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Grey Water Recycling

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					                Christophe Lasseur
European Space Agency, Lausanne, 30th November 2006

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          Life Support Functions


• Air Revitalization
• Water Production
• Waste Management
• Food Production and Preparation
• Control Quality & Safety Issues
• Ergonomics &Habitability




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                   Some Basic Calculations
•
       Metabolic Consumables (air, water, food):
         – Assuming 5 kg/d/pers, 6 crew member, 1000 days missions
               30 000 kg,

       Including hygiene items:
         – Same mission configuration + 15 liters water/d/pers
                150 000 Kg,
         BUT : Our most powerful Launcher can only drop 9t on Moon
         Surface.

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                          Process Units

For MIR and ISS the Life Support System are mainly non-
  Regenerative and are constituted of independent
  Process Units:
Existing:
   – CO2 Control,
In Development:
   – Grey water Recycling,
   – Sabatier Reactor (CO2 to O2)



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        CO2 Control




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Grey Water Recycling




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 Oxygen Production




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Does recycling increases the Risks ?
  – Chemical risks,
  – Biological risks,




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               Why These risks ?


•   No escape !
•   Closed loop means toxins accumulation or limitation,
•   Crew cannot be sterilised!
•   Crew are generally immuno-deficient,
•   Radiations and confinement re-enforce mutation risk
    and influence of genetic mobile elements,




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           Human Density in Space



• Surface Density for ISS :
   15000 hab/km2 >> Singapour (7000)
• Volume Density for ISS :
   80400 hab/km3>>> Singapour (2800)



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MIR Experience




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The Concept




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    The Main Challenges of MELISSA


Four main Groups:
• Scientific,
• Engineering,
• Management.
• “Political”



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The Scientific Challenges

   • Demonstration of the efficiency of every sub-processes,
   • Compatibility between compartments (1 to2 to 3..),
   • Modelling and control of biological processes,
   •   Limitation/poisoning via traces elements,
   •   Very long term drift,
   •   Bio-safety,
   •   Acceptance of recycled products,
   •   …..


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         The Engineering Challenges


• Modelling and control of Closed loop system,
• Control of microbial consortium (and scientists consortium !),
• Overall efficiency, Energy, crew time, safety, (ALISSE Criteria)
• Detection (and modelling) of changes of nature of the sub-
  processes,
• Effects of Space Environment,
• ….




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       The Management Challenges

- Project duration (30 years or more,..),
- To manage a very large, multicultural, and
  multidisciplinary group,
- To structure the project and to allow an historical and
  comprehensive control of:
   - All the database (raw data, models, reports, software,
     manpower, budget,….),
   - All the research approach (requirements, hypothesis, design, test
     plan,..)
- The choice of the project manager !

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            “Political” Challenges

• Convince investors for a very long term project,
• To identify and convince terrestrial CustomerS,
• No main outputs in one professional life,
• Interest of manned Space missions is very much
  discussed,
• Technical and scientific challenges are very high,
• One organisation alone cannot support the project,
• One Country alone cannot support the project,


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The Status of Scientific Issues

                Today !




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                      Efficiency/Compatibility
PROCESS                                          RESULTS

Waste (Cpt I)                                    > 95%
Heterotrophic (Cpt II)                           > 98% For Acetic acid, others VFA in
                                                 progress
Nitrification (Cpt III)                          > 98%
Autotrophic (IVa)                                > 95%
Autotrophic (IVb-HPC)                            In Progress
Compatibility between                            Liquid Link 1 to IVa demonstrated
compartments                                     during 1000hours (with manual
                                                 operation).
                                                 Closed gas loop C0-CIVa demonstrated
                                                 during 700hours


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The Status of Engineering Issues

                  Today !




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                 180
                                                                                 N-Recycling
                                                                                 S-Recycling

•
                 160
                                                                                 P-Recycling
                                                                                 Water Recycling
                 140                                                             O2 Recycling
                                                                                 CO2 Recycling
    Percentage




                 120



                 100



                 80



                 60
                       0   10     20     30      40       50       60      70   80       90        100
                                               % Organic matter oxidised




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            Effects of Space Environment

• MELISSA Precursor : Longue Marche(!) in 1987

• MESSAGE 1: flown in October 2002

• MESSAGE 2: flown in October 2003

• BASE A : flown in October 2006




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 Management Issues

            Today !




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              System Engineering

•    User Requirements Definition
•   System Requirements Definition,
•   Preliminary Design Review,
•   Trade-off,
•   Identification and study of critical point,
•    Detailed Design Review,
•   Pilot plant Process
•   Test readiness review,
•   Acceptance review
•   ……
•   Key words : Project management, Risk management,
    quality assurance,…

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                       Our Approach

• Space Requirements force us to strongly studied :

   –   Process Characterisation,
   –   Modelling,
   –   Closed cycle control,
   –   Safety,
   –   Reliability,
   –   System approach.




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           One of Our Tool: ALISSE

• System Characterisation and trade-off of independent
  unit and complex architecture with mathematical and
  associated software tools:
   – Efficiency
   – Energy,
   – Mass,
   – Crew Time,
   – Human Risk
   The Criteria are as well inputs to the Complete mission study
     via CDF studies.


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                    The Community

• Around 30 European (from NL, B, F, D, E, IRL, +Canada, + CH
  in 2007) organisations participate :
   – Universities,
   – Public research centres,
   – SME,
   – Industrial World leaders,
   – Space companies,
• 10 of them have signed a MOU,
• Around 70 persons are involved,
• ~ 50 % is academic manpower,
• ESA is in charge of the coordination, on request of the partners.

                     Industrial Ecology workshop Nov. 2006     32
          The External Customer

Water Industry :
• 1 800000 m3 waste water Daily treated with MELISSA 3rd
  compartment technology,
AgroFood Industry:
• 160 Millions bottles/year controlled by MELISSA sensors,
Environmental Sector:
• Several consultancy studies:
   – Manure recycling,
   – Rain Water valorisation,
   – AIRBUS A 380


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CONCORDIA



                                         Copyright S. Drapeau




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Water Recycling for
      A 380




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                      Public Interest

                                                           Evolution of the number of publications
– More than 90 Scientific
  publications,                                     60
– 155 Technical Notes,                              50
– More than 70 students,                            40




                                            Count
                                                                                                     Scientific articles
– 5 TV presentations,                               30
                                                                                                     Public
                                                    20
– Numerous Exhibitions (Turin,
                                                    10
  Helsinki, London, Paris, Ostende,
                                                     0
  Liege, Barcelone,…),
                                                         2003          2004           2005
– a VERY large Public interest.                                        Years




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                   More Exchanges

• In 1987, closed systems were seen as a bit “exotic”,
• Today:
   – Independent units have demonstrated their limits,
   – There are needs to approach understand and control much more
     complex system,
   – There are needs to better understand and evaluate Risks and
     products acceptance,
• Please help us to develop our know-how and to transfer it to
  terrestrial applications.


                    Industrial Ecology workshop Nov. 2006       39

				
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