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Philosophical Foundations

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Philosophical Foundations
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All Teachers have a Philosophy of
Education

• For some it is systematic and conscious
• For most it is unstated and erratic
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The Value of an Intentional
Philosophy

• Understanding why responses differ
• Gaining control over responses and
  styles
• Increasing consistency of response
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Branches of Philosophy


•   Metaphysics: What is real?
•   Epistemology: What is truth?
•   Axiology: What is value?
•   Logic: How to think clearly
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Four Different Philosophies

• Their impact on educational practice
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Perennialism

• Nature is constant
• Human nature is constant
• Intellect distinguishes man from beast
• Intellect discovers truth: constant and
  changeless
• Learn from the great ideas of the past
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Progressivism


•   Nature is ever changing
•   Learn from problem-solving
•   Education begins with the student
•   Schools should be democratic
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Essentialism

• The mind is the essential element of
  reality (idealism)
• The mind learns from physical world
  contact (realism)
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Essentialism (cont.)


• Teach the essentials to live well in a
  modern world
• The child is a learner to be shaped and
  developed
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Existentialism

• The child is free
• The child is who he/she chooses to be
• The child’s quest is for personal
  meaning
• Answers come from within, not from
  the outside
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The Teacher

• passes on wisdom of the past-
  Perennialism


• teaches problem solving-Progressivism
• Essentialism:
   – teaches essential knowledge
• Existentialism:
   – helps child confront freedom
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The Child


• Perennialism:
  – learns what is taught
• Progressivism:
  – naturally good, learns by doing
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The Child (cont.)


• Essentialism:
  – listens and learns
• Existentialism:
  – is alone to discover meaning

				
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posted:5/3/2013
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