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AN ANALYSIS OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES OF AN INDIAN VENTURE

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					 International Journal of JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
INTERNATIONALMechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME
                         AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)
                                                                               IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 320-327
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    AN ANALYSIS OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES OF AN
                       INDIAN VENTURE

                                      Yash Pratap Aggrwal
      M.tech scholar, Division of Mechanical Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical
                    Engineering, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India


  ABSTRACT

          This paper explores the activities involved during Development of the Customer
  designed based Product of an Indian venture firm of automobile ancillaries. In today's rapidly
  growing global economy companies need to continuously improve, and innovate their
  resources. Because customers expect better products and services all the time, organizations
  have to be creative and innovative. This paper does not only discuss and reviews the
  definition of product development (PD) and the Seven phases of product development in
  which all the activities of PD of Indian organization's are involved but also leads to a detailed
  analysis of product development activities of Indian organization, one which make Fuel
  injection Pipes.

  Keywords: Product Development, Product development processes, Product development
  phases, product development department, Production department, Indian organization

  1. INTRODUCTION

          In a cutthroat market of today, organizations can only be victorious if they can please
  the customers with their products [1]. This difficult task, counts not only the existing product
  portfolio but also the capability of presenting new exciting products to the market at regular
  time intervals. These efforts can be usually carried out in Product development (PD) with the
  help of different organizational groups within the company. Product development is one of
  the most powerful but complex activities in business [2]. Business managers and marketing
  academics of multiple organizations consider Product development as the key of an
  organization’s long-term survival. The development of excellent product not only opens new
  markets and attracts new customers, but also influence existing assets and expand an
  organization’s capabilities [3].


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        Product development can be brought into the product in different forms such as new
features/functions, new looks/feel or new technologies, contributing to the main sources for
keeping customers excited which affects the results in maintaining or increasing market share
[4-6]. Generally, there are separate departments in organizations one is which deals with the
product development and another which deals with the production of the developed product.
Other departments in an organization have the perspective to support these two departments.
In all Indian companies, product development department has to hand over the developed
product to the Production Department of the company so that mass production can be started.
All production steps, processes and their sequence, their conditions and parameters are
decided and documented during the product development. The production department has
only just to follow those processes as defined in the handover documents.

2. THE TRADITIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STAGES

        Extent literature introduces the Different definitions of the stages involved in PDP.
Ward [7] uses Design system, Design sub-system, Test sub-system, Test system, and
Launch” as the major stages in the “V development processes”. And Crawford [8] defined the
PDP stages as “Opportunity identification and selection, Concept generation, Concept or
project evaluation, Development, and Launch”.
        Yelkur and Herbig describe the eight stage of traditional new product development
process: idea generation, screening, concept development and testing, marketing strategy,
business analysis, development, market testing and commercialization [9]. For this to occur,
four major tasks must take place. First, product designs and/or models must be made
available to manufacturing and to the team for preliminary market testing. Second, market
acceptance studies on current product ideas must be finalized. Third, customer segments must
be identified and target markets selected. Fourth, production studies must be initiated [10]. In
the market strategy stage, the idea has completed its transformation into a physical product.
Technical and design problems are resolved and consumer reaction is gauged in order to
develop entry strategies. During this stage, emphasis shifts from technical to market concerns
as the product approaches commercialization. But now organizations have enhanced their
resources and way of thinking. Organizations have developed several internal departments
and each of those departments focuses only a particular field so that the organization may
achieve greater results and may absolutely use every available and future aspect of resources.
In Indian organizations idea generation, screening, concept development and testing,
marketing strategy, business analysis, market testing and commercialization, these stages
Belongs to Sales and marketing departments not to Product development department though
PD department can help them to achieve the goal of those stages. Stages involved in Product
development are entirely different now, each having and fulfilling a particular series of
activities and each Stage Describe a phase involved in PD.

3. SEVEN PHASES OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

       Product development is a systematic arrangement of processes and techniques which
are to be performed or followed to get a new product and it’s design within given set of
conditions, or to improve the quality/ efficiency/ features /functions of a existing one
(product) in order to fulfill the need of the customer. Ulrich and Eppinger stated that the
Product Development Process (PDP) is traditionally defined as a succession series of

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processes or actions which a business has to follow, design, and commercialize a product
[11]. PDP is extremely imaginative activity focusing on awareness and knowledge, distinct
from the production systems which primarily deal with physical products and repetitive
operational sequences. The work in PD is a pole apart with the work of production
department or Sales and marketing department therefore in this paper product development
activities are divides into seven phases.


                                 Customer need analysis



                                Defining the design data



                              Selection of the Processes and
                                        Sequences


                                  Making of Prototype



                                 Testing and Evaluation



                                     Documentation



                                 Handover to Production


                         Figure 1: Phases in product development


3.1 Customer need analysis
        This phase of PD is accomplished by the Sales and marketing department at customer
end. Further The Product development department takes part in the analysis of customer need
with thee sales and marketing department. What is the technical need of a customer to
transfer that into a product or what customer except from the product and at what cost?
Means how much money customer is willing to pay for his need fulfillment. This phase is a
survey of customer requirement. This Phase also included the survey of product design.
Customer needs should be taken into account throughout the intact process of product
development, and then there is less probability of quality problems once full production
begins [12].

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3.2 Defining the design data
       Technical specification such as material requirement, dimensional data, design goals,
design requirements, cost estimation of the product is defined and finalized in this phase. This
is done by the help of development team as it conducts many analyses like initial design
analysis, failure modes and effect analysis, producibiliity analysis and uses feedbacks to
improve the design data. Even Logistics and packaging standards are defined in this phase.
Deming defines quality as a product’s ability, not merely to meet a customer’s expectations,
but to exceed them. Deming’s philosophy starts and finishes with the customer [13]. Lim
examines the traditions to get better quality using experimental design [14]. Lochner and
Matar [15], Logothetis and Wynn [16] also thrash out how to use experimental design for
product development in their books.

3.3 Selection of the Processes and Sequences
       After defining the Design Data in this phase all the '"what if" and "how's" becomes
assignment for the development department. All the processes, tests and their sequence are
decided in this phase in order to develop a product. This phase also include the logistics and
supply activities. It requires the support of the personnel having specialized knowledge of
various discipline.

3.4 Making of Prototype
       This phase starts with end of the phase of selection of processes and their sequence.
Here the conceptual work of all above activities is developed into reality. This phase includes
the maximum activities done during the Product development.

3.5 Testing and Evaluation
        Test and evaluation is an integrated series of evaluations leading to the common goal
of design improvement [17]. if there is defect during in any one activity of prototyping and if
it is passes for the next activity in sequence then it will lead the failure of product in final
testing and hence lot of time and money will be wasted that's why the activities of testing and
evaluation are merged with the activities of making a prototype so that the defect might not
pass for the next activity. Testing and evaluation is an important tool for identifying and
correcting problems in PD.

3.6 Documentation
        The product development effort does not end when the product is ready for
production. It still waits for the response from customer end so that if there is need of change
then it could be observed before production starts. Documentation mean is making a file with
the collection of Bill of material, Process flow chart, control chart, test reports etc.

3.7 Handover to Production
        This is the last phase of product development. Developed Product's file is handed over
to the Production department for the mass production. Sometimes this phase wait for the
customer approval for the production to be started.




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4. ACTIVITIES IDENTIFICATION OF AN INDIAN ORGANIZATION

        This paper has taken the survey of An Indian Automobile ancillary firm which deals
in fuel injection pipes and hose tubes. Development of a fuel injection pipe is analyzed; here
fuel pipe's design (drawing) and specifications come from customer side. Product
development department of organization starts with receipt inspection. All activities from the
receiving of Drawing to the Handing over are tabulated blow.

                                             TABLE 1

                                                           Description
          Activity
   1. Drawing Receiving    Product design from the customer end is received. Sales and marketing
                           department handover the customer's drawing of product to the product
                           development department.
   2. Assigning an         Head of the Development department assign an engineer according to
   Engineer                need and part specification. The work of product development engineer
                           is to make prototype and sample lot and dispatch the samples to
                           customer and after customer approval hand over the product document
                           to the Production Department for mass production of the product.
   3.Receipt Inspection    Feasibility testing is done in this phase. This is done to match the
                           following requirements:
                               1. Does the organization have the pipe of given specifications such as
                               Internal Diameter (ID), Outer diameter (OD), other materials
                               required?
                               2. Does all bending radius and flaring is possible to achieve?
                               3. What are the child parts? Do we have all of them? If we don’t have
                               all of them, then ask the vendors if anyone can develop those missing
                               child parts.
   4.Fixture Development   For the bending of the pipe, fixture is needed. It is essential for accurate
   for Bending             bending operations with given specification of a pipe. There may be
                           need of more than one fixture for overall bending operation of a pipe
                           (product).
   5. Testing of the       Material composition of pipe and child parts is tested to meet the
   Inventory Material      requirement under a certified lab. All the test reports are required to be
                           filed with the other documents of Development.
   6. Pipe cutting         Here the Cutting of the pipe in required length is performed.
   7. ID Chamfering        After pipe cutting, there may be burr remaining at the edge of the pipe in
                           its Internal Diameter, which may cause the blockage. That's why
                           chamfering operation is performed. Chamfering is process of burr
                           removing by the help of a small drill
   8.Air blasting          After pipe cutting and Id chamfering, Air with high pressure is passed
                           through the pipes in order to check the blockages and to clean the
                           internal section of the pipe.

   9. Electro Plating      After air blasting all pieces are sent for the Plating process.

   10. Visual Inspection   After receiving from plating, Check for any visual defects such as dent,
                           bend etc is performed manually by Development Engineer.




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   11. Plating               Resistivity of the plating layer of the pipe against pollution, moisture,
   Performance test          and harsh environment is tested by the Salt Spray Test, and the thickness
                             of layer of coating is measured by the help Electro Vernier caliper.


   12. ID verification       ID is verified of each pipe with the help of A GO/NO GO Gauge by the
                             development Engineer. This activity is performed in product
                             development department.
   13. Flaring of one side   This is performed by the help of Dies on a punching machine by labor.

   14. Testing and           This is performed by the help of Shadow graph. Engineer draw a graph
   Evaluation of Flaring     by enlarging the shadow of the flaring end, and hence performs the
                             check for the dimensions.
   15. Assembly of child     Before flaring the second side of pipe all child parts are assembled on
   parts                     the pipe.
   16. Flaring of second     Flaring of the second side of the pipe (already having one side flaring
   side                      and child parts) is performed
   17. Straight pipe         Oil with high pressure flushed through the pipes to check the blockage
   flushing                  and lubricating the internal section
   18. Bending               Bending of the pipe is performed by the help of fixtures. Skill labor is
                             required to do this operation
   19. Cleaning              This is done by passing the cleansing oil from the pipes with high
                             pressure
   20. Visual inspection     Check for rust, dent etc.

   21. Contamination test    This is a test of sample piece to check the contamination level of the
                             inner surface of pipe.

   22. Packaging and         Packaging of product with the given standard of packaging or customer
   Dispatch                  specified standards

   23. Approval              It is the information received from the customer about the fitness of the
                             product for their purpose. If customer gives his approval for the product,
                             than go for next activity.
   24. Documentation         Collection of all the test reports, BOM (bill of material), drawings of
                             parent part and child part, make Process flow chart, etc.
   25. Handover the file     Handing over the developed product for mass production to production
                             department.



5. CONCLUSION

        This paper through some light on seven phase of product development and the
Activities involved in those with the help of Activity identifications of an Indian
Organization. A Relation between these seven phases and activities can be easily understand
by the given table.



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                                           TABLE 2

                  Phases of PD                     Activity involved
                  Customer need analysis           1
                  Defining the design data          2,3,4
                  Selection of the processes and    2,6-24
                  sequences
                  Making of Prototype              4-22
                  Testing and evaluation           3,5,8,10-12,14,17,19-21
                  Documentation                    23,24
                  Handover to Production           25

       The ultimate source of quantifying the product is customer satisfaction, which may
very well forecast their potential of market success or failure. Consequently, products have to
be developed and in such an approach that customer requirements and expectations must
fully meet.

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