LESSON PLAN by Whitley Starnes
Lesson: Reading - Cause and Effect
Length: 35 minutes
Grade Level: second grade
2.2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationship in a text. (Core Standard)
When reading Bill Helps Geese Survive by Anthony Estes, the students will identify the cause-
and-effect relationship, verified by the teacher.
When reading Goose’s Story by Cari Best, the students will identify the cause-and-effect
relationship, verified by the teacher.
I will use an informal, formative assessment, which will involve listening to students’ responses
after reading the selected stories.
Advanced Preparation by Teacher:
1. Review vocabulary words on the blue chart - wider, saddest, balance, deserted, freezes,
imagine (Gardner: Visual/Spatial)
2. Have students meet at the Green Chair with their Blue Readers opened to the story Bill
Helps Geese Survive by Anthony Estes page 44-45
3. Using the story in Step 2, discuss cause-and-effect relationships.
Say: An effect is what happens in a story. A cause is the reason why something
happens. As you read ask yourself: What happened? This is the effect. Then ask:
Why did it happen? This is the cause. Identifying cause and effect helps you to
understand the story. (Gardner: Verbal/Linguistic)
4. Model cause-and-effect relationships.
Read the first paragraph of Bill Helps Geese Survive and think aloud “I read
that as a boy, Bill always pictured himself flying though the sky. I ask myself,
‘What happened as a result of Bill’s dream?’ When I continue reading, I see
that Bill learned to fly airplanes.”
Ask the students: What is the cause? (Bloom: Knowledge)
Answer: Bill had always dreamed about flying.
Ask the students: What is the effect? (Bloom: Knowledge)
Answer: Bill learned to fly airplanes.
5. Have students reread the second, third, and fourth paragraph and tell all of the events that
happened. Then ask them to explain why these things happened. Remind them that they
are trying to find the cause (reason why something happens) and effect (what happens in
the story). Next, have students share their cause and effects. (Bloom: Application,
6. Divide students into groups of 3 and have them read Goose’s Story by Cari Best (page
47-71). When finished reading, the students will meet quietly back at their desks.
7. Once all groups have finished reading, have the students meet at the Green Chair to
discuss Goose’s Story by Cari Best. Also, discuss cause-and-effect relationships using the
selected stories. The following are a few of the questions to ask about the story to help
students identify cause and effect.
Ask on page 51: What causes the girl to be upset? (Bloom: Comprehension)
Ask on page 53: How does the goose’s problem make the girl and Mama feel?
Why do the girl’s feelings about the goose change?
What causes Mama to feel angry?
Ask on page 54: What causes and effects did you find in the story? (Bloom:
8. Review cause and effect. A cause is the reason why something happens. An effect is what
happens in a story.
9. Have students return to their seats and put away their Blue Readers.
Meet with “student name” during group reading time.
Did the majority of my students meet the performance objective?
What parts of the lesson went well?
What parts of the lesson did not go as well?
How will I improve my lesson for the next time I teach?