Sound

Document Sample
Sound Powered By Docstoc
					Mary O’Leary


                        Changing Students’ Misconceptions About Sound
                             Through a Conceptual Change Model

Children come with misconceptions that do not necessarily concur with the scientific
community. Thus I wrote these activities to help students overcome these misconceptions.

As teachers we need to recognize that students come to us with all kinds of learning styles.
Therefore the learning environment needs to be rich and varied to meet the different learning
styles of all the students.

Learning is a very complex process. For the majority of us, it requires doing an activity,
discussing the outcome, and establishing relationships among the different components. As an
educator, I have the opportunity to implement effective, learner-based teaching strategies that
develop from the research on how a student best learns. And more importantly, we should
generate an atmosphere in which the student is motivated to want to learn more. This kind of
learning can occur when students are provided with experiences that acknowledge and directly
challenge students’ misconceptions. The Conceptual Change Model consists of six stages.

   1. Students become aware of their own preconceptions about a concept by thinking about it
      and making predictions (committing to an outcome) before an activity begins.
   2. Students expose their beliefs by sharing them, initially in small groups and then with the
      entire class.
   3. Students confront their beliefs by testing and discussing them in small groups.
   4. Students work toward resolving conflicts (if any) between their ideas (based on the
      revealed preconceptions and class discussion) and their observations, thereby
      accommodating the new concept.
   5. Students extend the concept by trying to make connections between the concept learned
      in the classroom and other situations, including their daily lives.
   6. Students are encouraged to go beyond, pursing additional questions and problems of their
      choice related to the concept.


Teaching for conceptual change encourages students to confront their own preconceptions and
those of their classmates to try to come up with a decision and a conceptual change. Many
teachers who use this model highly support this belief.




Stepans, J. (1996) Targeting Students’ Science Misconceptions: Physical Science Concepts Using the
Conceptual Change Model, Idea Factory, Riverview, Florida
Mary O’Leary


                                            Sound

Focus Question: If a tree falls in the forest when no one is around, does it make a sound?
                What is sound?
Objectives:
      1.     Students learn terms and concepts that apply to sound: pitch, volume, frequency,
             and resonance.
      2.     Students review the characteristics of the following three instrument families:
             percussion, strings, and woodwinds to discover sound production and how sound
             waves carry pertaining to the individual family.
      3.     Students gather materials and create a musical instrument to discover the cause
             and effect of sound waves and sound production.
      4.     Students create a list of materials and steps using science processes such as:
             writing a hypothesis, listing materials, and writing a procedure.
      5.     Students write an essay describing how they made the instrument and how it
             produces sound.
      6.     Students will present their musical instruments to the class to: demonstrate their
             working knowledge of the instrument, explain the sound production, and to
             determine the effects of the sound waves as it pertains to that family.


                                        Background

        Sound is a form of energy: the branch of physics that is concerned with this form of
energy is acoustics. Like other forms of energy, sound can be generated, it can move from one
place to another, it can do work, and it dissipates over time and distance. Some sound can
carry tremendous amounts of energy - the explosion of the volcano Krakatoa was heard
10,000 km away. Other sounds, like the plop of a pebble dropped in a pond, have almost no
energy at all. No matter what their level of energy, all sounds behave in the same predicable
way.

        Think about the musical triangle. When you hang it up by the string and give it a rap
with a stick, the bright tone rings out. Clearly the sound is coming from the triangle so we
refer to it as the sound source. Inside your ear a complex sequence of mechanical and
neurological processes receive and interpret the sound. Your ear is the sound receiver. The
triangle can be heard from above, below, or any other direction because sound travels in every
direction from a source.

        Close observation of the ringing triangle reveals an important fact - it's moving. While
the triangle is sounding, it is moving back and forth very rapidly, a movement called
vibration. When the stick hits the triangle, it transfers energy to the metal that causes the
vibrations. When the energy in the metal is transferred to another object, the sound stops. The
sound will continue only as long as there is energy in the system to keep it going.
Mary O’Leary


How sound travels...

        Sound travels from one place to another through a medium such as air. Sound waves
can also travel through gases other than air, through liquids, and even through solids. The only
thing that sound cannot travel through is a vacuum. The process by which sound moves from
one point to another point is called sound transfer, and that process requires a medium,
something to travel through.

        When an object vibrates, the air molecules are being pushed back and forth. These
compressions and rarefactions create waves that vibrate until the energy needed to create the
waves is exhausted. The warmer a material is, the faster its molecules are moving and the
more efficient energy travels. Molecules are closer together in liquid than they are in gases,
and molecules in solids are closest of all. When molecules are closer together, the energy
transfer is more efficient.




www.fi.edu/pieces/dukerich/sound/soundscience.html

Characteristics of Sound...

       Sound can be loud or soft. Sounds can be high and piping or low and booming.
These two characteristics of sound are known as amplitude and frequency, but in more
common parlance they are known as volume and pitch.

       Volume is the measure of the amount of energy in the sound - the more energy, the louder
the sound. More energy means more molecules are in motion. The relative amount of energy
in sound is measured in decibels. A whisper is about 10 decibels, and a jackhammer is about
100 decibels.
       Pitch is a product of the rate, or frequency, of vibrations. The faster the vibrations, the
higher the pitch of the sound. Named after the Heinrich R. Hertz, the German physicists who
discovered electromagnetic waves, hertz (Hz) refers to the number of vibrations in a second.

Hearing Sound...

        Humans detect sound with that complex organ, the ear. The visible portion is the outer
ear, which acts like a funnel to channel sound waves into the more sensitive parts of the ear,
deep inside the head. Sound travels down the ear tube until it reaches the eardrum, causing it
to vibrate. The vibrations of the eardrum pass through an intricate system composed of the
three smallest bones in the human body, the hammer, the anvil and stirrup. Along with the
Mary O’Leary


eardrum, they make up the middle ear. The bones of the middle ear connect to a tiny spiral-
shaped canal that contains hair cells surrounded by fluid. This canal is the inner ear. As the
middle ear bones vibrate, they cause the fluid in the inner ear to vibrate. This in turn causes the
hair cells to vibrate. Each hair cell connects directly to a nerve that sends impulses to the
brain, where the sound is interpreted.


The Speed of Sound...

       At or near sea level on the earth (1 atmosphere of pressure, 20°C), sound travels
through the air at 343 m/s, or 1235 km/h. This speed is known as Mach 1. As supersonic
planes fly higher and higher in the atmosphere, the sounds they make actually travel slower
and slower because of the lower temperature.

                                      Common Student Misconceptions

        1.       Sounds can be produced without using any material objects.
        2.       Hitting an object harder changes the pitch of the sound produced.
        3.       Human voice sounds are produced by a large number of vocal cords that all
                 produce different sounds.
        4.       Loudness and pitch of sounds are the same things.
        5.       You can see and hear a distinct event at the same moment.
        6.       Sounds can travel through empty space (a vacuum).
        7.       Sounds cannot travel through liquids and solids.
        8.       Sounds made by vehicles (like the whistle of a train) change as the vehicles move
                 past the listener because something (like the train engineer) purposely changes the
                 pitch of the sound.
        9.       In wind instruments, the instrument itself vibrates (not the internal air column).
        10.      Music is strictly an art form; it has nothing to do with science.
        11.      Sound waves are transverse waves (like water and light waves).
        12.      Matter moves along with water waves as the waves move through a body of
                 water.
        13.      When waves interact with a solid surface, the waves are destroyed.
        14.      In actual telephones, sounds (rather than electrical impulses) are carried through
                 the wires.
        15.      Ultrasounds are extremely loud sounds.
        16.      Megaphones create sounds.
        17.      Noise pollution is annoying, but it is essentially harmless.

Hapkiewicz, A. (1992). Finding a List of Science Misconceptions. MSTA Newsletter, 38(Winterí92), pp.11-14.
Mary O’Leary


Grade Level: 4

National Science Education Standards Alignment
Grades K-4
Science as Inquiry:
Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
Understandings about scientific inquiry
Science and Technology:
Abilities of technological design
Understandings about science and technology
Physical Science
Properties of objects and materials

South Carolina Standards:
      1.     Observe and describe sounds produced by vibrating objects.
      2.     Research and describe the development and use of musical instruments.
      3.     Plan, design, and create a communication tool.
      4.     Investigate and compare the different pitches of sound produced by changing the
             size, tension, or amount of the vibrating material.
      5.     Compare different types of sounds based on characteristics such as pitch and
             volume.

Time Required: 8 class periods (50 minutes)

Materials:

Alcohol, Boomwackers, towels
Film canisters with various materials inside
Cups, rubber bands, rulers, small comb, waxed paper
Clear pie plate, droppers
Slinky, blindfold, cotton balls, mirrors, tissue, radio
Various musical instruments, homemade drums
Mary O’Leary


Sound: Hands-on Activities

Procedures:

Day 1: Begin unit with a large web of the question. Students ask investigable and noninvestigable
questions. Discuss with the students as to whether the questions can be investigated or must be
researched to find the answers. Make a chart of the 2 types of questions. The following is an example of
an investigable question.




                                                                                   But the crowd in the town
               Sasha Meany is the                   Shep Sherman is                square doesn't hear the
               organizer of the town's              responsible for firing a       cannon until 10 seconds
               huge bicentennial                    cannon to begin the            after midnight. “I'm ruined!
               celebration. Fireworks,              celebration. He must fire      My reputation is tarnished
               balloons, parade --                  the shot at the stroke of      forever!” shrieks Sasha.
               everything must be                   midnight, not a second
               perfect. Or else!                    before or after.




                                                                                  Sasha's attorney, Doug
                                           Professor Parsons suggests             Savage, objects. Sound
               Sasha sues Shep for ruining a scientific explanation: the          travels from one place to
               her reputation. Alison      crowd didn't hear the                  another instantaneously,
               Krempel agrees to           cannon until 10 seconds                doesn't it? It's up to Judge
               represent Shep in Science after Shep fired it because              Stone and the Science
               Court. But he's late to the of the time it took the sound          Court jury to decide.
               trial! Does this prove he's waves to travel through the            Sounds like a tough case.
               guilty?                     air, not because Shep was
                                           late.

                                                                  Science Court challenge question:
                                                                  Would you be able to hear an
                                                                  explosion in outer space?
http://www.teachtsp.com/classroom/scicourt.sound.html

                                                                  What is your evidence?
Mary O’Leary


Day 2: Do Worksheet on What is Sound? What is needed to make sounds of varying kinds?
(lips, tongue, teeth) Provide mirrors for students. Have them watch their faces as they say the
alphabet, sing, count, etc. Have them say specific letters and record what their mouth shape was
like, feel their tongue move as they speak, and notice different pronunciation when teeth are
missing, etc. Look at people’s faces and necks to see if shape has anything to do with the sound.
Explain the Adam’s apple. Feel it in the throat. Hold a partially shredded tissue (long cuts or
tears two thirds of the way across) in front of your mouth. Speak and observe the movement as
sound travels through the air.

                                                 THE SCIENCE OF SOUND

1. What is sound? Describe it in your own words.



2. Close your eyes. Listen for a minute. What do you hear?



3. Close your eyes again. Listen to the sounds you hear. List them below in the appropriate
categories.

                               FROM NATURE                                   MACHINE-MADE




4. Compare two kinds of sound, noise and music. List the differences.

                                      NOISE                                     MUSIC




http://www.op97.k12.il.us/schools/longfellow/lrexford/base/sound/page1.htm
     Mary O’Leary




                                ACTIVITY 1: Vibrations Make Sounds


1.       Commit to an Outcome

For each of the following situations, predict what you will feel and hear before you play the following
instruments. Give reasons for your predictions. Write the predictions in your science notebook before
doing the activity.

           a.   Fold the waxed paper in half and insert the comb inside the paper. Play your instrument by
                pressing your lips lightly against the paper and sing dos and das.
           b.   Wrap a rubber band around a plastic cup. Pluck the rubber band.
           c.   Hold a ruler with one end sticking out beyond the edge of the table. Push down on it with
                the other hand and let your thumb slip off the end.

2.       Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what is happening. Have the
group’s speaker share the predictions and explanations with the rest of the class.

3.       Confront Beliefs

Use the materials from a, b, and c to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your science
notebook, and then discuss your observations with others in your group.

4.       Accommodate the Concept

Based on your observations and group discussion, what statement can you make about what you felt
and heard.

5.       Extend the Concept

Try a different sized comb and rubber band to see if the sound changes. What determines the sound?

6.       Go Beyond

What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to sound vibrations?
Mary O’Leary

                                  ACTIVITY 2: Exploring Pitch

1. Commit to an Outcome

For the following activities, predict how many different pitches you will be able to hear. Write
the predictions in your science notebook before doing the activity.


       a.      Make one ruler vibrate at lengths of 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, and 25 cm.
       b.      Then have the one ruler vibrate at 8 cm, 12 cm, 16 cm, and 20 cm.
       c.      Now use 2 rulers. Hold them down firmly with a heavy book. Make different
               lengths extend over the edge of the table and pluck one right after the other. Can you
               see and hear a difference?
       d.      Try this with 4 rulers. Put them in ascending and descending order. What do you
               hear?

2. Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what is happening.
Have the group’s speaker share the predictions and explanations with the rest of the class.

3. Confront Beliefs

Use the materials from a, b, c, and d to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your
science notebook, and then discuss your observations with others in your group.

4. Accommodate the Concept

Based on your observations and group discussion, what statement can you make about pitch?

5. Extend the Concept

Play a guessing game with your partner. Pluck the ruler while your partner looks the other way
and predicts the length of the ruler. Then switch roles. Play a tune with ruler lengths. Start with
the one below.


Song: 14 14 10 10 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 cm Did you recognize that tune?

6. Go Beyond

What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to pitch?
Mary O’Leary




                 ACTIVITY 3: Transfer of Energy: Making Water Waves

 1. Commit to an Outcome

 Predict: What would happen if you threw a stone into a calm pond! Give reasons for your
 predictions. Write the predictions in your science notebook before doing the activity.


        a.   Half fill the bowl with water.
        b.   Wait for the surface to be calm.
        c.   Tap the water's surface at regular intervals. What happens?
        d.   Tap the surface of the water harder. What happens to the waves?
        e.   Tap rapidly. What happens?
        f.   Now place the bowl on top of the overhead projector. Be careful not to spill any.
        g.   Wait for the water to settle down.
        h.   Drop water into the middle of this bowl using the dropper.
        i.   On the screen, watch the waves form as the drop hits the water.
        j.   Draw what you see.
        k.   Change the speed of the drops, then the height of the dropper.
        l.   Draw what you see in each case.

 2. Expose Beliefs

 In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what will happen
 when you do activities a-l. Have the group’s speaker share the predictions and explanations with
 the rest of the class.

 3. Confront Beliefs

 Use the materials from a-l to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your
 science notebook, and then discuss your observations with others in your group.


 4. Accommodate the Concept

 Based on your observations and group discussion, what statement can you make about
 transfer of energy in water waves?

 5. Extend the Concept

 Work with a partner. Lay the Slinky on the floor, stretching it between you and your
 partner. Using a quick motion, push your end of the Slinky toward your partner. Describe
 what is happening.

 6. Go Beyond

 What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to transfer of energy?
Mary O’Leary


                              ACTIVITY 4: Volume: Boomwackers


1. Commit to an Outcome

For each of the following situations, predict what you will hear when you play the following
percussion tubes. Give reasons for your predictions. Write the predictions in your science notebook
before doing the activity.

       a.      Strike tube on floor without end covers.
       b.      Strike on floor with 1 end cover and 1 not, then flip.
       c.      Cover both ends and strike the floor.
       d.      Whack the table.
       e.      Whack 2 together.
       f.      Raise and lower the volume of the sound by whacking with more or less force.
       g.      Cover it with a towel. Vary number of layers of towels and then whack.

2. Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what will happen. Have
the group’s speaker share the predictions and explanations with the rest of the class.

3. Confront Beliefs

Use the materials from a-g to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your science
notebook, and then discuss your observations with others in your group.

4. Accommodate the Concept

Based on your observations and group discussion, what statement can you make about volume?

5. Extend the Concept

Try a different sized tube to see if the sound changes. What determines the volume?

6. Go Beyond

What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to volume?




2. Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what is happening. Have
the speaker share the predictions and explanations with the rest of the class.

3. Confront Beliefs

Get the necessary materials and test your predictions. Discuss your observations with others in your
group.
   Mary O’Leary
                             ACTIVITY 5: Sound Movement Through Air

1. Commit to an Outcome

       Get 6 glasses. Fill each glass as follows, measuring from the bottom of the glass:

               i.      Glass 1: 5 3/4 inches

               ii.     Glass 2: 5 '/z inches

               iii.    Glass 3: 4 3/4 inches

               iv.     Glass 4: 41/2 inches

               v.      Glass 5: 3 3/4 inches

               vi.     Glass 6: 31/4 inches

           Which glass will make a sound that is high in pitch? Which glass makes a sound that is low in
           pitch? Arrange them in order from lowest to highest pitch. Draw a picture of the glasses, showing
           the amount of water in each glass. Add the drawings to your science notebook.

2. Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to how sound waves move through
the air. Have the group’s speaker share the predictions and explanations with the rest of the class.

3. Confront Beliefs

Use the materials from i-vi to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your science notebook, and
then discuss your observations with others in your group.

4. Accommodate the Concept

Based on your observations and group discussion, what statement can you make about how sound waves
move through the air?

5. Extend the Concept

Place glasses in a row with 1 on the left. Water levels will be lower on the left. Number the glasses from 1-6.
Place numbers in front of glasses. See if you can play “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” by tapping the glasses.
Try playing “Mary Had a Little Lamb:”

6. Go Beyond

What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to movement through air?
Mary O’Leary

                               Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star

               To play “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star,” tap the glasses,
               following the numbers as shown.

               1-1-5-5-6-6-5        Twinkle, Twinkle, little star,
               4-4-3-3-2-2-1        How I wonder what you are!
               5-5-4-4-3-3-2        Up above the world so high,
               5-5-4-4-3-3-2        Like a diamond in the sky.
               1-1-5-5-6-6-5        Twinkle, Twinkle, little star
               4-4-3-3-2-2-1        How I wonder what you are!

               Mary Had a Little Lamb

               3212333-222-355

               32123333-222-321

               Jingle Bells

               333-333-35123-44444333332232-5
               333-333-35123-44444433355421
Mary O’Leary

                            ACTIVITY 6: Seeing With Sound

1. Commit to an Outcome

There are 3 main listening skills that a blind person learns to use: localizing sound,
discriminating sound, and echolocation. Read the following situations:

       a.      In a quiet room, blindfold your partner. Drop keys somewhere on the table.
               Have your partner try to find them. Do this several times changing the places on the
               table. Write your observations in your science notebook.
       b.      Now have your partner sit in the middle of the room. Jingle the keys somewhere
               in the room. Can he point in the direction of the sound? Repeat several times in
               different places in the room.
       c.      Why does a blind person need to accurately locate sounds?
       d.      Turn a radio on. While you are blindfolded with the radio on, have your partner tell
               you a story. Turn off the radio and repeat the story to your partner. Was it harder to
               pay attention with or without the radio on? Why is it important for a blind person to
               concentrate on sounds?
       e.      While you are blindfolded, have your partner lead you into a closet and smaller
               room. Stand in the middle of the room and clap your hands twice. Can you tell from
               the sound if you are in a small, medium or large room?
       f.      Clap your hands as you walk toward the wall. Listen for differences in sound as you
               approach the wall? Explain what is happening:
       g.      How can a blind person tell how far an object is?

2. Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what localizing sound,
discriminating sound, and echolocation mean. Have the group’s speaker share the predictions and
explanations with the rest of the class.

3. Confront Beliefs

Use the materials from a-g to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your science
notebook, and then discuss your observations with others in your group.

4. Accommodate the Concept

Based on your observations and group discussion, what statements can you make about your
observations?

5. Extend the Concept

Identify objects in film canisters by shaking them. How were you able to distinguish the objects?


6. Go Beyond

What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to sound?
Mary O’Leary


                                   ACTIVITY 7: Air Cannon



1. Commit to an Outcome

For each of the following activities, predict what you will feel and hear when you hit the
various drums. Give reasons for your predictions. Write the predictions in your science
notebook before doing the activity.

       a. Put the drum down with the hole against the floor, hit it with the stick, and listen
          to the sound it makes.
       b. Lift the drum off the floor and beat it again. Explain the difference in what you
          see and hear.
       c. Repeat this again with the other drums.

2. Expose Beliefs

In your group, share with others your predictions and the explanations as to what you see and hear.
Have the group’s speaker share the predictions and explanations with the rest of the class.

3. Confront Beliefs

Use the materials from a-c to test your predictions. Write your explanations in your science notebook,
and then discuss your observations with others in your group.

4. Accommodate the Concept

Based on your observations and group discussion, what statement can you make about what you
felt and heard?

5. Extend the Concept

Have your partner stand in the back of the room. Direct the hole towards the person and give the
drum a good whack. If your aim is good, what reaction does your partner give you? Try it with
the other drums. Do you get the same reaction? Explain what you see, hear, and feel.

6. Go Beyond

What other questions or activities would you like to pursue related to pitch?
Mary O’Leary


Essay for Musical Instrument Project



                                               Essay Assignment
                                       Write About Your Musical Instrument



Paragraph One - Introduction

Write an introduction to your musical instrument. Include the following:
         The name of your instrument.
         How you got the idea for making it.
         The instrument family to which it belongs (string, percussion, woodwind, brass).
         Other interesting details about your instrument, for example, describe what it looks like and
          what it sounds like. Use these words: pitch, volume, resonance and tone quality.

Paragraph Two - Materials
      Write about the materials you used for your instrument.
      Explain where you found the materials.
      Describe the materials you used to make your instrument.


Paragraph Three - Procedure

         Write about how you made your instrument.
         Explain how your parents or other adults helped you.
         Describe the parts of the instrument that you made yourself.
         Write about problems that you had in making the instrument and how you solved them.


Paragraph Four - Playing Your Instrument

      Explain how you play your instrument.
      Explain how you can change the volume or pitch of the instrument.
      If you can play your instrument more than one way, describe the different ways and tell
       about how the sound changes.


Paragraph Five - Conclusion

      Write about your reaction to this project.
      Write about the things you liked about making a musical instrument.
      Write about what you learned while you were making your own instrument.

http://www.op97.k12.il.us/schools/longfellos/lrexford/base/essay.htm
           Mary O’Leary



                                                Art/Music/Science Assignment

                                                 Make a Musical Instrument

1.         Assessment rubrics for “Quality Producer”
           Designs and develops products that reflect pride, craftsmanship, and creativity.


       Expectations for a 4            Expectations for a 3          Description of a 2         Description of a 1

     The musical instrument            The musical instrument     The musical instrument       The musical instrument
     demonstrates changes of           demonstrates changes in    cannot demonstrate any       does not produce any
     pitch (high and low)              pitch and/or volume. The   changes of pitch or volume. noticeable sound.
     and/or volume (loud and           instrument produces a      The sound of the instrument
     soft). It produces a              clearly-heard sound.       is weak and cannot be
     distinctive sound and clear                                  heard clearly.
     quality.                          The instrument shows                                   The instrument
     The instrument shows              evidence of careful        The instrument shows        construction is
     evidence of very careful          craftsmanship.             evidence of hasty           incomplete--it has no
     craftsmanship and original                                   construction.               decorative elements.
     design aspects.




2.       Assessment Rubrics for “Knowledgeable Person”
         Transfers acquired knowledge to new areas.

       Expectations for a 4            Expectations for a 3        Description of a 2      Description of a 1

      Without prompting, the           Without prompting, the     With prompting, the      With prompting, the
      student can answer questions     student can answer         student can answer       student is unable to
      about how the instrument is      questions about how the    questions about how      answer questions about
      made and how it produces         instrument is made and     the instrument is -      the instrument. The
      sound, correctly using the       how it produces sound      made. The student        student does not use the
      terms “pitch”, “volume”,         correctly using the        uses the terms “pitch”   terms “pitch” or
      “resonance” and “tone            terms “pitch” and          and “volume              volume”.
      quality”.                        “volume”.                  incorrectly.
               and/or                                                                               and/or
       The student uses these                  and/or                    and/or             The student does not use
                                                                 The student does not       these terms correctly in
       terms correctly in his or her   The student uses these use       these     terms
       essay.                          terns correctly in his or correctly in his or her    his or her essay.
                                       her essay.                essay.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:5/3/2013
language:English
pages:17