Rice planting system in Nepal - Oklahoma State University by hcj

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									Rice planting system in Nepal




         Arjun Pandey
Department of plant and soil science
   Oklahoma State University
Outline
• Introduction
• Agriculture in Nepal
• Rice Planting System
• SRI and Conventional
   Method
• Problems
• Conclusion
Introduction:
Background:
 Area of Nepal-147181sq. Km.
 Total farming Population-65%
 23% of total area is the most fertile land where cereal production is mainly
  concentrated.
 Agriculture Contributes to about 33.8% to national GDP.(World Bank,2010)
 Provides part and fulltime employment opportunities to 65.5% of its
  population.
 Elevation ranges from 70 m (230 ft) to 8848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.
 Tremendous variation in climate (tropical to temperate) as a result of
  variation in altitude. There are four main climatic seasons:
   Spring : March-May
   Summer : June-August
  Autumn : September-November
  Winter : December-February
    Physiographic Regions and Cropping
                  System

•   Himalayan
•   High mountain
•   Middle mountain
•   Siwalik
•   Terai
                   Agriculture in Nepal
 Among agriculture crops rice is main crop, cultivated on nearly 1.55 M Ha of
  lands.
 Total production of rice 2008/09 was 4.3 millions of tons, with average
  productivity of 2907kg/ha(world average is about 4204kg/ha)
           Problems of rice cultivation
• Older generation of seeds

• High Production cost

• Low doses of fertilizers

• Manual/bullock- Based cultivation

• Fraction of land(small holding=0.24ha)

• Distribution of land

• Low Irrigation facility

• Poor Farmers(% of population below international poverty line of
  US$1.25 per day, 1994-2008*=55) (Unicef,2010)
        Rice cultivation system:
 Upland rice cultivation:- 9% of total rice
  cultivation area is under upland.

 Lowland rice cultivation:
 Major practice
 Cultivated 2 times in a year
 Different methods of rice planting
• Direct planting- In Nepal it is not
  practiced yet, and research is going on.
• Transplanting




Two ways of transplanting is popular in
  Nepal.
 Conventional Transplanting
 Modern Transplanting(SRI)
    Conventional Rice Transplanting
               System
• Farmers Use more than
  60 kg of seeds/ha

• Transplant very old
  seedlings(30-45 days)

• Plants many seedlings
  8-10/hill.
 Modern Rice Planting System(SRI)
• System of Rice Intensification-Evolved in
  Madagascar, over 20-yr period

• In Nepal introduced in 1998

• One seedling per hill.
 Why SRI ??
                                                                                 Area Production and Yield inNepal
10
                                                                             5
                                                                                                                              yield
8                                                                                                                             production
                                                                             4                                                area
6




                                                     Area/Yield/Production
4                                                                            3

2
                                                                             2
0
                                                                             1


                                                                             0
                                                                                  2009   2007   2005   2003   2000   1995   1990   1985
                                                                                                          Year

     SRI Yield (T/Ha)   Conventional Yields (T/Ha)
                                         COST
                      COSTS,SRI          CONVENTIONAL     DIFFERENCE(RS/H
PRACTICE/PURCHASE     RICE(RS/HA)        RICE(RS/HA)      A)

SEED                            125                1250             1125

NURSERY PREPARATION                 50              500              450

LAND PREPARATION               7500                7500                 0

COMPOST                        4800                2400             -2400

FERTILIZERS                    1500                3000             1500

TRANSPLANTING                  1250                1500              250

IRRIGATION                      200                 400              200

WEEDING                         750                1350              600

PESTICIDE                            0              500              500

HARVESTING                     1750                1500              -250

TOTAL COST                    17925               19900             1975

REVENUE,GRAIN                 60450               23250            -37200

REVENUE,BY PRODUCT             3000                3000                 0

TOTAL REVENUE                 63450               26250            -37200

NETPROFIT                     45525                6350            -39175
Five Principles of SRI
        Comparisons of factor effects:
• Young seedling
     8 days-6.28 t/ha      vs.     20 days-3.80 t/ha

• Water management effect
     Water control -5.75 t/ha vs.         Flooding- 4.34 t/ha

• Fertilization
      Compost-5.49 t/ha     vs. NPK fertilizer -4.48 t/ha

• Plants per hill effect
      1 plant/hill- 5.43 t/ha vs. 3 plants/hill- 4.65 t/ha

• Spacing effect
      30x30cm- 5.08 t/ha vs.      25x25 cm 5.00 t/ha
                                                         source-Uphoff, 2006
Twelve Techniques of SRI
Nursery Preparation   Uprooting Seedlings




Marking the area        Planting on the spot
Intercultural operation
         Technology Promotion
Leaf Color Chart

Urea Super Granule

Seed Production and Preservation

Alternate Wet and Dry(AWD) irrigation System

Pheromone trap
http://wn.com/samardeen17
                     Conclusion

SRI method is found to be more productive than
conventional method

Main components for higher yield of rice is younger
seedlings, fewer seedlings /hill, wider spacing and AWD
irrigation

Tools and machines supply/availability for making and
weeding are every useful for adopting
SRI in larger areas

								
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