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The Freedom to Teach and to Learn - Amideast

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					The Freedom to Teach and to Learn

           Mary W. Gray, PhD, JD
      Chair, Board of Directors, AMIDEAST
      Professor of Mathematics and Statistics
       American University, Washington DC

                                  mgray@american.edu
               Academic freedom
The tradition of academic freedom
        From Socrates
          to the Baghdad House of Wisdom




       to Galileo              and today
For faculty
        Freedom of teaching and discussion
        Freedom to carry out research
        Freedom to express opinions
        Freedom from institutional censorship

Free scientific inquiry
         The environment
         Evolution
         Politics
         Foreign affairs
         Immigration
         Economics
And for students

        To learn to discover on
        their own, to foster
        entrepreneurship and
        creativity, students must
        be free to explore new
        ideas, new techniques,
        new directions, to involve themselves in the community
   Public and private education
In the United States as in Tunisia and other countries, both
public and private institutions play a role in higher education.


                               Through constitutional and other
                               legal protection, freedom of
                               speech is guaranteed. In the
                               U.S., there are
                               both federal and state provisions,
                               e.g, the 1st Amendment to the
                               U.S. Constitution provides for
                               freedom of speech.

Constitutional limitations affect only the government and its
agencies, but private universities have found that offering the
same freedom of speech to their faculty and students is essential
for a successful educational enterprise.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights



                 Article 19
                 Everyone has the right to freedom of
                 opinion and expression; this right
                 includes freedom to hold opinions
                 without interference and to seek, receive
                 and impart information and ideas
                 through any media and regardless of
                 frontiers.
The right to education in the Universal
              Declaration
Article 26
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free,
at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary
education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional
education shall be made generally available and higher education
shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the
human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote
understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial
or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United
Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that
shall be given to their children.
                         University governance

To be effective a system of higher education must involve those who will
implement national priorities for scientific, economic and social progress from
strategic planning through execution

Government, administrators, faculty and students all have important roles to play

In various aspects of the operation of higher education different constituencies –
trustees, administrators, faculty - have primary responsibility, but working together
is important

Deciding on the course of instruction and faculty qualifications and roles, faculty
must play the key role. In select of administrators and some budget matters, their
function may be more consultative.

To ensure that all sectors meet their responsibilities it is essential that all can think
and speak freely but it is also crucial that each segment be accountable for its
responsibilities
                     Types of institutions
To serve the needs of a modern state and its people, many kinds of
institutions of higher education are required and deserve careful planning
and support.
To make real progress, research is needed: in medicine, in science, in
engineering in economics and other social sciences, in information
technology and communication, in the humanities and arts. But not every
institution must have cutting-edge research as its focus; such an emphasis
is demanding of a great deal of resources, human and material.
To provide trained citizens for many fields of endeavor, broad
undergraduate educational institutions are needed with faculty less
focused on creative research. Engineering, business, science and arts and
humanities students deserve excellence in their education at this level.
Specialized training in professional fields such as law and medicine must
meet the needs of society.
To provide supportive skills in technical aspects of information
technology, communication, medicine and other fields, easily accessible,
broadly distributed institutions are required.
                         Striking a balance

A system of higher education must serve the needs of a nation, but at the same
time advance knowledge not necessarily fettered by immediate applicability

Academic freedom guarantees that faculty and students have the ability to exercise
their judgment in striking an appropriate balance

And you never know how useful something might be
                 Road to success
Participatory institutional governance




                            Diversity and inclusiveness



Openness and transparency




                            Freedom of inquiry and expression
                      References

American Association of University Professors, 1940 Statement on
Academic
Freedom and Tenure
Robert C. Post (2012) Democracy, Expertise, and Academic Freedom: A
First Amendment Jurisprudence for the Modern State
William G. Bowen (2010) Lessons Learned: Reflections of a University
President
Dennis John Gayle, Bhoendradatt Tewarie and Al Quinton White Jr.
(2012) Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches
to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management
Hans G. Schuetze, William Bruneau and Garnet Grosjean (2012)
University Governance and Reform: Policy, Fads, and Experience in
International Perspective (International and Development Education)
Vincenzo Zeno-Zencovich (2012) Freedom of Expression: A Critical and
Comparative analysis

				
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