UNDERSTANDING OPERATION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS AND OLTC FOR TRANSMISSION

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UNDERSTANDING OPERATION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS AND OLTC FOR TRANSMISSION Powered By Docstoc
					 International Journal of JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
                          Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976
INTERNATIONAL6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME –
 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 –
                          & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)

ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)
Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 344-357
                                                                             IJEET
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI)                ©IAEME
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      UNDERSTANDING OPERATION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS AND
           OLTC FOR TRANSMISSION LOSS REDUCTION

              Dr. M. P. Sharma                              Sarfaraz Nawaz
             AEN, RVPNL, Jaipur                Assoc. Prof., EE Deptt., SKIT, Jaipur



  ABSTRACT

          This paper presents an understanding operation of shunt capacitor banks and OLTC in
  various power system conditions for reactive power control in power transmission system to
  reduce transmission losses, power system elements loading and voltage control. This paper
  also presents efficient use of existing shunt capacitor banks for voltage-var control in power
  transmission system in order to avoid installation of new devices allowing economy of
  operation. The procedure has been simulated to the Rajasthan power transmission system
  model having 750 buses, 6800MWsystem load and 3200MVAR capacity shunt capacitor
  banks installed at various 33KV and 11KV load buses in order to verify its effectiveness.
  Rajasthan power system has been modeled using Mi-Power power system analysis software
  designed by the M/s PRDC Bangalore. Results of tests conducted on the model system in
  various possible field conditions are presented and discussed. Simulation results compared
  with that obtaining using existing methods for operations of shunt capacitor banks & OLTC
  attach with power transformers for reactive power and voltage control are presented to show
  the potential of application of the proposed methods to power system economical operation.

  (I) INTRODUCTION

           Rapid rise in load growth in the Rajasthan system led to fast expansion of the
  Rajasthan Electrical Network. Total transmission system network at the end of financial year
  for last three years is placed at Table-1.




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              Table-1: Total transmission network at the end of financial year
                    Particulars   31-3-09       31-3-10        31-3-11
                    400 kV S/S    4(2955)       7(3900)        9(4895)
                    (Nos/MVA)
                    400 kV           1358            1945            2660
                    Lines
                    (ckt kms)
                    220 kV S/S     62(11855)       66(12955)       74(15405)
                    (Nos/MVA)
                    200 kV           9321           10067           10662
                    Lines
                    (ckt kms)
                    132 kV S/S    280(14151) 292(15871) 310(18174)
                    (Nos/MVA)
                    132 kV        12776         13193          13852
                    Lines
                    (ckt kms)

(II) TRANSMISSION LOSSES WITHIN STATE

       For Rajasthan Power System, recorded peak load (MW) & reactive power demand
and transmission losses within the state in the past few years have been tabulated at Table-2.

                        Table-2: Transmission lossess within state
                            FY          2007-      2008-    2009- 2010-
                                         08         09      10    11
                      Recorded peak     5564       6101     6859 7442
                       load (MW)
                      Load Reactive 4173 4575               5144     5581
                          Power
                         Demand
                        (MVAR)
                      %Transmission 4.61% 4.34%             4.43      4.40
                          losses

       To compensate the load reactive power demand, capacitor banks have been installed
at 33 kV (at 132/33 kV GSS’s), 11 kV (at 33/11 kV GSS’s) and LT voltage levels. As on
31.3.2011, 3200 MVAR capacity capacitors banks have been installed in the Rajasthan
system at 33 kV voltage level. Rating of most of capacitor Banks is 5.43 MVAR at 33 kV
voltage level. At 220 kV & 132 kV substations, for voltage and power factor control two
devices are available:-
    • On Load Tap Changers provided on EHV Transformers
    • Shunt capacitor banks installed at 33 kV voltage level
When to operate OLTC & when the capacitor bank is big question??. Understanding and
coordinated operation of OLTC and capacitor banks results reduction in system losses,
improved voltage profile and reduce MVA loading of transformers & transmission lines.

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To understand impact of operation of OLTC & capacitor banks in different operating
conditions on voltage profile, system losses and MVA Loading of transformer and
transmission lines some simulation studies have been carried and presented. Rajasthan power
system has been selected to carry out the simulation studies. Rajasthan power system has
been represented up to 33 kV voltage level using the Mi-Power software. Load and capacitor
banks have been lumped at 33 kV buses at 220 kV and 132 kV sub-stations. All transmission
lines above 132 kV voltage level and all 400/220 kV, 220/132 kV & 132/33 kV
transformers have been represented. 132 kV GSS Lalsot has been selected to show the effect
of OLTC operation and shunt capacitor banks operation in different operating
conditions. 132 kV sub-station Lalsot is presently connected to 220 kV sub-station Dausa via
35 kM long 132 kV S/C line. Details of power system Equipment's installed at 132kV Lalsot
are as follows:-
 Transformers capacity
    • 132/33kV 1x40/50 MVA Transformer: Total No. of taps :1-5-9, 10 % impedance
    • 132/33kV 1x20/25 MVA Transformer: Total No. of taps :1-5-9, 10 % impedance
 Capacitor Banks Capacity
    • 1x5.43MVAR, 33kV Voltage Shunt Capacitor Bank-1
    • 1x5.43MVAR, 33kV Voltage Shunt Capacitor Bank-2
    • 1x5.43MVAR, 33kV Voltage Shunt Capacitor Bank-3
132kV S/C Dausa- Lalsot line: 35kM

(III) CASE STUDY-1: BENEFITS OF SHUNT CAPACITOR BANKS

       Power plots of load flow study with 45 MW, 0.80 PF load at 33 kV bus (505) is
placed at LFS Plots-1. Under this condition reactive power drawal of 33 kV Bus(505) from
Grid is approximately 20 MVAR. Power plots of LFS with 4th 1x5.43 MVAR, 33 kV
Capacitor Bank at 33 kV Bus(505) while other conditions are remain unchanged is placed at
LFS Plots-2.




           Fig. :1 LFS Plot1: With three Capacitor Banks at 33 kV Bus ( 505)


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           Fig. 2: LFS Plot 2: With four Capacitor Banks at 33 kV Bus ( 505)


       Impact of 4th Shunt Capacitor Banks on reactive power flow, transmission losses,
system voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.

                              • Impact on Reactive Power Flow
                 Reactive    flow With three         With four
                 on               Capacitor Banks Capacitor Banks

                 132/33 kV          20.99 MVAR         16.34 MVAR
                 Transformers
                 132kV line         22.76 MVAR         17.79 MVAR
                 220/132kV          91.09 MVAR         85.09 MVAR
                 Transformers

                                • Impact on voltage profile
                       Particulars        With three        With four
                                           Capacitor        Capacitor
                                             Banks            Banks
                    33 kV bus voltage      29.21 kV         29.55 kV
                   132 kV bus voltage     117.76 kV         118.93 kV

                   220 kV bus voltage         214.52 kV       214.81 kV




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                 •  Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loading
                     Particulars            With three          With four
                                        Capacitor Banks         Capacitor
                                                                  Banks
               132/33 kV transformers      50.05 MVA           48.17 MVA
                      loading
                 132 kV line loading         51.37 MVA          49.28 MVA
              220/132 kV transformers        168.51 MVA         165.19 MVA
                      loading

                               • Impact on Transmission losses
                       Particulars          With three         With four
                                             Capacitor         Capacitor
                                               Banks             Banks
                 Total losses in 132kV       1.06 MW           0.96 MW
                 network (Line+Tranf.)


•   Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network
     due to fourth Capacitor bank : 0.10 MW
•   Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above
     network due to fourth capacitor bank: 2.5x0.1
•    Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network
      due to fourth Capacitor bank : 0.10 MW
•   Saving in total transmission losses due to fourth capacitor bank: 0.10 + 0.25 = 0.35 MW
•   Yearly Energy Saving: 30.66 LUs
•   Saving in terms of rupees: 30.66x2.0 = Rs. 61.32 Lacs/annum

This study indicates that With 4th unit of shunt capacitor bank
• Voltages of 220 kV, 132 kV & 33 kV buses have been improved
• Loading on transformers & transmission line has been reduced.
• Transmission losses have been reduced.

Therefore, capacity of Capacitor Banks at load Bus should be comparable to Bus
reactive Power Demand in order to reduce the system losses and system elements
loading.

(IV) CASE STUDY-2: CONTROL OF HIGH VOLTAGE BY CAPACITOR BANKS
VS OLTC OPERATION

        Power plots of LFS with 33 MW, 0.80 PF load at 33 kV bus(505) is placed at LFS
plots-3. Under this condition voltage of 33 kV bus(505) is above the 5% of nominal voltage.
This 33 kV bus high voltage can be reduced either by switching off one capacitor bank or
decreasing the transformer ratio with the help of OLTC. Power plots of LFS for voltage
control through one capacitor bank switching OFF and transformer tap ratio reduction is


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placed at LFS plots-4 & 5 respectively. Impact of 33 kV Bus (505) voltage control through
Capacitor Bank switching (Case-1) vs OLTC operation (Case-2) on reactive power flow,
transmission losses, system voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.

                             • Impact on Reactive Power Flow
                    Reactive flow  Capacitor Bank        OLTC
                         on            operation       Operation

                     132/33 kV        12.99 MVAR        8.12 MVAR
                    Transformers
                     132kV line       13.30 MVAR        8.42 MVAR

                     220/132kV        37.12 MVAR        31.62 MVAR
                    Transformers

                                • Impact on voltage profile
                        Particulars       Capacitor        OLTC
                                            Bank         Operation
                                          operation
                     33 kV bus voltage    34.34 kV       33.34 kV

                    132 kV bus voltage     132.70 kV      133.72 kV

                    220 kV bus voltage     224.13 kV      224.38 kV


                •   Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loading
                         Particulars        Capacitor       OLTC
                                              Bank        Operation
                                            operation
                         132/33 kV        35.59 MVA 34.07 MVA
                    transformers loading
                    132 kV line loading    35.64 MVA     34.19 MVA

                         220/132 kV           109.34        107.55
                    transformers loading      MVA           MVA


                               • Impact on Transmission losses
                          Particulars       Capacitor      OLTC
                                              Bank        Operation
                                            operation
                    Total losses in 132kV 0.42 MW         0.38 MW
                    network (Line+Tranf.)




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•      Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.04
       MW
•      Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above network in Case-2 as compared to
       Case-1:
       = 2.5 x 0.04 MW = 0.10 MW
•      Saving in total transmission losses in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.14 MW
•      Yearly Energy Saving in Case-2 as compared to Case-1 for four hours: 2.04 LUs
•      Saving in terms of rupees: 2.04 x2.00 = Rs 4.08 lacs/annum

This study indicates that under lagging power factor of a bus, control of high bus voltage
through switching OFF capacitor Bank instead of OLTC operation results:
• Increase the reactive power flow on Transformers and Transmission lines
• Increase the MVA loading on transformers & transmission lines.
• Reduction in 132 kV & 220 kV voltages which may be already low in some system
   conditions.
• Increase the total system losses which results loss of revenue.




              Fig. 3: LFS Plot 3: Base Case with high 33 kV Bus (505) Voltage




    Fig. 4: LFS Plots 4: Control of high 33 kV Bus(505) voltage through switched off one
                                       Capacitor Bank




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      Fig. 5 : LFS Plot 5: Control of high 33 kV Bus(505) voltage by reduction in
                    Transformers Tap ratio from 1.04 PU to 1.0 PU

       Therefore, in lagging power factor condition, high voltage of a Bus should be
regulated through OLTC operation instead of switching OFF the Capacitor Banks in
order to reduce the system losses and system elements loading.

(V) CASE STUDY-3: OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF CAPACITOR BANKS

        Power plots of LFS with 45 MW, 0.80 PF load at 33 kV bus(505) is placed at LFS
plots-6. Under this condition
    • Voltage of 33 kV bus(505) is 27.74 kV
    • Reactive power flow on 132 kV transformers is 22.24 MVAR
    • 132/33 kV Transformers tap position is 1.0 PU
    • Capacitor banks are injecting 13.65 MVAR against the 16.29 MVAR connected
        capacity.

Now transformer ratio of 132/33 kV transformers connected to 33 kV Bus(505) is increased
from 1.0 PU (Case-1) to 1.05 PU (1/0.95) (Case-2) while other system conditions remain
unchanged. Power plots of LFS with increase transformers ratio is placed at LFS plots-7.
Impact of rise in transformer tap ratio on reactive power flow, transmission losses, system
voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.

                             • Impact on Reactive Power Flow
                 Reactive flow on    Transformer     Transformer
                                     Ratio:1.00PU    Ratio:1.05PU
                 Output of Capacitor 13.65 MVAR      15.48 MVAR
                 Banks connected to
                 Bus(505)
                 132/33 kV           23.94 MVAR      21.57 MVAR
                 Transformers
                 132kV line          24.48 MVAR      21.98 MVAR
                 220/132kV             84.89 MVAR        81.92 MVAR
                 Transformers


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                                 •Impact on voltage profile
               Particulars           Transformer        Transformer
                                     Ratio:1.00PU       Ratio:1.05PU
               33 kV bus voltage     30.22 kV           32.18 kV
               132 kV bus voltage    125.46 kV          126.01 kV

               220 kV bus voltage        226.10 kV         226.23 kV


                •     Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loading
                    Particulars           Transformer Transformer
                                          Ratio:1.00PU Ratio:1.05PU
                    132/33 kV             51.13 MVA       50.05 MVA
                    transformers loading
                    132 kV line loading 52.21 MVA         51.02 MVA
                    220/132 kV            165.01 MVA 163.42 MVA
                    transformers
                    loading

                               • Impact on Transmission losses
                       Particulars   Transformer Transformer
                                     Ratio:1.00PU Ratio:1.05PU
                                     (Case-1)       (Case-2)
                       Total losses  1.12 MW        1.05 MW
                       in 132kV
                       network
                       (Line+Tranf.)

•   Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.07
    MW
•   Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above network in Case-2 as compared to
    Case-1:
    = 2.5 x 0.07 MW = 0.175 MW
•   Saving in total transmission losses in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.245 MW
•   Yearly Energy Saving in Case-2 as compared to Case-1 for four hours: 3.57 LUs
•   Saving in terms of rupees: 3.57 x2.00 = Rs 7.14 lacs/annum

This study indicates that rise in transformer tap ratio
under low load bus voltage condition increase the output of the connected capacitor banks
which results:
• Decrease the reactive power flow on Transformers and Transmission lines
• Decrease the MVA loading on transformers & transmission lines.
• Increase the 33 kV, 132 kV & 220 kV voltages which may be already low in some
  system conditions..
• Decrease the total system losses.



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   Fig. 6 :LFS Plot 6: 1.0 PU tap ratio of 132/33 kV Transformers connected to 33 kV
                                         Bus(505)




Fig. 7 : LFS Plot 7: 1.05 (1/0.95) PU tap ratio of 132/33 kV Transformers connected to
                                     33 kV Bus(505)

Therefore, load bus voltage should be maintained near to nominal with the variation of
transformer ratio using OLTC unit for optimum utilization of Shunt Capacitor Banks
to reduce the system losses.

(VI) CASE STUDY-4: EFFECT OF OLTC OPERATION OF 220/132 KV
TRANSFORMERS ON TRANSMISSION LOSSES

        Power plots of LFS with total 148 MW, 0.80 PF load connected to 33 kV Buses No.
501, 502, 504 and 505 is placed at LFS plots-8. Under this condition
    • Voltages of 33 kV buses is poor, therefore, output of capacitor banks is below to their
        rated capacity
    • Voltages of 132 kV buses is also poor
    • Tap position of 220/132 kV transformers is 1.0 PU
Now transformer ratio of 220/132 kV transformers connected to 132 kV Bus (101) is
increased from 1.0 PU (Case-1) to 1.04 PU (1/0.96) (Case-2) while other system conditions
remain unchanged. Power plots of LFS with increase transformers ratio is placed at LFS
plots-9. Impact of rise in 220/132 kV transformer tap ratio on reactive power flow,
transmission losses, system voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.

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                                  • Impact on Reactive Power Flow
                      Reactive flow on     Transformer       Transformer
                                          Ratio:1.00PU      Ratio:1.04PU
                       Reactive power         35.97         40.57 MVAR
                       injection by the      MVAR
                          Connected
                      Capacitor banks at
                      various 33 Buses
                         220/132kV         112.21 MVAR        100.94 MVAR
                        Transformers

                                     •   Impact on voltage profile
                          Particulars         Transformer        Transformer
                                              Ratio:1.0PU       Ratio:1.04PU

                      132 kV bus voltage       126.66 kV        136.06 kV
                      220 kV bus voltage       213.41 kV        213.96 kV


                  •      Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loading
                        Particulars       Transformer         Transformer
                                          Ratio:1.00PU       Ratio:1.04PU
                       220/132 kV         188.97 MVA         182.00 MVA
                       transformers
                          loading

                                   •  Impact on Transmission losses
                        Particulars      Transformer         Transformer
                                         Ratio:1.00PU       Ratio:1.04PU
                                           (Case-1)            (Case-2)
                      Total losses in     5.50 MW              4.78 MW
                      132kV network
                      of 220 kV GSS



•     Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.72 MW
•     Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1:
      = 2.5 x 0.72 MW = 1.80 MW
•     Saving in total transmission losses in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 2.52 MW
•     Yearly Energy Saving in Case-2 as compared to Case-1 for four hours: 36.79 LUs
•     Saving in terms of rupees: 36.79 x2.00 = Rs 73.58 lacs/annum
 This study indicates that rise in transformer tap ratio
 of 220/132 kV transformers under low voltage condition increase the output of the connected
 capacitor banks which results:
 • Decrease the reactive power flow on Transformers and Transmission lines
 • Decrease the MVA loading on transformers & transmission lines.
 • Increase the 33 kV, 132 kV & 220 kV voltages which may be already low in some system
    conditions..
 • Decrease the total system losses.

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 Fig. 8: LFS Plot8: 1.0 PU Transformer ratio of 220/132 kV Transformers connected
                                 to 132 kV Bus(101)




 Fig. 9 : LFS Plot 9: 1.04 PU (1/0.96) Transformer ratio of 220/132 kV Transformers
                             connected to 132 kV Bus(101)

Therefore, voltage of 132 kV Bus at 220 kV sub-stations should be maintained near to
nominal with the operation of OLTC to increase the output of connected capacitor
banks to reduce the system losses and system elements loading.

(VII) CONCLUSION

Understanding operation of Shunt Capacitor Banks and OLTC in different operating
conditions results:-
    • Reduction of reactive power flow on transmission lines and transformers
    • Reduction of loading of transmission lines and transformers
    • Improve the transmission system voltage
    • Reduction of transmission system losses
Therefore, understanding operations should be performed on Capacitor Banks and OLTC
attached with transformers in different operating conditions. Capacitor banks are the means to
compensate load reactive power demand to the bus (the load bus) to which these are
connected so as to restrict flow of reactive power from the sending bus to the load bus.
Therefore, in order to reduce the system losses and system elements loading


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• Capacity of Capacitor Banks at load Buses should be comparable to Bus reactive Power
   Demand
• The shunt capacitors are required to be kept ‘ON’ till the reactive component of the load
   (which is generally inductive) is more than the reactive power injected by the shunt
   capacitors i.e. power factor of the load bus is lagging.
• Output of the capacitor banks is squarely proportional to system voltage where capacitor
   bank is connected therefore load bus voltage should be maintained near to nominal for
   maximum utilization of connected capacitor banks.

REFERENCE

1.  R.F. Cook, “Optimizing the application of Shunt Capacitor for Reactive Volt-Ampere
    Control and Loss Reduction” IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 80, Aug. 1999,
    pp:430-444
2. B. V. Vidhute, Dr. H. P. Inamdar, and S.A. Deokar, “Maximum Loss Reduction by
    Optimal Placement of Capacitors on a Distribution System” Power India Conference,
    2008, IEEE, pp: 1-3.
3. Bei Gou “Optimal Capacitor Placement for improving Power quality, Power
    Engineering Society Summer Meeting, IEEE, 1999, PP-488-492.
4. H. Kim, S-K. You, “Voltage Profile Improvement by capacitor Placement and control in
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    Meeting, 1999, Vol. 2, pp. 18-22.
5. J. B. V. SUBRAHMANYAM, “Optimal Capacitor Placement in Unbalanced Radial
    Distribution Networks” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology,
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6. M. H. Shwehdi, A. Mantawi , S. Selim, A “Capacitor Placement In Distribution
    Systems, A New Formulation”
7. IEEE Bolgona Power Tech. Conference, June 23-26, 2003 Chun Wang and Hao Zhong
    Cheng, “Reactive power optimization by plant growth simulation algorithm,” IEEE
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8. Suresh Kamble, and Dr. Chandrashekhar Thorat, “Characterization of Voltage Sag Due
    to Balanced and Unbalanced Faults in Distribution Systems”, International Journal of
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9. Om Prakash Mahela and Sheesh Ram Ola, “Optimal Placement and Sizing of HT Shunt
    Capacitors for Transmission Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement: The
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10. S.Neelima and Dr. P.S.Subramanyam, “Effect of Load Levels on Sizing and Location of
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BIOGRAPHIES

                    Dr. M. P. Sharma received the B.E. degree in Electrical Engineering
                    in 1996 Govt.      Engineering College, Kota, Rajasthan and M.Tech
                    degree in Power Systems in 2001 and Ph.D. degree in 2009 from
                    Malaviya Regional Engineering College, Jaipur (Now name as MNIT).
                    He is presently working as Assistant Engineer, Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut
                    Prasaran Nigam Ltd., Jaipur. He is involved in the system studies of
Rajasthan power system for development of power transmission system in Rajasthan and
planning of the power evacuation system for new power plants. His research interest
includes Reactive Power Optimization, Power System Stability, reduction of T&D losses and
protection of power system.

                  Sarfaraz Nawaz has received his B.E. degree from University of
                  Rajasthan and M.Tech. degree from MNIT, Jaipur. His research interests
                  include power systems and power electronics. He is currently an Associate
                  Professor of the Electrical Engg. Dept., Swami Keshvanand Institute of
                  Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, Rajasthan.




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