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					        COUNTRY REPORT


RISK ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING
 FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS
          IN INDONESIA


            By. TRI LIGAYANTI
          MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY
         REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
                   2005
       NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION

 Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago, consists of five major
  islands and about 30 smaller groups and has a total number of
  islands approximately 17,508. The sea area is four times greater
  than that of land area, which is slightly over 1.9 million sq km. The
  islands span more than 3,000 miles from east to west, and more
  than 1,200 miles from north to south. Some of these islands are
  famous for its tourist attractions, like Bali, Java, Sumatra and
  Kalimantan.

 The population has reached a total of 206,264,595 in 2000.
  Population distribution is unequal. Trend of urban population in
  Indonesia and in all provinces had been increasing. In 2000, the
  percentage of urban population reached 42 percent. The increasing
  population live in urban areas reflected the urbanization process.
  Rural populations are 58% of the total population who live and work
  in sub-districts, municipalities and villages.
     NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION



                   Middle        Big
                 Industries, Industries,
                   11.51%      0.26%




                                              Home
                                           Industries,
                                             88.23%
   Home industries : 1-4 employees.
   Middle industries : 5-100 employees.
   Big industries : more than 100 employees.
     NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION


                                 Big Farm,
                                   2.26%
                  Middle Farm,
                    21.05%




                                             Micro Farm,
                                               76.69%
   Micro Farm : 1-15 employees.
   Middle Farm : 16-250 employees.
   Big Farm : more than 250 employees.
         NATIONAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION


 The major economic sectors based on the contribution
  to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) have been :
    Industrial / manufacturing, with the major products are textiles
     and leather goods (15.51%), food products and beverages
     (11.52%), tobacco (9.85%), and chemicals (9.19%);
    Mining and extraction, with major products are oil and gases;
    Agriculture with its major products are paddy, oil palm, rubber
     and sugar cane.


 Industrial activities are mostly in textiles, papers and
  leather goods, rubber and plastic products, also in
  chemical products.
         CHEMICAL PRODUCTION, IMPORT,
                 EXPORT AND USE

 Import of chemicals (raw materials) for
  industrial use is still dominating.
 In 2000, importation of petroleum chemical
  products was 19 million tons, ranked as the
  most abundant chemicals imported, while the
  production / manufacturing / formulation and
  exportation of chemicals were respectively
  around 5 million tons and almost 3.4 million
  tons per year.
 As an agricultural country, the use of fertilizers
  and pesticides was 1 million tons and 0.5
  million tons per year respectively.
        CHEMICAL PRODUCTION, IMPORT,
                EXPORT AND USE

 The major chemical wastes, generated per
  year wasted from industries including
  wastewater containing organic compound, and
  emission of CO2, SO2, and NO2.
 The chemical waste importation until 2002 will
  be a total input of 46 million tons of used
  storage batteries, 1,3 million tons of paper
  waste and 59 million tons of metal scraps; while
  15 tons of used catalyst was exported.
       PRIORITY CONCERN RELATED TO CHEMICALS
         PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE


• Priority concern related to chemicals production, import,
  export and use is the impacts and risks on :
   –   air pollution,
   –   inland waterways / river pollutions,
   –   marine pollution,
   –   ground water pollution,
   –   soil contamination,
   –   chemical residues in food, drinking water contaminations,
   –   hazardous waste treatment / disposal.
• These are all related to occupational health, public
  health, chemical accident, storage / disposal of obsolete
  chemicals, chemical poisoning / suicides, free
  purchasing of chemicals and labeling of chemicals.
      PRIORITY CONCERN RELATED TO CHEMICALS
        PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE



•The scale of problem ranges from local to regional,
eventually also to global problem almost all of the problems
identified as high rank in priority.
•Specific chemical creating concerns are CO, CO2, NOx, Pb,
suspended particulate matters, volatile hydrocarbons, heavy
metals, cyanides, surfactants, fertilizers, pesticides, paints,
solvents, oil, aflatoxin, dyestuffs, borax, formaldehyde,
ammonia, chlorine, arsenic and nitrites.
      PRIORITY CONCERN RELATED TO CHEMICALS
        PRODUCTION, IMPORT, EXPORT AND USE


•   An improved coordinating mechanism is needed to gain
    more accurate and reliable data on chemicals
    production, import, export and use.
•   This will, in turn, resulting in an increased national
    capacity and capability in achieving sound management
    of chemicals.
      LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR
       MANAGING CHEMICALS


 A number of laws, regulations, decrees,
standards or other legal instruments
addressing the control of chemicals have
been issued.
 The available legislations, however, do not
cover adequately all aspects in terms as a
basic for the overall of sound management of
chemicals.
LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR
 MANAGING CHEMICALS




  Hazardous Substances Ordinance No.
377 Year 1949. This law regulates production,
distribution and usage of disinfectants,
cleaning agents, toxic chemicals that can
cause hazard to human health.
          LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR
          MANAGING CHEMICALS
.  Law No. 11 Year 1967 on mining that regulates all steps
of control in mining.
   Law No. 1 Year 1970 on safety at the work place.
   Law No. 5 Year 1984 on industry.
   Law No. 12 Year 1992 on plant cultivation including
pesticides.
   Law No. 14 Year 1992 on transportation on goods.
   Law No. 21 Year 1992 on shipping which regulates the
prohibition of waste disposal from ships to the sea.
   Law No.23 Year 1997 on environmental management.
   Law No.6 Year 1998 on chemical weapon convention.
        LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR
        MANAGING CHEMICALS

  Act No. 7 Year 1973 handling and controlling of
distribution, storage and usage of pesticide.
  Act No. 74 Year 2000 on toxic hazardous substance.

  Government Regulation No. 27 Year 1999 on
environmental impact management (EIA).

  Presidential Decree No. 23 Year 1995 on ozone
depleting substances.
  Presidential Decree No. 14 Year 1997 on explosive
materials.
        LEGAL INSTRUMENTS FOR
        MANAGING CHEMICALS
  Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No.
231/MPP/Kep/7/1997 on procedure of waste transportation.
  Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No.
148/M/SK/4/1985 on safety of hazardous substance in the
industry.
  Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No.
254/MPP/Kep/7/2000 on import procedure and distribution of
hazardous material.
  Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No.
110/MPP/Kep/1/1998 jo No.410/MPP/Kep/9/1998 jo No.
790/MPP/Kep/12/2002 on prohibition of ozone depleting
substance production and trade.
  Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree No.
647/MPP/Kep/10/2004 on import procedure and distribution of
precursor non pharmacy.
                                                                 Organization
                                                                                        DIRECTORATE GENERAL
                                                                                                 Of
                                                                                     AGRICULTURAL AND CHEMICAL
                                                                                           BASED INDUSTRY




                                                                         SECRETARY OF
                                                                     DIRECTORATE GENERAL




                                                                          DIRECTORATE
       DIRECTORATE                                                                                                                                               DIRECTORATE OF
                                                                               OF                                                      DIRECTORATE OF
            OF                                                                                           DIRECTORATE OF FOODS                                 CROPS & FORESTRY BASED
                                                                           UP STREAM                                                 DRINKS AND TOBACCO
DOWNSTREAM CHEMICAL INDUSTRY                                                                                                                                         INDUSTRY
                                                                        CHEMICAL INDUSTRY




                                    SUB DIRECTORATE                      SUB DIRECTORATE                   SUB DIRECTORATE
     SUB DIRECTORATE                        OF                                  OF                                                    SUB DIRECTORATE
                                                                                                                  OF
            OF                 STANDARIZATION & TECHNOLOGY                 TASK CLIMATE                                                      OF
                                                                                                        INDUSTRIAL RELATIONSHIP
   PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                            REPORTING AND INFORMATION




                                                             STAFF
                              My Work
Background Study : Chemical Engineering
Position          : Staff Member of Sub Directorate Standardization and
                    Technology since December 2003.
Scope of Duty :
 Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of Fertilizers and Pesticides :
  voluntary and mandatory.
 Monitoring of Hazardous Chemicals Production, Importation and
  Distribution.
 Monitoring of Precursors Production, Importation and Distribution
 Chemicals Industry Waste Management.
 Global Issues of Environmental Chemicals.
 Network : Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Trade,
  Indonesian National Agency of Drug and Food Control, National
  Narcotics Board and others central government organization.
      RECENT MAJOR PROBLEM

In the end of 2005 :
• Illegal using of Precursors on Narcotics
  production, Indonesia leading in the third bigger
  narcotics producer in the world after Fiji and
  China.
• Illegal using of Formalin in fish and food.
• Chemicals Waste Based Industry.
• Global Issue related Ozone Depleting
  Substances Using and Illegal Logging.
• Global Issue related Terrorism and Chemicals
  Weapon Convention.
     Following Training Proposed

• The proposed training very important and
  enhance skill to repair policies which it has not
  relevant with risk assessment and monitoring for
  environmental chemicals anymore.
• Knowledge of risk assessment and monitoring
  for environmental chemicals technology.
• Solving risk assessment and monitoring for
  environmental chemicals countermeasure.
• Well done for risk assessment and monitoring
  for environmental chemicals.
        PROGRAM EXPANSION AND EXTENTION OF RISK ASSESMENT
        AND MONITORING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS


•   Possible areas of further assistance for risk assessment and
    monitoring for environmental chemicals in Indonesia they are
    include:
    – Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labelling of
      Chemicals (GHS) in process to adopt and implementation. For year
      2005, Indonesia has finished first phase from four phases of GHS
      adopting which promoted by UNITAR.
    – CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)
    – Continue on implementation of Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree
      No. 254/MPP/Kep/7/2000 on import procedure and distribution of
      hazardous material is proposed a regulation on monitoring of
      hazardous material production and distribution in the local country.
    – Continue on implementation of Ministerial of Industry and Trade Decree
      No. 647/MPP/Kep/10/2004 on import procedure and distribution of
      precursor non pharmacy is proposed a regulation on monitoring of
      precursor production and distribution in the local country.

				
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