to provide the correct health and
              or common parts (including any specific                  safety information. As a minimum, the risk
              job reference)                                           assessment should take into account the
        (ii) Name of pest control technician who                       presence of young children, pets and elderly/
              attended                                                 infirmed individuals.
        (iii) The date of visit
        (iv) Details of all areas surveyed                             Bait preparations, which are known to work
        (v) The evidence of potential infestation/                     in the area, should be used as a matter of
              activity                                                 routine. The experience of the pest control
        (vi) The location, amount and type of                          technician is fundamental in determining
              non-toxic bait used (including suitable                  which baits should be used.
              diagram)
        (vii) Any other information that may be of                     Bait stations should be located where evidence
              relevance                                                of rat activity has been observed. Sufficient
                                                                       quantities of bait should be placed so as
        Report circumstances to relevant supervisor                    to ensure that bait remains until the next
        /manager.                                                      scheduled visit.

2.4.5   If premises are free from excessive                            Not more than one type of rodenticide
        alternative food sources                                       bait (where the active ingredient is taken
        The pest control technician must consider                      as the defining pesticide type) should be
        the property as a whole, and not individual                    laid in any premises at any time; however
        dwellings when formulating the treatment                       formulations can be varied depending upon
        strategy.                                                      the characteristics of the site.

        Identify any likely entry points including:                    Baits must be laid in accordance with
                                                                       manufacturer’s label requirements and will
        (i)     Gaps under external doors                              always be protected from ready access by
        (ii)    Gaps around water, drainage,                           children and pets, using lockable stations if
                gas or electricity services                            appropriate.
        (iii)   Damaged air vents
        (iv)    Any other points that allow access from                Explain the nature of the treatment and any
                the exterior to the interior of the building           specific safety requirements to the occupier.
                                                                       Occupiers must be shown the locations of the
        The pest control technician shall adopt a risk                 baits and informed that children and pets are
        based approach, based on the information                       not allowed access to these baits. Provide an
        gathered on-site, as to whether any openings                   appropriately annotated (safety data sheet)
        or gaps within the property should be                          advice sheet to the occupier highlighting the
        sealed before or at the end of a treatment                     premises address, the date, what product has
        programme. Dependent upon the size and                         been used and what action to take in cases of
        nature of the property, significant detailed                   an emergency – including contact telephone
        notes (including photography) will be                          number. Neophobia should be explained to the
        required, and consideration should be given to                 occupier to account for the time taken for the
        allocating sufficient resources to implement                   treatment to be effective.
        the treatment strategy.
                                                                       As a minimum, the following information must
        Accordingly, bring all defects to the attention                be recorded:
        of the occupier and ask for remedial works
        to be carried out. Explain to the occupier the                 (i)     Details of the premises (including any
        works that are required to be carried out to                           specific job reference)
        exclude rats from the property.                                (ii)    Name of pest control technician who
                                                                               attended
        If the local authority or other client                         (iii)   The date of visit
        organisation manages the property, written                     (iv)    The areas surveyed
        details of any recommendations for proofing

                                                                                                                        19
                   (v)    The evidence of infestation/activity,               Lay additional baiting stations as indicated
                          including any contributory factors                  by any new signs of activity.
                   (vi) Relevant site information including the
                          presence of young children, pets and                A record must be kept of all rodenticide used
                          elderly/infirmed individuals                        when replenishing baiting points or providing
                   (vii) The location, amount and type                        additional bait stations.
                          of rodenticide used (including suitable
                          diagram)                                            Sufficient quantities of bait should be placed
                   (viii) Any other information that may                      so as to ensure that there is bait remaining
                          be of relevance                                     at the time of the next visit. Where bait
                                                                              consumption is high, it will be necessary to
                   Estimate timing of the next visit and inform               increase the frequency of visits to ensure that
                   the occupier accordingly. This will generally              this is achieved.
                   be within seven days dependent upon the
                   level of activity and manufacturer’s label                 As a minimum, the following information must
                   requirements.                                              be recorded:

                   Advise the occupier(s) as to the risk of smells            (i)    Details of each individual dwelling and/
                   being generated from dead carcasses and                           or common parts (including any specific
                   the possibility of these smells persisting for a                  job reference)
                   period of time (seven to 10 days, or longer).              (ii) Name of pest control technician who
                                                                                     attended
           2.4.7   Second or subsequent visits                                (iii) The date of visit
                   Carry out a survey of the whole premises                   (iv) Any changes in the premises that could
                   (including each dwelling and common parts)                        affect the safety or success of the
                   for evidence of rat activity and make a suitable                  treatment (completing a new on-site risk
                   record.                                                           assessment if necessary)
                                                                              (v) The evidence that the infestation/
                   Confirm infestation/activity by visual                            activity still exists
                   examination of all baiting points and any                  (vi) The number of takes observed and the
                   other evidence such as droppings, footprints,                     amount of new rodenticide used
                   urine stains or gnaw/teeth marks/chewing of                (vii) The location, amount and type
                   packaging and foodstuffs.                                         of rodenticide used for any new bait
                                                                                     stations (including amendments to the
                   Observe the amount of takes of the rodenticide                    baiting diagram)
                   and make a suitable record,                                (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried
                   for example. “N/T” - No Take, “P/T” - Part Take                   out or still outstanding
                   and “C/T” - Complete Take.                                 (ix) Any other information that may
                                                                                     be of relevance
                   Re-evaluate hygiene and housekeeping
                   standards within the entire premises (including            Explain nature of treatment, hygiene/
                   each dwelling and common parts).                           housekeeping requirements and any safety
                                                                              requirements to occupier(s).
                   Re-examine previously identified means
                   of access to the whole of the property to                  Estimate timing of the next visit and inform
                   confirm whether proofing works have been                   the occupier accordingly. This will generally
                   carried out.                                               be within seven days dependent upon the
                                                                              level of activity and manufacturer’s label
                   If substantial changes have occurred that                  requirements.
                   could affect the safety and/or success of the
                   treatment, a new on-site risk assessment           2.4.9   Baits not taken but other signs
                   should be completed. Additionally, if a                    of infestation present
                   different pest control technician attends the              On first and second revisits, inspect and refresh
                   premises, a record must be kept as to whether              baits (where necessary) and note any findings
                   the pest control technician agrees with the                to prove the presence of rats. Rat activity
                   existing on-site risk assessment. Where the                throughout a block of dwellings is likely to be
                   pest control technician disagrees with the                 significant and therefore any incidents where
                   assessment, a new on-site risk assessment                  rodenticide is not being taken, but evidence
                   must be completed and any discrepancies                    of activity still exists should be dealt with
                   reported to the supervisor/manager.                        seriously.

           2.4.8   If baits have been taken                                   After the second revisit using a single bait
                   Replenish baiting points as appropriate,                   type, where no bait takes have been observed,
                   however block baits can be rotated or loose                the pest control technician should remove
                   bait evened out to provide a “fresh” surface               all baits from the entire of the premises and
                   for the next visit.


A record must be kept of all rodenticide used when replenishing
baiting points or providing additional bait stations
20
re-bait using an alternative preparation using           (viii) The nature of any proofing works carried
the same pattern as above – or a combination                    out or still outstanding
where this is appropriate for the premises               (ix) Any other information that may
type (suitable senior pest control technician                   be of relevance
approval should be sought).
                                                         Where activity continues for prolonged periods,
Examine bait placement points and re evaluate            consider the potential for hidden methods
their efficacy. (Relatively small distances can          of entry resulting in rats entering the property
alter the level of bait takes from a baiting             for example potential defects in the drainage
point).                                                  system.

Record the change of bait on each occasion.              Having provided the owner suitable
Issue a new rodenticide safety data sheet/               opportunity to remedy the defects, and if
advice sheet to each occupier and update the             the remedial work remains uncompleted,
on-site risk assessment.                                 local authorities have the power to serve
                                                         a legal notice on the owner to ensure that
Continue substituting alternative formulations           the appropriate repairs are completed as
using the same method above until an                     soon as possible. The tenure of the property
acceptable alternative is found and baits are            has implications for these responsibilities,
taken. A senior pest control technician should           particularly as proofing works may not be the
decide upon the bait used throughout the                 responsibility of the individual occupier. For
entire property (including each dwelling and             local authorities, consideration should be given
common parts) and be advised of any requests             to Part 1 of the Housing Act 2004 or Part III
to change the formulations if control is not             of the Environmental Protection Act 1990.
achieved.                                                This may therefore require liaison with the
                                                         appropriate officer within the local authority
As a minimum, the following information must             who has responsibility for housing conditions.
be recorded:
                                                  2.4.10 Completion
(i)   Details of each dwelling and/or common             When all bait takes cease completely and no
      parts (including any specific job                  further signs of infestation/activity are noted
      reference)                                         remove all accessible bait and bait materials
(ii) Name of pest control technician who                 from the premises and return to the depot
      attended                                           for authorised disposal. All rodent bodies and
(iii) The date of visit                                  redundant rodenticide should only be disposed
(iv) Any changes in the premises that could              of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.
      affect the safety or success of the
      treatment (completing a new on-site risk           Explain the situation to the occupier and
      assessment if necessary)                           restate any outstanding preventative works,
(v) The evidence that the infestation/                   proofing or hygiene/housekeeping issues that
      activity still exists                              require attention.
(vi) The number of takes observed and the
      amount of new rodenticide used                     Close down the job and maintain suitable
(vii) The location, amount and type                      permanent record of all notes, on-site risk
      of rodenticide used for any new bait               assessments, bait location records, copy letters
      stations (including amendments to the              and other relevant documents.
      baiting diagram)


                                                                                                      21
3.0 Rats - on open land
     3.1     Environmental assessments                          3.1.2   Protected species that may be present
             The purpose of the environmental assessment                in or near the treatment site
             is to determine possible environmental effects             Wildlife as well as domestic and companion
             and identify which precautions are necessary               animals that may affected by the treatment
             to protect wildlife and the wider environment.             are:
             The treatment must therefore be carefully
             considered and the selection of active                     (i)     birds
             ingredient and bait formulation fully justified.           (ii)    wild mammals
                                                                        (iii)   livestock
             A record must be kept of all actions including             (iv)    companion animals
             all bait points and the amount of bait laid, in            (v)     fish and other aquatic vertebrates
             addition to amount of activity observed.                           (voles, otters etc.)

     3.1.1   What and where the rodent problems are?                    Risk to humans should also be considered.
             The extent and location of the rodent problem
             must be ascertained by the drawing of a site       3.1.3   What alternative environmental measures
             plan, which identifies the buildings and layout            would be appropriate?
             of the area, including all baiting points.                 Several methods can be successful in reducing
                                                                        rodent numbers, including:
             Treatments that are conducted near sites
             of special status in law (for example nature               (i)     Removal of harbourages, for example
             reserves, wildlife corridors and conservation                      rubbish and disused equipment
             areas) must ensure that these sites are                    (ii)    Maintenance and proofing of buildings
             protected from any possible harmful effects                (iii)   Removal or restriction of access to
             resulting from using rodenticides in or near                       foodstuffs
             them.
                                                                        With the exception of the removal of
             The site plan should also detail the inspection            foodstuffs, these practices should not be
             regime to be followed, including emphasis                  carried out before a rodenticide treatment
             on regular inspections of bait stations and                takes place to avoid the spreading of the
             searches for rodent carcasses.                             infestation.




22
3.1.4   What is the risk to non-target species that            3.2   First Visit
        have been identified?                                        Visit complainant and ascertain where rats
        The manufacturer’s label requirements on any                 have been seen.
        given rodenticide should be followed to ensure
        that all necessary measures are used to make                 Carry out a full survey of the area paying
        baits non-accessible to non-target species.                  particular attention to holes in the ground
                                                                     around buildings, in embankments and
        This may be done using materials available                   particularly near drainage, gas and telecom
        on-site, such as pieces of corrugated metal,                 inspection chambers as well as areas of
        bricks, concrete slabs etc. But such protection              accumulated rubbish and other potential
        must be robust enough to prevent access to                   harbourage.
        bait by larger animals such as dogs, badgers
        and foxes.                                                   If no obvious visible signs of rat activity
                                                                     are found carry out test baiting using non
        If insufficient materials are available on-site,             toxic baits. Confirm that any rodent activity
        purpose made tamper resistant bait stations                  found in close proximity to streams, rivers
        should be used. However, this may prolong the                etc. attributable to rats and is not due to the
        duration of the treatment.                                   presence of water voles.

        Where safe to do so, the direct application                  If rat activity is confirmed, a treatment
        of bait to rodent burrows is highly effective;               programme should be carried out.
        however frequent checks of baited burrows are
        required to clear up rodenticide kicked out by               A written environmental assessment (detailed
        rodents.                                                     above) must first be carried out and toxic baits
                                                                     laid and positioned where it is safe to do so
3.1.5   What is the treatment designed to achieve                    and in such positions to prevent access to non-
        and how will success be measured?                            target animals.
        The exact purpose of the treatment must
        be ascertained before the treatment starts                   Direct baiting deep into rat holes using loose
        and how the success of the treatment will be                 grain bait can be used, however where this
        determined. These results must be recorded,                  is not possible, suitably protected and/or
        but it may not be practical to expect total                  anchored protected bait stations should be
        eradication.                                                 used. Rat holes should be heeled over once
                                                                     baited.
3.1.6   What is expected from the client?
        The pest control technician should provide                   Where rat activity is confirmed on open land
        instruction and guidance to the client on the                that is subject to fly tipping such as domestic
        measures that are required. These will include               refuse, building rubble etc. the refuse must
        how to deal with spilled or disturbed bait and               remain undisturbed until the treatment
        the discovery and disposal of rodent carcasses.              programme has been completed and all
        Advice on proofing and housekeeping should                   surface rat activity has been controlled.
        also be included. Advice on emergency
        measures should also be given.                               Arrangements must then be made with the
                                                                     owners of the land, taking enforcement action
        Where environmental management measures                      (Prevention of Damage by Pests Act 1949)
        are planned, these must be implemented and                   as necessary, to secure the removal of all
        subsequently maintained.                                     refuse and harbourages to prevent future re-
                                                                     infestation from occurring.
        If clients fail in their responsibilities, this must
        be recorded and the client advised.                          Record the position of all bait stations on the
                                                                     job sheet/file record including the type and
3.1.7   What follow up measures are required?                        approximate quantities of bait used at all
        Once the treatment has been completed,                       locations.
        proactive measures to prevent re-infestation
        should be carried out. Written details of such               Advise any complainants of the investigation
        works should be provided to the client.                      and action taken, necessary safety procedures
                                                                     and leave safety data/poisons advice sheet.
        All redundant rodenticide should be removed
        from the site and a final search conducted
        to remove any rodent carcasses. Disposal
        methods are outlined in Section 5.0, pg 28.

        All records should be kept for five years after
        treatment.




                                                                                                                       23
     3.3   Second or subsequent visits                        3.4   Completion
           Revisits should be made in accordance with the           When all bait takes cease completely and no
           environmental assessment.                                further signs of infestation/activity are noted
                                                                    remove all accessible bait and bait materials
           Re-survey the area referring to bait point               from the area and return to the depot for
           location records on the job sheet/file record to         authorised disposal. All rodent bodies and
           ensure that all bait stations are visited.               redundant rodenticide should only be disposed
                                                                    of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.
           Replenish all points where bait has been taken
           and make a record.                                       Close down the job and maintain suitable
                                                                    permanent record of all notes, on-site risk
           Where a partial takes have occurred, repeat the          assessments, bait location records, copy letters
           baiting, replenishing with a similar quantity of         and other relevant documents.
           bait to that used for the initial baiting. Where
           complete bait take has occurred, re-bait using
           double the quantity used on the previous visit.

           Advise any complainants of the current
           situation and ensure the safety data/
           rodenticide advice sheet is still available in
           case of accident/incident.

           Arrange to revisit as dictated in the
           environmental assessment and carry on revisits
           until all takes of bait cease.

           When no further takes are recorded remove
           any rat carcasses and uneaten baits for safe
           disposal.




24
4.0 Rat treatment in privately
    owned drains and sewers
     (Drainage inspection chambers not road manhole covers)


     4.1   Introduction                                        4.2   Health and Safety
           Many surface rat infestations in and around               Before commencing any work on drainage
           domestic and other properties are due to                  systems, a suitable and sufficient risk
           defective privately owned drains and sewers.              assessment must be carried out. Specific risks
           Defects can arise for many reasons including              of manual handling, biohazards, ventilation
           incorrect connections, building extensions,               and potential road traffic movements should
           subsidence, or a failure to cap off old drainage          be addressed. Additionally, the pest control
           – especially unused water closet connections.             technician should conduct an on-site risk
                                                                     assessment for the use of rodenticides.
           Where investigations indicate an infestation
           is due to a drainage defect, an appropriate         4.3   Initial Survey
           investigation of the drainage system must be              The initial survey should include the interior
           undertaken, which may include the use of drain            and exterior of any infested property. Visible
           trace dyes, smoke testing and or use of CCTV              drainage equipment (for example, the rear of
           equipment.                                                WCs), any roof spaces should be checked for
                                                                     rat activity. Drainage inspection chambers and
           Potential defects that allow rats to escape from          surrounding land should also be checked.
           drainage systems, include:
                                                                     Inspection chambers should be removed
           (i)     missing stoppers to the rodding                   using appropriate lifting equipment,
                   eyes of interceptor traps and surface             where necessary, and using a torch to look
                   water gullies                                     for evidence of rat activity (for example,
           (ii)    collapsed pipes                                   droppings, feet marks, gnawing etc. as well
           (iii)   defective fresh air inlet pipes                   as deposits of soil from rat excavations).
           (iv)    displaced joints
           (v)     missing gulley grates                       4.4   Control
           (vi)    rats gnawing through plastic pipes                Where evidence of rats is confirmed, it may
                   and connections                                   be desirable to control the rats in the drainage
                                                                     system as well as baiting elsewhere.
           Legislation ensures that it is the responsibility
           of the owner/occupier to make good and                    The rodenticide manufacturer’s label
           defective private drains or sewers, but it may            requirements must be followed and will
           also be necessary to liaise with the relevant             entail placing a test bait of 50-100 grams
           water authority and/or their pest control                 of rodenticide onto the benching of the
           contractor.                                               inspection chamber. If no benching is present,
                                                                     the rodenticide blocks may be suspended
                                                                     using steel wire (or similar) from the top of the
                                                                     chamber.



     Identify potential defects which allow rats to enter
     the drainage system from the main drainage system




                                                                                                                    25
     Baiting should be extended to other inspection          When all takes cease, rodenticide baits should
     chambers as necessary. Detailed records                 be left on-site, if safe to do so, until any
     of all work should be made and copied to the            defects have been identified and remedied.
     occupier of the premises, inducing:                     The owner/occupier of the property will have
                                                             to arrange the repairs, which may require the
     (i)     Type and amount of rodenticide used             local authority to serve a legal notice.
     (ii)    Contact information
     (iii)   Relevant health and safety information    4.5   Completion
                                                             When all rodent activity has ceased and all
     It is not recommended that acute second                 repairs have been carried out, all accessible
     generation rodenticides (for example                    rodenticide should be removed from the
     brodifacoum) are used under light weight                exterior and interior of the property and
     inspection chamber covers to reduce risk                disposed of in accordance with Section 5.0,
     of non-target species accessing the bait.               pg 28.

     A revisit should be made within seven to 10             Ensure the owner/occupier is aware of any
     days in accordance with the product label and           further proofing work and/or hygiene and
     if the rodenticide has been taken, it should            housekeeping requirements that require
     be replenished using double the original                attention.
     quantity (based upon the manufacturer’s label
     requirements). Part takes should be replenished         Close down the job and maintain suitable
     with the original amount. Suspended ‘wash               permanent record of all notes, on-site risk
     offs’ should be recorded and dealt with as              assessments, bait location records, copy letters
     complete takes. Detailed records should be              and other relevant documents.
     maintained and provide to the occupier.

     During all visits a thorough search for dead
     rodent bodies must be carried out internally
     and externally. Dead bodies should be
     disposed of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.




26
27
5.0 Disposal of rodenticides
    and rodent bodies
     5.1   Legal background                                    Under the Environmental Protection Act 1990
           The safe disposal of rodenticides and rodent        and the Pollution Prevention & Control Act
           bodies is an important aspect of any pest           1999, Pest Control Operators must dispose
           control operation. The legislation covering         of controlled, including hazardous waste in
           this area is complex and all pest control           accordance with the Pollution Prevention and
           operators are recommended to obtain suitable        Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000,
           advice to ensure that their disposal routes are     the Controlled Waste (Registration of Carriers
           satisfactory.                                       and Seizure of Vehicles) Regulations 1991,
                                                               the Environmental Protection (Duty of Care)
           Such disposal routes may exist within the           Regulations 1991 and the Waste Framework
           resources of the local authority or by the use      Directive 75/442/EEC as enacted under the
           of a third party. Whichever option is chosen,       Environmental Permitting (England and Wales)
           pest control operators are advised to satisfy       Regulations 2007. In Scotland the relevant
           themselves that all the necessary permissions,      legislation is the Waste Management Licensing
           as required by the legislation, are in existence.   Regulations 1994 (as amended) and in
           For example, the disposal routes for spent bait     Northern Ireland it is The Waste Management
           are different from unused or obsolete products.     Licensing Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2003
                                                               (as amended 2006) Pest control companies
                                                               should contact the relevant Environment
                                                               Agency (see page 31) for further advice.




28
                                                         Disposal operators cannot accept waste unless
                                                         it is in accordance with the Regulations, and
                                                         therefore consideration should be given as
                                                         to whether a licensed carrier is required to
                                                         transport the waste products. Such materials
                                                         may be transported to the disposal operator in
                                                         a designated pest control vehicle. Where a Pest
                                                         Control Operator considers the use of a waste
                                                         carrier, these must hold a valid waste carrier’s
                                                         licence.

                                                         The ‘duty of care’ obligation under
                                                         Environmental Protection Act 1990 requires
                                                         that all parties involved in any waste transfer
                                                         must keep records (for example, transfer notes
The Landfill (England and Wales) Regulations             and waste descriptions) for at least two years.
2002 amended the Duty of Care Regulations
to require transfer notes to identify waste by     5.2   Methodology: excess, out of date, obsolete
reference to the Consolidated European Waste             unusable stock
Catalogue (EWC) six digit code, and also to              The responsibilities and principles to be
restrict the types of waste accepted at certain          applied when disposing these products are
sites.                                                   the same as those described in the previous
                                                         section, however the type and quantity of the
Specific hazard classification and disposal              waste product may require specific disposal.
advice is contained on each individual product           pest control operators are advised to seek
safety data sheet. pest control operators must           suitable professional opinion from their
comply with this information when disposing              nominated disposal operator as to the most
any product; however, the following guidance             viable disposal option for all such products.
provides an outline of the disposal method.
                                                   5.3   Methodology: rodent bodies
All interim waste should be stored in a suitable         Rodent bodies are generally classified to be
storage facility designed to the standard                considered as ‘non-hazardous waste’ but pest
outlined in HSE Information Sheet AISno.16               control operators must apply the precautionary
and handled in accordance with appropriate               principle. A risk assessment should be
risk assessments.                                        completed for suspected or confirmed infection
                                                         hazards. If such infection is known to be
All such waste arising from pest control                 present, suitable ‘clinical’ waste advice should
activities should be consolidated in a                   be sought and the bodies disposed of as
systematic way, for example spent bait and               hazardous waste.
bait stations should be stored separately from
other container wastes, and accumulated                  The Animal By-Products Regulations 2003
in such quantities as to allow economic and              do not apply to creatures killed during the
efficient disposal.                                      course of pest control activity.

Such waste should be bagged for interim                  The product safety data sheet must be
storage and transported in bags having the               consulted and rodent carcasses removed
necessary strength to withhold the weight of             separately where possible and removed from
the waste and provide resistance to puncture.            site as non-hazardous waste. Disposal of the
300 gauge clear polythene bags with plastic              material should be as industrial waste and not
pull tags are recommended for this purpose.              as ‘black bag’ waste i.e. in the municipal
                                                         or household waste stream. Rodent bodies
It is a statutory requirement of the Control             should not be burned or buried on-site
of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (as amended)              or elsewhere.
to empty containers completely, which is
important not only from a legal standpoint,
but also from a waste reduction perspective.
Therefore where containers have held
hazardous classified formulations, and have
not been completely emptied, then the
container must also be treated as hazardous
waste. Any waste residues should be disposed
of legally. Similarly, it may be possible for
the disposal operator to seek re-use, re-
cycle or recovery options for products that
are contained within a plastic bag within a
bucket. These buckets should be emptied
completely and stacked inside each other.
The contaminated polythene bags should be
packed into a separate sack.




                                                                                                       29
6.0 Storage of rodenticides
     All pest control storage facilities should be designed    in containers which are suitable and appropriately
     to the standard outlined in HSE information               labelled. Waste materials may only be disposed
     sheet titled Guidance on storing pesticides for           of as detailed in Section 5.0, pg 28.
     farmers and other professional users. – Agricultural
     Information Sheet no.16 (Reprinted and redesigned         A detailed inventory must be maintained of all
     06/06).                                                   products and quantities, and the amount provided
                                                               to each pest control technician. All rodenticide
     All bulk pest control materials shall be stored in the    received into the storage facility, and the quantities
     pest control store immediately from the time they         distributed to pest control t echnicians, must be
     are delivered to the site, until they are needed by the   recorded.
     operatives concerned. Materials may only be used
     by the operatives from original containers, or are




30
7.0 Useful addresses

Chartered Institute                           Health and Safety Executive                Royal Society for Public Health
of Environmental Health                       London Headquarters                        3rd Floor, Market Towers
Chadwick Court                                Rose Court                                 1 Nine Elms Lane
15 Hatfields                                  2 Southwark Bridge                         London
London                                        London                                     SW8 5NQ
SE1 8DJ                                       SE1 9HS                                    Tel: 0203 1771600
Tel: 02079 286006                             Tel: 0207 5562100                          www.rsph.org
www.cieh.org                                  www.hse.gov.uk
                                              HSE/PSD_Chemicals                          Scottish Environment Protection Agency
British Pest Control Association              Regulation Directorate – from April 2009   SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court,
1 Gleneagles House                                                                       Castle Business Park, Stirling
Vernongate                                    National Pest Technicians Association      FK9 4TR
South Street                                  NPTA House                                 Tel: 01786 457700
Derby                                         Hall Lane                                  www.sepa.org.uk
DE1 1UP                                       Kinoulton                                  See web site for Regional SEPA offices
Tel: 01332 294288                             Nottingham
www.bpca.org.uk                               NG12 3EF                                   Scottish Natural Heritage
                                              Tel: 01949 81133                           Great Glen House
Department for Environment,                   www.npta.org.uk                            Leachkin Road
Food & Rural Affairs                                                                     Inverness
Nobel House                                   Natural England                            IV3 8NW
17 Smith Square                               Enquiries:                                 Tel: 01463 725000
London                                        Natural England                            www.snh.org.uk
SW1P 3JR                                      Northminster House,
Tel: 08459 335577                             Peterborough,
www.defra.gov.uk                              PE1 1UA
                                              Tel: 01733 455000
Environment Agency                            www.naturalengland.org.uk
National Customer Contact Centre,
P.O. Box 544                                  Northern Ireland Department
Rotherham                                     of Environment
S60 1BY                                       Department of Environment Headquarters
Tel: 08708 506506                             Clarence Court
www.environment-agency.gov.uk                 10 - 18 Adelaide Street
                                              Belfast
Environment Planning                          BT2 8GB
and Countryside                               Tel: 028 90540540
Welsh Assembly Government                     Email: doe.internetteam@doeni.gov.uk
Cathays Park                                  Web: http://www.doeni.gov.uk
Cardiff                                       Alternatively, please contact your local
CF10 3NQ                                      council
Tel: 0845 0103300 (English)
or 0845 0104400 (Welsh).                      Northern Ireland Environmental Agency
http://www.countryside.wales.gov.uk           Klondyke Building, Cromac Avenue,
                                              Gasworks Business Park,
The Food and Environment                      Lower Ormeau Road
Research Agency (FERA)                        Belfast BT7 2JA
Previously Central Science Laboratory (CSL)   Tel: 0845 3020008
Sand Hutton                                   www.ni-environment.gov.uk
York
YO4 1LW
Tel: 01904 462000
www.fera.defra.gov.uk




                                                                                                                             31
                                                                                                              The National Pest Advisory Panel
                                                                                                   Chartered Institute of Environmental Health
                                                                                                 Chadwick Court, 15 Hatfields, London SE1 8DJ
                                                                                                Telephone 020 7928 6006 Fax 020 7827 5831
The CIEH would like to thank Killgerm Group for their assistance in producing this booklet.   Email npap@cieh.org.uk Web www.cieh-npap.org.uk

								
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