the classes of food by zakiqad4059

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									2.1 The Classes of Food

KPT 3013

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Carbohydrates
1. Carbohydrates are organic compound made up of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen. 2. Carbohydrates gives us the most energy. 3. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1. 4. Carbohydrates includes sugar, starch, simple sugar and cellulose.
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5. Examples of food rich in carbohydrates are rice, bread, potatoes, flour and sugar.

Example of Carbohydrates

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KPT 3013

Proteins
1. Proteins are organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

2. Sulphur and phosphorus are sometimes present.
3. A molecule of protein is made up of large number of subunits called amino acids. 4. Proteins are needed for growth and the repair of body tissues. 5. They are also needed for formation of enzymes, hormones, haemoglobin and antibodies. 6. Examples of proteins are milk, fish, eggs, chicken and bean 5 curd.

Fats 1. Fats are compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 2. Fats is stored under the skin or around the body. 3. Fats helps us keep warm and protects organs from damage. 4. Fats helps us transports vitamins A, D, E and K. 5. Fats consists of smaller unit of fatty acids combined with glycerol.
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Vitamins
1. Vitamins are organic compounds needed in small amounts by our body for health and growth. 2. Vitamins are divided into two groups which are water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins.

2. Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins B and C, whereas fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K.

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Vitamin

Source

Function

Deficiency Disease
- night blindness - skin defections

A

Milk, butter, egg yolk, carrot, - night vision, tomato, green vegetables - healthy skin

B

Yeast, eggs, liver

- Releases energy from carbohydrates - Healthy nervous system - Healthy skin - Formation of red blood cells - healing of wounds - resistance to disease

- beriberi - anaemis

C D E K

Fresh fruits and vegetables

- scurvy (bleeding gums)

Butter, fish oils, eggs

- strong bones and teeth

- rickets (soft bones and dental decay)

Cereals, green vegetables

- May be needed for reproduction - Helps to fight against diseases

- sterility

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Milk, butter, egg yolk, carrot, - clotting of blood tomato, green vegetables

- prolonged bleeding

Minerals
Minerals are inorganic substances needed in our body in small amounts for healthy growth and development.

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KPT 3013

Mineral

Source
Cheese, milk. Eggs. green vegetables

Function
- strong bones and teeth - blood clotting - muscle and nerve activities - maintains body fluids - proper functioning of nerves

Deficiency Disease
- rickets - osteoporosis - prolonged bleeding - muscular cramps

Calcium

Sodium
Iron Iodine Phosphorus Potassium

Tables salt, cheese, meat

- muscular cramps

Meat, eggs, green vegetables

- needed to form hemoglobin in red blood - anemia cells - needed to make - goitre (swelling of the hormones of the thyroid thyroid gland in the glands neck) - strong bones and teeth - rickets - muscle contraction - weakness - stores energy

Seafood, iodised salt

Eggs, meat, milk, cheese, vegetables

Meat. Nuts, bananas

- maintains body fluids - proper functioning of - weak muscle nerves - paralysis - regulation of heartbeat 10

Fibre
1. Fibre is also known as roughage. 2. Fibre is made up of cellulose from plant cell walls. 3. Fibre CANNOT be digested in our body. 4. Fibre holds a lot of water so that our faeces remains soft and can pass from our body easily.

5. Fibre can prevents constipation.
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Water
1. Water makes up 70% of our body. 2. Water is the main components of our blood and body fluids. 3. Water can dissolve a lot of other chemicals in our body and allows chemical to react.

4. Waste substances such as urea and salts are passed from our body in water
5. Water helps us to regulate our body temperature. 6. Water lost through urine and sweat MUST be replaced.
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