Docstoc

Northouse Chapter 1 Introduction

Document Sample
Northouse Chapter 1 Introduction Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 1 - Introduction




                      Leadership

                 Chapter 1 - Introduction

                           Northouse, 4th edition
Chapter 1 - Introduction




                           Overview
                  Conceptualizing Leadership
                  Leadership Definition
                  Components of the Definition
                  Followers & Leadership
Chapter 1 - Introduction




       Conceptualizing Leadership
        Some definitions view leadership as:

         The focus of group processes
         A personality perspective
         An act or behavior
         In terms of the power relationship
          between leaders & followers
         An instrument of goal achievement
         A skills perspective
Chapter 1 - Introduction




                   Leadership Defined
                           Leadership
          is a process whereby an
       individual influences a group of
           individuals to achieve a
                common goal.
Chapter 1 - Introduction


           Components Central to the
           Phenomenon of Leadership
    Leadership
          Is a process
          Involves influence
          Occurs within a group context
          Involves goal attainment

      Leaders
        Are not above followers
        Are not better than followers
        Rather, an interactive relationship with followers
Chapter 1 - Introduction



                           LEADERSHIP
                           DESCRIBED
   Trait vs. Process Leadership
   Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
   Leadership & Power
   Leadership & Coercion
   Leadership & Management
Chapter 1 - Introduction




  Trait vs. Process Leadership
 Trait definition of leadership:
  Certain individuals
                                              LEADER
   have special innate
   or inborn                                  • Height
   characteristics or           Leadership    • Intelligence
   qualities that                             • Extroversion
   differentiate them                         • Fluency
                                              • Other Traits
   from nonleaders.
        – Resides in select
          people
        – Restricted to those                FOLLOWERS
          with inborn talent
Chapter 1 - Introduction




 Trait vs. Process Leadership
The process definition of Leadership:
     Leadership is a
      property or set of                            LEADER
      properties possessed
      in varying degrees by          Leadership
      different people (Jago,
      1982).                                      (Interaction)
          – Observed in leadership
            behaviors
          – Can be learned
                                              FOLLOWERS
Chapter 1 - Introduction



 Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
               Assigned                    Emergent

 Leadership based              An individual perceived by
  on occupying a                others as the most influential
                                member of a group or
  position within an
                                organization regardless of the
  organization                  individual’s title
       –    Team leaders          – Emerges over time through
       –    Plant managers          communication behaviors
                                      Verbal involvement
       –    Department heads
                                      Being informed
       –    Directors                 Seek other’s opinions
                                      Being firm but not rigid
Chapter 1 - Introduction



                Leadership & Power
                  Power              Bases of Social Power
                                     French & Raven (1959)
 The capacity or
                                       Referent
  potential to influence.
       – Ability to affect others’     Expert
         beliefs, attitudes &
                                       Legitimate
         actions
                                       Reward
Power is a relational                  Coercive
concern for both leaders
and followers.
Chapter 1 - Introduction



                Leadership & Power


Five
  Bases
    of
    Power
Chapter 1 - Introduction


                  Leadership & Power
Five Bases of Power
      REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification
       and liking for the leader.
           – ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent
             power.
      EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of
       the leader’s competence.
           – ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country
             has expert power.
      LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or
       formal job authority.
           – ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits
             legitimate power
Chapter 1 - Introduction




                Leadership & Power
Five Bases of Power

   REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to
    provide rewards to others.
        – ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard
          is using reward power.

   COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity
    to penalize or punish others.
        – ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to
          practice is using coercive power.
Chapter 1 - Introduction



                Leadership & Power
           Types and Bases of Power
        Position Power      Personal Power

 Power derived from       Power is
  office or rank in an      influence derived
  organization              from being seen
      – Legitimate          as likable &
      – Reward              knowledgeable
      – Coercive             – Referent
                             – Expert
Chapter 1 - Introduction


             Leadership & Coercion
              Coercion            Examples of Coercive
              Involves                 Leaders

      Use of force to effect      Adolf Hitler
       change
      Influencing others to do    Jim Jones
       something via               David Koresh
       manipulation of rewards
       and penalties in the         Power & restraint
       work environment               used to force
      Use of threats,                 followers to
       punishments, &               engage in extreme
       negative rewards                  behavior
Chapter 1 - Introduction


               Leadership & Management
                               Kotter (1990)
              Management                           Leadership
               Activities                           Activities
          “Produces order                        “Produces change
          and consistency”                        and movement”
    • Planning & Budgeting                      • Establishing direction
    • Organizing & Staffing                     • Aligning people
    • Controlling & Problem Solving             • Motivating / Inspiring


                   Major activities of management & leadership
                 are played out differently; BUT, both are essential
                          for an organization to prosper.
                       Leadership & Management
Chapter 1 - Introduction


                             Kotter (1990)




                                             Major activities
                                             of management
                                             and leadership
                                              are played out
                                                differently;
                                              BUT, both are
                                             essential for an
                                             organization to
                                                 prosper.
Chapter 1 - Introduction


            Leadership & Management
                           Zaleznik (1977)
               Managers                   Leaders
   Unidirectional Authority       Multidirectional Influence
                                  • Are emotionally active
       • Are reactive               & involved

       • Prefer to work with      • Shape ideas over
         people on problem          responding to them
         solving                  • Act to expand
       • Low emotional              available options
         involvement              • Change the way people
                                    think about what is
                                    possible

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:5/3/2013
language:Unknown
pages:18