First-Wave Feminism

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					           First-Wave Feminism
   Has its foundation in the Enlightenment doctrine
    of human rights, esp. as expressed in the
    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
    Citizen (1789)
   Political in focus: works for political equality in
    areas such as voting, ownership of property,
    inheritance, education and ability to run for
    public office
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
 A Vindication of the Rights of
        Woman (1792)
                   Followed up her earlier
                    book, A Vindication of the
                    Rights of Man
                   Focused on the moral
                    demand of equality,
                    especially in education
                   First attribution of gender
                    differences to
  John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
The Subjection of Women (1869)
                  Focused on establishing a
                   right to vote and to hold
                   political office
                  Much of the book was
                   dedicated to undermining
                   popular stereotypes of
                   women that were used to
                   justify political exclusion
John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
 The Enfranchisement of Women
                     Originally written by Taylor,
                      later republished with essays
                      written by her and Mill
                     Also focused on arguing for
                      political enfranchisement for
                     Added essays in later additions
                      argued for women’s right to
                      sue for divorce
        Second-Wave Feminism

   Had its foundation in phenomenology (and
    for some psychoanalysis)
   Picks up from First-Wave Feminism’s
    critique of gender differences
   Primarily theoretically focused
   Aims at identifying and eliminating sources
    of sexism and gender oppression
Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)
    The Second Sex (1949)
                  Denies that gender
                   differences are based
                   in biology
                  Developed the
                   sex/gender distinction
                  Recognizes
                   ‘femininity’ and
                   ‘masculinity’ as
                   historically variable
  Betty Friedan (1921-2006)
The Feminine Mystique (1963)
                 “The Problem That
                  Has No Name”:
                  unhappiness despite
                  gains of the women’s
                  rights movement
                 Argues that traditional
                  gender roles stifle
                  women’s development
                 Treats gender roles
                  as inherently
   Carol Gilligan (1936-)
In a Different Voice (1982)
                 Was a student of
                  developmental psychologist
                  Larry Kohlberg, who found
                  gender differences in
                  approaches to morality
                 Argues that these differences
                  are the result of socialization,
                  not inherent reasoning
                 Contends that neither men’s
                  nor women’s approaches to
                  ethics is superior; rather, both
                  are needed for a whole moral
  Naomi Wolf (1962-)
The Beauty Myth (1991)
              Examines the ways in
               which beauty standards
               are used to both
               discriminate against and
               physically harm women
              Focuses on the way in
               which gender norms for
               women create double-
               binds—situations where
               both meeting and failing
               to meet the norm become
         Third-Wave Feminism

   Has its origin in postmodernism and
    critical theory
   Extends Second-Wave Feminism’s critique
    of gender norms by generally denying
    dichotomous and hierarchical thinking
   Works often seek to destabilize the very
    notion of gender or sex
      Luce Irigaray (1932-)
This Sex Which Is Not One (1977)
                   Emphasizes the
                    ambiguous and variable
                    nature of ‘womanhood’
                    and ‘femininity’
                   Claims that to conceive of
                    ‘woman’ or ‘the feminine’
                    at all is to engage in an
                    inherently sexist
                    approach to
                    understanding gender
 Judith Butler (1956-)
Gender Trouble (1989)
              Argues that “gender” is a
               performance, and is thus
               indefinitely variable
              Links gender norms to
               language—language both
               creates and reinforces
               gender norms

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