Education Equality Initiative - Aontas by langkunxg

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									  Community Education Facilitators National Training
       Galway, 13th and 14th November 2006




From Educational Disadvantage
    to Educational Equality
         Community-based Education
           and wider Policy Issues


                  Trutz Haase
 The Concept of Educational Disadvantage




The Education Act 1998 (Section 32.9) defines educational
disadvantage as “the impediments to education arising from
social or economic disadvantage which prevent students from
deriving appropriate benefits from education in schools”.
                   Historical Perspective




   A generation ago, more than 55% of the age cohort had left
    school by the age of 15 and only 20% of the age cohort
    completed second level education.
   Today, about 3% of the cohort leave before completing junior
    cycle and over 80% sit a Leaving Certificate.
   Over 85% of these proceed to some form of further or higher
    education or training.
        Current Level of Early School Leaving




   Between 700 and 1,000 young people do not transfer from
    primary to second level.
   Of those who enter second level, about 2,400 (3.2%) do not stay
    on to sit the Junior Cert. 3 years later.
   About 10,600 of those who sit Junior Cert. do not stay on to sit
    Leaving Cert. Half of these leave formal education after the
    Junior Cert.
   In all, at the end of the 1990s, about 13,000 young people (18.4%
    of the cohort) are leaving school annually without the Leaving
    Cert.
                                    (Department of Education & Science - 2002)
The Need for a multi-faceted approach to more
             inclusive Education




There is widespread recognition within OECD countries that
successful initiatives to respond to the problem of educational
disadvantage require integration of and collaboration between
statutory and voluntary agencies and between educators /
trainers and parents and their communities.
                               (OECD Overcoming Failure in School, 1998)
             Changes in Approach to Learning



    Towards a seamless delivery of integrated and
    co-ordinated approaches spanning four axes:


   Individual
   Family / Community
   School
   Training, further education and work
                                           (NESF Early School Leavers , 2002)
                 Approaches: Individual




   Literacy and Numeracy
   Self-esteem and Confidence Building
   Provision for special needs
   Culturally appropriate education
   Attainment of core competencies
           Approaches: Family / Community




   Addressing basic rights for food, clothing and shelter
   Family support and Parenting
   Effective Partnership between formal and non-formal sectors
   Networking and Integrated Development
   Empowerment
                   Approaches: School




   Pre-school provision
   Teaching Supports and School Resources
   Tracking (incl. primary and second level transfer)
   Out-of-School Support
   Parental Involvement
   Curriculum Flexibility
   Achievement Awards
   Whole School Approach
Approaches: Training, Further Education and Work




   Lifelong Learning
   In-Work training
   Opportunities for Continuing / Second Chance Education
   Education / Work Transitions
   Vocational Pathways and Skills Credits
   Work / Education Links
Current Interventions: Early Childhood Education




   Centre for Early Childhood Education and Care
   Early Start
   Rutland Street Project
   Traveller pre-school Education
   Special Needs – Early Childhood Services
         Current Interventions: Primary Level
                           (selective headings)




   Giving Children an Even Break / Breaking the Cycle
   Disadvantaged Areas Scheme
   Home School Community Liaison Scheme (HSCL)
   Learning Support/ Resource Teachers
   Education of Non-nationals
   Book Grant Scheme
   Traveller Education
         Current Interventions: Second Level
                           (selective headings)




   Disadvantaged Areas Scheme
   Support Teachers/Special Needs Assistants
   Home School Community Liaison Scheme (HSCL)
   Learning Support/ Resource Teachers
   Education of Non-nationals
   Book Grant Scheme
   Exam Fees Exemptions
   Traveller Education
   Substance Misuse Prevention
                   Current Interventions:
                            (selective headings)




   School Completion Programme (Primary and Post-Primary)
   National Educational Psychological Service (NEPS)
   Youth
       Youth Services
       Senior traveller Training Centres
       Youthreach
      Current Interventions: Further Education
                            (selective headings)




   Vocational Training Opportunities Scheme (VTOS)
   Post Leaving Certificate courses (PLCs)
   Access to Third Level
   Millenium Partnership Fund for Disadvantage
        Current Interventions: Adult Education




   Adult Literacy
   Education Equality Initiative (EEI)
   Community Education
   Back to Education Initiative
Moving from Alleviating Educational Disadvantage
        to greater Educational Equality…



   There are now some 60 initiatives in place to help alleviate
    Educational Disadvantage.
   There is no doubt that educational standards have massively
    improved throughout Ireland over the past two decades.
   But questions remain as to the relative life chances afforded to
    individuals and communities:
       Educational achievements (depending on social class) have
        remained highly differentiated.
       Access to third level education remains highly differentiated.
       Requirements to access jobs have increased.

   Overall improvement in educational outcomes may thus not have
    contributed much to alleviating education inequalities.
              Assessing Outcomes:
          Coombes’ Definition of Deprivation



 Relative Deprivation
    “The fundamental implication of the term deprivation is of an
    absence – of essential or desirable attributes, possessions and
    opportunities which are considered no more than the minimum
    by that society.”
    (Coombes et al., 1995: p.5)
The Underlying Dimensions of Social Disadvantage



 Demographic Decline
      population loss and the social and demographic effects of
       prolonged population loss (age dependency, low education of
       adult population)


 Social Class Deprivation
      social class composition, education, housing comfort


 Labour Market Deprivation
      unemployment, lone parents, low skills base
           The Model of Disadvantage



d1       Age Dependency Rate

                                      Demographic
d2         Population Change           Decline

d3       Primary Education Only


d4       Third Level Education


d5        Professional Classes         Social Class
                                      Disadvantage
d6         Persons per Room


d7      Single Parent Households


d8    Semi/Unskilled Manual Classes
                                       Lab. Mkt.
d9      Male Unemployment Rate         Deprivation


d10    Female Unemployment Rate
  Comparison of Absolute Deprivation Scores
             1991, 1996 and 2002


          1600

          1400

          1200

          1000                                                                                          1991
           800                                                                                          1996

           600                                                                                          2002

           400

           200

            0
                 -50 to -30 -30 to -20 -20 to -10 -10 to 0   0 to 10   10 to 20   20 to 30   30 to 50




 1991 to 2002: unprecedented growth in Ireland
 1991 – 1996: increase of +7
 1996 – 2002: increase of +8
  Note: marginally narrowing shape of distribution (i.e. more equal)
      Relative
    Affluence
          and                                              1200


                                                           1000




   Deprivation                                             800


                                                           600




         2002
                                                           400


                                                           200


                                                             0
                                                                                                                         1991
                                                                  -50    -30    -20     -10   0 to   10 to 20 to 30 to
                                                                  to -   to -   to -   to 0   10      20    30    50
                                                                   30     20     10




                                                           1400

                                                           1200

                                                           1000

                                                           800

                                                           600

                                                           400

                                                           200

                                                             0
                                                                                                                         1996
                                                                  -50    -30    -20     -10   0 to   10 to 20 to 30 to
                                                                  to -   to -   to -   to 0   10      20    30    50
                                                                   30     20     10




                                                           1400

                                                           1200

                                                           1000

                                                           800

                                                           600

                                                           400

                                                           200

                                                             0
                                                                                                                         2002
                                                                  -50    -30    -20     -10   0 to   10 to 20 to 30 to
                                                                  to -   to -   to -   to 0   10      20    30    50
                                                                   30     20     10




                                  Haase & Pratschke 2003


Trutz Haase
   Social & Economic Consultant
    Comparison of Relative Deprivation Scores
              1991, 1996 and 2002


 For the country as a whole:
    Virtually no differences in the distribution of relative
    deprivation 1991-2002


 Only Exception:
         Dublin’s Inner City


The report Deprivation and its Spatial Articulation in the Republic of Ireland
  can be downloaded from the following web address:

    http://www.pobal.ie/media/Deprivationanditsspatialarticulation.pdf
         Deprivation – Educational Equality and
            Intergenerational Class Mobility



   To substantially enhance the intergenerational class mobility and educational
    equality will require a fundamental restructuring of the Irish educational system,
    notably a shift from the high expenditure on third level education towards
    greater expenditure at pre-school and primary levels.
   The current initiatives in adult and community-based education are not only
    important in as much as they provide second chance education for cohorts that
    have been failed by the education system in the past,
     they also constitute important services to communities and families where it
      is of utmost importance to enhance school retention amongst the next
      school-going generation, and
     if properly evaluated, can provide the necessary pointers how to reform the
      mainstream education system in such a way as to make it more attractive
      and accommodating for those who are currently at risk of not achieving their
      full educational potential.
         The Back to Education Initiative: Intent



   The BTEI will make a major contribution to building the capacity of the formal
    education sector to meet the changing needs of individuals, communities and
    society. This will only happen if a clear agenda for change in how the initiative is
    perceived, planned, delivered and evaluated is implemented from the outset.
   The top priorities of the BTEI part time programme are to address:
     The low literacy levels of the Irish adult population;
     The large numbers of Irish adults (1.1.m aged 15-64) who have not completed
      upper second-level education, of whom 529,600 have not completed lower
      second-level;
     The inflexibility of the Irish education system, with its predominant emphasis
      on full-time provision: time specific entry and exit opportunities;
     The difficulties in combining family, personal and work responsibilities with
      learning opportunities;
                                        (DE&S: Circular Letter ‘Back to Education Initiative, 2002)
Key Challenges in the Delivery and Evaluation of
    Adult and Community-based Education


   The immense variety in the Projects with regard to:
       the target groups involved
       the kind of disadvantage(s) experienced
       the contexts within which the projects operate


   The generally local focus of the Projects involved:
       Projects tend to be overwhelmed by the task they face
       Projects tend to focus on the innovative delivery of services but
        more emphasis is needed for the systematic evaluation of their work
        in a comparative setting



   Evaluation will be of utmost importance in an environment based
    on increasingly evidence-based policy formulation.
 Key Questions that have (largely) been addressed



1.   How do we define educational disadvantage and what is its relationship
     to wider social and economic inequalities?


2.   Which social groups are facing particular barriers to education and suffer
     as a result of this?


3.   What are the specific needs of each of these groups and with regard to
     each educational setting?


4.   What strategies can be devised to assist these groups in overcoming the
     barriers to education?
                          Strategies (general)



Enhancing Access (Access, Skills, Confidence, Awareness)
      Outreach work
      Initial learning activities

Improved Delivery (Content, Participation, Certification)
      Content relevance
      Flexible provision
      Availability of skilled tutors
      Multiple Intelligence approach
      Accreditation
Support Services
      Guidance
      Transport
      Allowances
      Creche facilities / elder care
      Literacy
      Language tuition
                                     (Note: List only indicative, not meant to be comprehensive)
The Paths towards Greater Educational Inclusion



                                                    Pre-school and Primary
    Low SES                 Access                        Education



 Difficult family
   situations                                        Secondary Education
                             Skills


  Disabilities                                         Further Education


                          Confidence
                                                   Community –based / Adult
Ethnic minorities                                       Education



   Travellers              Awareness                   Lifelong Learning

                                                  Educational Institutions and
                                                     Strategies re Access,
 Target Groups      Dimensions to be addressed   Delivery & Support Structures
    Key Questions that need to be addressed now



   How can we measure improvements in access to education in the context
    of the existing initiatives?


   How can we measure advances in terms of access to the labour market /
    access to information / improvements in quality of life as a result of
    participation in the projects/initiatives?


   What lessons can be learned from the projects/initiatives in order to
    improve the access of these groups to mainstream (adult) education
    provision?


   How can auditing mechanisms be devised for the equality-proofing of
    wider (adult) education measures?

								
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