COUNTRY REPORT RISK ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN INDONESIA By. TRI LIGAYANTI MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA 2005 NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago, consists of five major islands and about 30 smaller groups and has a total number of islands approximately 17,508. The sea area is four times greater than that of land area, which is slightly over 1.9 million sq km. The islands span more than 3,000 miles from east to west, and more than 1,200 miles from north to south. Some of these islands are famous for its tourist attractions, like Bali, Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan. The population has reached a total of 206,264,595 in 2000. Population distribution is unequal. Trend of urban population in Indonesia and in all provinces had been increasing. In 2000, the percentage of urban population reached 42 percent. The increasing population live in urban areas reflected the urbanization process. Rural populations are 58% of the total population who live and work in sub-districts, municipalities and villages. NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION Middle Big Industries, Industries, 11.51% 0.26% Home Industries, 88.23% Home industries : 1-4 employees. Middle industries : 5-100 employees. Big industries : more than 100 employees. NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION Big Farm, 2.26% Middle Farm, 21.05% Micro Farm, 76.69% Micro Farm : 1-15 employees. Middle Farm : 16-250 employees. Big Farm : more than 250 employees. NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION The major economic sectors based on the contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) have been : Industrial / manufacturing, with the major products are textiles and leather goods (15.51%), food products and beverages (11.52%), tobacco (9.85%), and chemicals (9.19%); Mining and extraction, with major products are oil and gases; Agriculture with its major products are paddy, oil palm, rubber and sugar cane. Industrial activities are mostly in textiles, papers and leather goods, rubber and plastic products, also in chemical products. CHEMICAL PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE Import of chemicals (raw materials) for industrial use is still dominating. In 2000, importation of petroleum chemical products was 19 million tons, ranked as the most abundant chemicals imported, while the production / manufacturing / formulation and exportation of chemicals were respectively around 5 million tons and almost 3.4 million tons per year. As an agricultural country, the use of fertilizers and pesticides was 1 million tons and 0.5 million tons per year respectively. CHEMICAL PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE The major chemical wastes, generated per year wasted from industries including wastewater containing organic compound, and emission of CO2, SO2, and NO2. The chemical waste importation until 2002 will be a total input of 46 million tons of used storage batteries, 1,3 million tons of paper waste and 59 million tons of metal scraps; while 15 tons of used catalyst was exported. PRIORITY CONCERN RELATED TO CHEMICALS PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE • Priority concern related to chemicals production, import, export and use is the impacts and risks on : – air pollution, – inland waterways / river pollutions, – marine pollution, – ground water pollution, – soil contamination, – chemical residues in food, drinking water contaminations, – hazardous waste treatment / disposal. • These are all related to occupational health, public health, chemical accident, storage / disposal of obsolete chemicals, chemical poisoning / suicides, free purchasing of chemicals and labeling of chemicals. PRIORITY CONCERN RELATED TO CHEMICALS PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE •The scale of problem ranges from local to regional, eventually also to global problem almost all of the problems identified as high rank in priority. •Specific chemical creating concerns are CO, CO2, NOx, Pb, suspended particulate matters, volatile hydrocarbons, heavy metals, cyanides, surfactants, fertilizers, pesticides, paints, solvents, oil, aflatoxin, dyestuffs, borax, formaldehyde, ammonia, chlorine, arsenic and nitrites. PRIORITY CONCERN RELATED TO CHEMICALS PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE • An improved coordinating mechanism is needed to gain more accurate and reliable data on chemicals production, import, export and use. • This will, in turn, resulting in an increased national capacity and capability in achieving sound management of chemicals. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING CHEMICALS A number of laws, regulations, decrees, standards or other legal instruments addressing the control of chemicals have been issued. The available legislations, however, do not cover adequately all aspects in terms as a basic for the overall of sound management of chemicals. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING CHEMICALS Hazardous Substances Ordinance No. 377 Year 1949. This law regulates production, distribution and usage of disinfectants, cleaning agents, toxic chemicals that can cause hazard to human health. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING CHEMICALS . Law No. 11 Year 1967 on mining that regulates all steps of control in mining. Law No. 1 Year 1970 on safety at the work place. Law No. 5 Year 1984 on industry. Law No. 12 Year 1992 on plant cultivation including pesticides. Law No. 14 Year 1992 on transportation on goods. Law No. 21 Year 1992 on shipping which regulates the prohibition of waste disposal from ships to the sea. Law No.23 Year 1997 on environmental management. Law No.6 Year 1998 on chemical weapon convention. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING CHEMICALS Act No. 7 Year 1973 handling and controlling of distribution, storage and usage of pesticide. Act No. 74 Year 2000 on toxic hazardous substance. Government Regulation No. 27 Year 1999 on environmental impact management (EIA). Presidential Decree No. 23 Year 1995 on ozone depleting substances. Presidential Decree No. 14 Year 1997 on explosive materials. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING CHEMICALS Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 231/MPP/Kep/7/1997 on procedure of waste transportation. Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 148/M/SK/4/1985 on safety of hazardous substance in the industry. Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 254/MPP/Kep/7/2000 on import procedure and distribution of hazardous material. Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 110/MPP/Kep/1/1998 jo No.410/MPP/Kep/9/1998 jo No. 790/MPP/Kep/12/2002 on prohibition of ozone depleting substance production and trade. Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 647/MPP/Kep/10/2004 on import procedure and distribution of precursor non pharmacy. Organization DIRECTORATE GENERAL Of AGRICULTURAL AND CHEMICAL BASED INDUSTRY SECRETARY OF DIRECTORATE GENERAL DIRECTORATE DIRECTORATE DIRECTORATE OF OF DIRECTORATE OF OF DIRECTORATE OF FOODS CROPS & FORESTRY BASED UP STREAM DRINKS AND TOBACCO DOWNSTREAM CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INDUSTRY CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SUB DIRECTORATE SUB DIRECTORATE SUB DIRECTORATE SUB DIRECTORATE OF OF SUB DIRECTORATE OF OF STANDARIZATION & TECHNOLOGY TASK CLIMATE OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONSHIP PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT REPORTING AND INFORMATION STAFF My Work Background Study : Chemical Engineering Position : Staff Member of Sub Directorate Standardization and Technology since December 2003. Scope of Duty : Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of Fertilizers and Pesticides : voluntary and mandatory. Monitoring of Hazardous Chemicals Production, Importation and Distribution. Monitoring of Precursors Production, Importation and Distribution Chemicals Industry Waste Management. Global Issues of Environmental Chemicals. Network : Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade, Indonesian National Agency of Drug and Food Control, National Narcotics Board and others central government organization. RECENT MAJOR PROBLEM In the end of 2005 : • Illegal using of Precursors on Narcotics production, Indonesia leading in the third bigger narcotics producer in the world after Fiji and China. • Illegal using of Formalin in fish and food. • Chemicals Waste Based Industry. • Global Issue related Ozone Depleting Substances Using and Illegal Logging. • Global Issue related Terrorism and Chemicals Weapon Convention. Following Training Proposed • The proposed training very important and enhance skill to repair policies which it has not relevant with risk assessment and monitoring for environmental chemicals anymore. • Knowledge of risk assessment and monitoring for environmental chemicals technology. • Solving risk assessment and monitoring for environmental chemicals countermeasure. • Well done for risk assessment and monitoring for environmental chemicals. PROGRAM EXPANSION AND EXTENTION OF RISK ASSESMENT AND MONITORING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS • Possible areas of further assistance for risk assessment and monitoring for environmental chemicals in Indonesia they are include: – Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) in process to adopt and implementation. For year 2005, Indonesia has finished first phase from four phases of GHS adopting which promoted by UNITAR. – CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) – Continue on implementation of Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 254/MPP/Kep/7/2000 on import procedure and distribution of hazardous material is proposed a regulation on monitoring of hazardous material production and distribution in the local country. – Continue on implementation of Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No. 647/MPP/Kep/10/2004 on import procedure and distribution of precursor non pharmacy is proposed a regulation on monitoring of precursor production and distribution in the local country.
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