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					  Biomes
Standard 5e & 6a
           Standard 5e & 6a
   5e: Students know rain forests and
    deserts on Earth are distributed in
    bands at specific latitudes.

   6a: Students know weather (in the
    short run) and climate (in the long
    run) involve the transfer of energy
    into and out of the atmosphere.
            Energy Transfer
   We learned from last unit that the
    sun heats the earth unequally,
    causing differences in temperature.
   We also learned that evaporation and
    precipitation of water occurs because
    of the unequal heating.
   Because of these two main things,
    solar energy and precipitation,
    energy is transferred throughout the
    globe.
         Weather vs. Climate
   Energy transfer causes the weather;
    the state of the atmosphere at a
    given time or place (temperature,
    precipitation, humidity, air pressure)
    • Wind & Rain
    • Clouds, lightning, & thunder
    • Disasters: hurricanes, tornadoes
   Weather is different from climate;
    the long term average of weather.
         What affects climate?
   Climate in an area is affected by two
    main things
    • Direct sunlight (heat)
    • Precipitation
   Climate directly affects the type of
    biome
    • Biome is an environment with specific
      vegetation and organisms
    • If it is cold, you have organisms that are
      suitable to the ____
                     Sunlight               Greenhouse
                                               Effect
   Sunlight gives off       Sunlight
    different wavelengths
   When it strikes the                                 Some heat
                                                        escapes

    earth, different
                                                        into space


    wavelengths get
    reflected while others
    are absorbed, heating
    the Earth.                                       Greenhouse
                                                     gases trap
                                                     some heat`
   Some of it escapes
    into space, some           Atmosphere
    reflects back to earth
    due to greenhouse                       Earth’s surface

    gases
                           Latitude
                                        90°N North Pole
                       Low Sunlight                   66.5°N
                                      Arctic circle

               Sunlight
                                      Tropic of Cancer         23.5°N

           Most direct sunlight       Equator                  0°

                                      Tropic of Capricorn 23.5°S

               Sunlight
                                      Arctic circle
                                                      66.5°S
                       Low Sunlight
                                        90°S South Pole


   The amount of direct light can affect the
    temperature.
   Remember that the equator gets the most
    sunlight, and polar regions gets the least.
                Precipitation
   The amount of
    water falling in the
    given area can
    greatly affect the
    type of climate
   Remember that
    precipitation falls
    at 0° and 60°
                  Biomes
   Because of these two factors
    combined, we get specific biomes at
    specific areas.
   For example, at the equator, there is
    a lot of sunlight, and a lot of
    precipitation, so there is a tropical
    rainforest.
   At 30°, there is a lot of sunlight, but
    little or no precipitation, so there is a
    desert.
                Overview
   Sunlight and precipitation affect the
    climate
   Climate over an environment
    produces a biome
   A biome has organisms suited to the
    climate
   Biomes generally occur on the same
    latitudes
                  Biomes
   There are two main types of biomes
    • Land
    • Aquatic (water)


   We will cover both today
              Land Biomes
   Most land biomes are named after
    their climax community.
   Some of the land biomes
    • Tundra
    • Taiga (TIGH-guh)
    • Temperate deciduous forest
    • Grassland
    • Tropical rain forest
    • Desert
Tropical rain forest   Temperate grassland   Temperate forest    Tundra


Tropical dry forest    Desert                Northwestern        Mountains and
                                             coniferous forest   ice caps

Tropical savanna       Temperate woodland
                       and shrubland         Boreal forest
                                             (Taiga)
             Aquatic biomes
   There are 3 main types of aquatic
    biomes.
   The amount of salt determines the
    type of biome.
   The 3 main types of aquatic biomes
    • Freshwater
    • Marine (saltwater)
    • Estuaries
                  Tundra
   Tundra
    • Located near the poles
    • Treeless biome covered by moss,
      lichens, and grasses
    • Permafrost – a layer of permanently
      frozen subsoil
                   Taiga
   Taiga
    • Covered by coniferous (cone bearing)
      trees.
    • Bears, wolves, moose, elk are some of
      the typical animals
    Temperate Deciduous Forest
   Temperate deciduous forest
    • Plants change during the seasons
      (leaves change color)
                 Grasslands
   Grasslands
    • Most of the rainfall occurs in one part of
      the season
    • Hot summers, cold winters
          Tropical Rain Forest
   Tropical rain forest
    • Located at equator
    • Receive 200-400 centimeters of rain a
      year
    • Constant temperature.
    • Home of the most types of animals than
      any other biome. Many colorful
                   Deserts
   Deserts
    • Located at 30° latitude
    • Less than 25 cm of rain falls a year
    • Both plants and animals must be able to
      retain moisture.
    • Birds, lizards, snakes, insects are typical
    • Cactus and sagebrush sparsely cover
      the area
          Freshwater biomes
   Rivers, streams, and lakes
             Marine Biomes
   Includes all of the ocean
   Marine biomes are divided into 4
    subcategories
    • Intertidal zone
    • Neritic zone
    • Open-sea zone
    • Deep-sea zone
                Estuaries
   Estuaries are the boundaries
    between freshwater and saltwater.
   Since it is a mix of the two, a variety
    of organisms can be supported.
   Examples of estuaries
    • Delta, swamp, lagoon
               Biome Project
   In groups of 4-5, create a biome presentation
   Give information about the biome, including:
     • Temperature range (graph)
     • Precipitation (graph)
     • Location (latitudes/areas)
     • Plants (vegetation)
     • Animals
     • Brief Description (Examples)
     • Koppen climate classifications
   Posterboard or Powerpoint acceptable
   More visuals, the better
   500000000 points
          To help you out…

   A Biology Textbook
   http://mbgnet.mobot.org/
   http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/La
    boratory/Biome/
               Preplan…
   What kind of presentation will you
    do? Powerpoint? Posterboard?
   Who is doing what? Research?
    Picture finding? Who’s good with
    computers? Who’s bringing
    materials?
   When do you want to meet up?
    Contact info?
   Anything else you can think of…

				
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posted:5/1/2013
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