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									    Passage
              Not Just Shopping: Insights into the New Consumer

    Shopping, once thought of as a chore, is said to be the most
popular leisure activity in Britain. But if we think about
consumption as merely a visit to the shopping mall or superstore, we
are probably missing the point. A major research programme, Cultures
of Consumption, is providing new ways of thinking about consumption
and consumerism.
    The call of the mall, or the lure of material goods, dominates
popular ideas about consumption and consumerism. Our bookshelves and
magazine racks groan under the weight of books and articles asking
the same question: why do we buy so much stuff? Is it to increase our
sense of well-being, or have we merely become slaves to an
aspirational consumerism, buying things we do not need and destroying
the planet in the process?
    In the United States liberal commentators are gripped by a moral
panic about the development of a culture in which average citizens
copy and compete with the rich and famous to buy the most fashionable
and highest-status items they can -- a case not merely of keeping up
with the Joneses, but with the J-Lo's as well.
    In Britain, meanwhile, where unfettered consumption has helped
push consumer debt to a record £984.8 billion (nearly equivalent to
the nation's entire annual national income), Sir Michael Marmot,
professor of epidemiology and public health at University College
London, has coined the term Status Syndrome to describe how being
seen to consume more material products than your peers can transform
for the better your chances of living a contented life.
    The great paradox uncovered by this focus on aspirational
consumption, of course, is that it is not making us any happier.
Professor Barry Schwartz, professor of Social Theory and Social
Action at Swarthmore University and author of? The Paradox of Choice,
is one of many who now blame "the paralysing effects of a marketplace
that offers a bewildering and ultimately debilitating array of
alternatives" for fuelling not greater satisfaction, but greater
anxiety.
    Added to this are growing anxieties about the stultifying
blandness in our cultural environment that results from the
appearance of branches of the same global retail chains on virtually
every high street. But our preoccupation with the way shopping has
been elevated from utilitarian chore to a way of life obscures the
significance of forms and modes of consumption that do not centre on
the commercial purchase of goods, such as visits to a club, a museum
or a doctor and riding on a bus or a train. It also neglects the
changing paradigms of consumption and the ways in which consumption
interacts with the rest of society.
    As Dr Frank Trentmann, senior lecturer in history at Birkbeck
College, London, and director of a major research programme entitled
Cultures of Consumption, says, "consumption is as much about services,
experiences, and citizenship as it is about the acquisition of
goods."
    Consumers do not, for example, merely decide what products to buy;
they also help to shape them. Take text messaging. Now an integral
part of modern life, it started as almost a throw-away by-product
during the emergence of mobile telephony. Mobile phone companies
found they had the capacity to send 160 characters of data as well as
voice, but were not entirely sure of what use it might be. It was
their teenage consumers who led the way by popularising texting and
even inventing a new language for it.
    Consumers are not just shaping new uses for new products, but
reshaping uses of existing ones too. Items such as BT's Big Button
telephone, which was originally designed for people with disabilities,
are now fast becoming cult objects of desire for non-disabled people,
who are attracted by their superior design and their ease of use.
    We are now even seeing consumers as creators themselves,
producing their own products. Users are attracted to internet chat
rooms, for example, by the content. And the content, of course, is
put there by the users themselves.
    The Cultures of Consumption Programme, funded by the Economic and
Social Research Council and the Arts and Humanities Research Board,
attempts to reconnect the subject of consumption with the debate on
these and other issues. The ~ 5 million Programme examines
consumption in a global context through a wide range of projects that
extend far beyond the study of the mass consumer society, to include
the consumption of social and public services and the relationship
between consumption and citizenship through the emergence of
collective identities and shared goals. From the early organised
actions of the co-operative societies to the less orderly protests of
the anti-globalism activists and the fuel protestors, consumer
movements have provided powerful structures for political engagement.
    It is in this context that the post-war consumer movement can be
said to be, in Dr Trentmann's words, "on the verge of becoming a
'citizens' movement". As the commentator Naomi Klein says in No Logo,
her polemic against global brands, "Ethical shareholders, culture
jammers, street reclaimers, human-rights hacktivists, school-logo
fighters and internet corporate watchdogs are at the early stages of
demanding a citizen-centred alternative to the international rule of
the brands ... as global, and as capable of co-ordinated action, as
the multinational corporations it seeks to subvert". Or, in the words
of one urban teenager quoted by Klein: "Nike, we made you. We can
break you".
    The rising usage by consumers of specialist technical information
on the internet, and its impact on our use of professional services,
is just one of the areas that the Cultures of Consumption Programme
is studying in an attempt to explore the changing nature of consumer
power. The services featured in this particular study are health care,
legal advice and investment management.
    Consumer behaviour is also explored in the programme through two
projects studying the effects of the growing "food mile" (the
distance between food producers and consumers, taking in growers,
processors, packagers and retailers) on consumer confidence, as well
as one on the role of ethical considerations in shaping purchasing
patterns.
    There are also international studies on the commodification of
water and on the relationship between the primary producers in Mexico
of chicle/chewing gum and changes in the world consumer market for
gum.
    The issues raised by Cultures of Consumption are complex and far-
reaching and many are likely to remain unresolved for years to come.
But only by expanding the public debate beyond the confines for the
shopping mall can we start to address them.
     Comprehension
     Questions 1--4 Choose the best answer.
    1. Which statement is correct according to this passage?
    [A] Shopping used to be the most popular leisure activity in
Britain.
    [B] It is commonly believed that people love shopping owing to
the attraction of material goods.
    [C] The increasingly unfettered consumption made people happier.
    [D] Modern consumption offers people better shopping experience
with better environment, service and more alternatives.
    2. What does the word "Joneses" in paragraph three stand for?
    [A] celebrities. [B] lower class.
    [C] neighbours. [D] citizens.
    3. According to Dr. Frank Trentmann, consumption is about the
following items except ______.
    [A] commercial purchase
    [B] citizenship
    [C] competing with the famous
    [D] services
    4. What is implied by the example of BT's Big Button telephone?
    [A] Abled people also prefer the design and usage of this
telephone.
    [B] This telephone is designed with disabled people in mind.
    [C] The designing of this telephone was motivated by consumer's
request.
    [D] Consumers now posses the power to turn something old into
something trendy.
    Questions 5--8 Complete the following sentences with NO MORE THAN
three words for each blank.
    5. When we purchase unnecessary stuff, we are probably being
influenced by ______.
    6. The text messaging was made popular by ______.
    7. The goal of international rule of brands is to ______.
    8. The Cultures of Consumption Programme is exploring the nature
of consumer power in the fields of ______, ______ and ______.
                                 Part Ⅱ

    Exercise 1 Use of English
    Read the following text and fill each of the numbered spaces
with ONE suitable word.
                      Etiquette in Cell Phone users

    "The more gadgets there are, the (1) things seem to get." said
Honore Ervin, co-author of The Etiquette Girls: Things You Need to Be
Told. "Just because it's there (2) your disposal, doesn't mean you
have to use it 24/7."
    A recent (3) by market research company Synovate showed that 70
percent of 1,000 respondents (4) the poorest etiquette in cell phone
users over other devices. The worst habit? Loud phone conversations
in public places, or "cell yell," (5) to 72 percent of the Americans
polled.
    "People use (6) anywhere and everywhere," Ervin said. "At the
movies -- turn (7) your cell phone. I don't want to pay $10 to be
sitting next to some guy chitchatting to his girlfriend (8) his cell
phone." This rudeness has deteriorated public spaces, according to
Lew Friedland, a communication professor (9) the University of
Wisconsin-Madison. He (10) the lack of manners a kind of unconscious
rudeness, (11) many people are not (12) of what they're doing or the
others around them.
    "I think it's really noticeable in any plane, train or bus (13)
you're subjected against your will (14) someone else's conversation,"
he said. "You can listen to intimate details of their uncle's illness,
problems with their lovers, and (15) they're having for dinner. "It
(16) what was a public common space and starts to (17) it up into
small private space."
    A short time ago, if cell phone users (18) politely asked to talk
quietly, they would (19) with chagrin, he said. "Now more and more
people are essentially treating you like you don't understand that
loud cell phone use is (20) in public."
    Exercise 2 Multiple Matching
    Answer questions 1--10 by referring to the following passages.
Answer each question by choosing A, B, C or D.
    (Note: When more than one answer is required, these may be given
in any order. Some choices may be required more than once.)
    A = Jancis Robinson B = Anthony Rose
    C = David Moore D = Malcolm Gluck
    Which wine critic(s)
    thinks that consumers have contributed to the situation in UK
wine criticism?
    shows more direct critique on the colleague's writing?
    can make a good living out of wine critic?
    share common negative idea on some of their colleagues?
    believes that honesty is the most important thing?
    admits that UK wine market is not as well-developed as some other
countries?
    predicts that customers will not have to rely on the
recommendations of wine critics?
    insists on having never been written under the pressure of press?
    thinks that wine critics must be good at communication?
    1. ______
    2. ______
    3. ______
    4. ______
    5. ______
    6. ______
    7. ______
    8. ______
    9. ______
    10. ______
    One might easily imagine that wine critics have an enviable
lifestyle. They spend much of their time drinking wines, provided,
for the most part, for free. It is a respectable job that involves
meeting many wealthy and talented individuals.
    To get the inside view on the world of wine criticism in the UK,
I spoke to some of Britain's most influential critics: Jancis
Pobinson MW, who writes for the Financial Times; Anthony Rose of the
Independent; David Moore, whose book Wine Behind the Label is now in
its fifth edition; and Malcolm Gluck, the broadcaster and author who
had a regular column about wine in the Guardian for more than 15
years.
    Summarizing wine criticism is not easy, though Anthony Rose made
a good' attempt at it. "Wine tasting is an inadequate science. It
requires an objective assessment of the wine and a subjective
assessment of the taste, and then a form in which you can communicate
this to the reader. It means being an all-round communicator of the
enjoyment of wine." It is obviously that it is a fairly closed and
yet gregarious world. "Ahhh ... haaa," was how one well-known critic
greeted my proposal to discuss their wine-commentating colleagues, as
if I'd caught them walking out the door with my favorite Burgundy
glass. "So the small upside of alienating all my colleagues in your
article is that a couple of people click through to my website?"
Clearly I wasn't going to collect too much data on how critics feel
about each other.
    Rose referred to a recent correspondence where one commentator
felt it was not a wine critic's duty to criticize his colleagues.
Certainly there doesn't appear to be much mud-slinging among the
critics in other creative spheres, such as literature and film-making.
Still, one might be forgiven for thinking that the world of wine
criticism is just a little too cosy. I put that question to Jancis
Robinson, who regarded the whole topic as fairly incendiary. Rose,
however, felt that integrity ultimately wins out, and he hadn't had
any hesitation in panning a recent book published by a colleague,
despite the potential awkwardness. "I didn't pull my punches. If he
doesn't want to speak to me again, then that's just one of the
hazards of the job. If you write an honest opinion on a wine or about
a wine book, then that will be respected." Malcolm Gluck agreed
wholeheartedly, even deriding his colleagues who form part of a
special wine literary circle. "It is all a bit clubby ... It's not
something I join in much although I'm a member. It leads to critical
blandness." Rose was more mollifying and ventured, "I think we should
thank the likes of Hugh Johnson, Oz Clarke and Jancis Robinson for
raising the profile of wine criticism generally and giving more
people the opportunity to write about wine in publications, getting
away from its elitist nature."
    The famous American wine critic Robert Parker has suggested that
UK wine critics aren't as independent as they might be, although
Robinson thought this was more true in the past, when those who
traded wine also wrote about it. Some feel Parker has gone too far,
however, in endorsing a book that libeled a well-known French wine
critic and wrongly accused the commentator of working for certain
producers. Even if the independence of critics is now more robust,
there does seem to be too much opportunity for manipulating the
coverage of writing by large retailers and brand owners. Robinson
agreed that wine commentating could be improved "if critics got out
and about a bit more, rather than relying on being spoon-fed by the
rather mundane press tastings put on by the multiple retailers." When
I tried to push her to name names, she rebuffed me before I had even
finished asking the question. She confirmed, though, that her
newspaper editors have never put any pressure on her to write about
any specific wines.
    The degree to which journalists were being "spoon-fed by the wine
trade" was a point I put to Rose. "1 can't speak for other critics
but only myself. I go to many vineyards around the world, trade and
press tastings, and tasting put on by importers and producers. It's
really up to each critic to get out and about as much as possible in
order to sift through the hype. The customer isn't stupid. They can
soon see if a critic is in the pay of the wine trade. Certainly there
are trips offered by individual producers, which puts pressure on the
writer to write about those individuals, but I don't go on those."
    David Moore agreed, "The perception of independence is
important." The problem for the critics, as Moore sees them, stem
from the tastes of consumer. "Newspaper columns are becoming a
reflection of what is happening in the retail market. As a nation,
we're not interested in wine the way they are in the United States,
France and Italy, and that's reflected in what people are reading
about." However, that's not the perception one would have while
reading his book, Wine Behind the Label, and Moore confirms that the
USA is now a much more important market than the domestic UK market.
Even worse, he didn't feel that the UK market is well served. "Too
big retailers and too big brand," he said. "It's a shame we don't
hear more about what is on offer from specialist retailers, which is
partly their fault. The scope for the consumer is pretty poor in
terms of what is available for them to drink. A lot of smaller good
producers are struggling, and they're not written about, and they're
not available in the UK."
    There is a sense that some critics are unable to write about
wines that interests them -- that they are being manipulated by the
wine trade -- but at least they're all working hard and enjoying a
great lifestyle. This lifestyle perception is not as real as one
might think. "There are undoubtedly one or two people at the top,"
said Rose, "such as Robert Parker, Hugh Johnson, Jancis Robinson and
Oz Clarke, who are making a reasonable living from wine because
they're popular, they're good and they've successfully branded
themselves. Most of the rest of us are in another group that manages
to get by. And then there are other people who dabble, who need to
supplement their income or they have another job, but they are doing
something they love doing."
    We are back to where we started, and I put the question referring
to their colleagues another way: who is the worst king of critic, and
what can be done about it? "1 think we're our own worst critics,"
offered Rose. "We mostly come to wine writing because we love wine,
not because we're writers. There are a couple who can write very well,
but most of us are just struggling along, doing our best to get our
enthusiasm and passion across to our readers." Gluck was more
forthright, "It is the person who takes no account of his or her
readership and simply parades toffee- nosed views about how much you
should spend, implying the more you spend, the better the value --
which is absolute rubbish." According to Robinson, "We should go out
and try a bit harder with inspiration for our stories and be more
original."
    But these domestic issues should not be the only concerns for
critics -- or, indeed, for consumers. In pensive mood, Rose said,
"The world wine glut is posing a severe strain on the social fabric
of the wine trade, particularly in France. It is sad that this is
happening, and I hope we will begin to see supply and demand achieve
more of a balance to eradicate those social and economic problems."
    Gluck's words were more chilling. "I've always tried to give
people confidence to make judgments using their own palate," he said.
"I believe that wine critics will eventually write themselves out of
existence. Columns are becoming less and less read and less and less
relevant, because people are more confident about their purchases, up
to a certain price point." Could he be right?
    Exercise 3 Speaking
    Topic: Factors influencing your choices of consumption
    What factors may influence our choices of consumption? Here is a
list of some possible factors. Choose three from and list the talk
about it.
   necessity
   advertisement
   friends' suggestion
   peer pressure
   habit
   brand attraction
   celebrity worship
   image buying
   Exercise 4 Writing
    You are expected to write at least 250 words about the following
topic.
    How do people make consumer choices and what will be the impact
of online shopping?
    Passage
                    Dissolving the Boundaries of Age

    We have reached a significant crossroads, the closing of one
millennium and the beginning of another. This is a momentous occasion
by all accounts. Yet what is remarkable is what awaits the world in
this new era as it undergoes a demographic revolution. The world is
changing as it ages, and just as older persons have been agents of
that change, they must also be its beneficiaries.
    At the same time, we must rethink rigid distinctions that define
age and give it boundaries. Everyone, individually and collectively,
is joined in this single human venture, and everyone will respond, in
their own way, to the opportunities as well as the challenges. Ageing
is not a separate issue from social integration, gender advancement,
economic stability or issues of poverty. It has developed a
connection with many global agendas and will play, increasingly, a
prominent role in the way society interacts with economic and social
welfare institutions, family and community life and the roles of
women.
    The complex infrastructure of society as well as the unique life
course of individuals can be dramatically altered by a progressive
upward shift in the global population. The total effect cannot be
easily absorbed. The present imperative is that societies must
respond to the extraordinary potential and range of variability in
individual ageing, and seize the opportunity to rethink our notion of
limits and recognize the far-reaching benefits societies stand to
gain from the continuing contributions of their older citizens.
    We have all heard of the remarkable demographic change that is
under way. But our task is not to dwell on what we already know. It
is rather to equip ourselves and future generations with the tools to
meet its challenge and imagine what can be done. Let us see this new
century as an opportunity to reinforce belief in the possibilities of
non-violence and peaceful cooperation in order to promote progress
for all ages in all areas.
    We are all constituents of an ageing society, rural and city
dwellers, public and private sector identities, families and
individuals, old and young alike. It is crucial that societies adjust
to this human paradigm as record numbers of people live into very old
age, if we are to move towards a society for all ages.
    [Let us] ... continue the dialogue and build on partnerships that
can bring us closer to a society that weaves all ages into the larger
human community in which we thrive.
                   A Call for Revolutionary Thinking

    We live in an ageing world. While this has been recognized for
some time in developed countries, it is only recently that this
phenomenon has been fully acknowledged. Global communication is
"shrinking" the world, and global ageing is "maturing" it. The
increasing presence of older persons in the world is making people of
all ages more aware that we live in a diverse and multigenerational
society. It is no longer possible to ignore ageing, regardless of
whether one views it positively or negatively.
    Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as
predicted, a demographic revolution, wherein the proportions of the
young and the old will undergo a historic crossover, will be felt in
just three generations. This portrait of change in the world's
population parallels the magnitude of the industrial revolution --
traditionally considered the most significant social and economic
breakthrough in the history of humankind since the Neolithic period.
It marked the beginning of a sustained movement towards modern
economic growth in much the same way that globalization is today
marking an unprecedented and sustained movement toward a "global
culture". The demographic revolution, it is envisaged, will be at
least as powerful.
    While the future effects are not known, a likely scenario is one
where both the challenges as well as the opportunities will emerge
from a vessel into which exploration and research, dialogue and
debate are poured. Challenges arise as social and economic structures
try to adjust to the simultaneous phenomenon of diminishing young
cohorts with rising older ones, and opportunities present themselves
in the sheer number of older individuals and the vast resources
societies stand to gain from their contribution.
    This ageing of the population permeates all social, economic and
cultural spheres. Revolutionary change calls for new, revolutionary
thinking, which can position policy formulation and implementation on
sounder footing. In our ageing world, new thinking requires that we
view ageing as a lifelong and society-wide phenomenon, not a
phenomenon exclusively pertaining to older persons.
                Meanings and Images in an Ageing Society

    Images of ageing are rooted in culture and cut right to the
marrow of the society in which we live. However, the understanding of
one's language and culture can very often contrast with the meanings
and images given it by others. This paradox also mimics ageing in
advanced societies, where, with the accumulation of years and
experience, roles diminish, and images play a part.
    Mass media, the machine of image-making, is also a link in the
globalization chain, and can have profound effects on the developing
world, and particularly on the older women who live there. For its
part, the flow and interchange of ideas and information through new
technologies is as much an extraordinary achievement as it is an
ordinary fact of life. The positive impact that is gained from other
ideas, learning about other populations, areas of expertise, and
alternative ways of life is boundless. But knowledge and images are
often mutual passengers in the information voyage and the image
landscape conveyed by the western media weighs heavily on the side of
glorifying youth, while either omitting older persons or depicting
them in stereotypes. This has a particular impact on the lives of
older women, as they tend to suffer greater political, social, and
economic exclusion than do older men.
    As society ages however, it also changes in ways that relate to
age. Perceptions of the transitions that mark the boundaries of age
are being altered as family, kinship and community structures change.
In many parts of the world it is not uncommon today to be part of a
four-generation family, where the chronological rules for assuming
the roles of grandparents or grandchildren are increasingly blurred.
At the same time, more individuals are growing older outside of
traditional family networks and are simulating family life through
communities or primary groups. The rhythm of the life cycle continues
to develop through these different dynamics and, consequently, is not
as tightly bound by chronological age or stages as it once may have
been.
    The same can be said for images that surround the idea of change.
While change often arouses anxiety, challenges that stem from new
orders of complexity should be met with inquiry rather than reproach.
Situations or choices that once seemed incompatible, work or
retirement, strength or vulnerability, can be approached and
accommodated within the same creative mix that occupies the vastness
and diversity of life in the human community.
    The new architecture of ageing requires policies that remove
obstacles and facilitate contributions. It also requires seminal
thinking and images that reflect reality and potential, not
stereotypes and myths. So relative are the experiences of ageing in
different parts of the world, and so complex and multiple their roles,
that the world can no longer accept images of ageing as a panorama of
near homogeneity.
                          Policy Considerations

    Old age policies were designed, for most of the 20th century,
with a youthful society in mind. From this point onward, policies for
older persons, younger persons and those in between, must be designed
with an ageing society in mind, society where soon, every third
individual will be over the age of 60. International, national and
local communities must begin now to adjust and design their
infrastructures, policies, plans and resources.
    Policy interventions that include social and human, as well as
economic investments, can prevent unnecessary dependencies from
arising whether in late life for individuals or downstream in ageing
societies. When judicious investments are made in advance, experts
suggest that ageing can be changed from a drain on resources to
build-up of humane social, economic and environmental capital. This
requires investing in the phases of life, fostering enabling
societies, and creating flexible but vibrant collaborations in the
process, through which the future building of a society for all ages
can take hold in the present.
    Finally, recognition of the uniqueness that unfolds throughout
one's life is core to igniting society's embrace of the contributions
of its older citizens. The "package" of knowledge, wisdom and
experience that so often comes with age is part of an inner awareness
that cannot be traded, sold or stolen. It should, however, be
activated, amplified and utilized in all the crossroads, fields and
storefronts of society, and in the windows of our creative
imaginations.
                              Comprehension

    Questions 1--3 Choose the best answer.
    1. The author of this article believes ______.
    [A] ageing is a problem for developed countries
    [B] ageing is a social issue involving the roles of women
    [C] demographic revolution will take place in two generations
    [D] people follow chronological rules to assume the roles of
grandparents in 4-generation families
    2. The following statements are true except ______.
    [A] ageing is a phenomenon pertaining to older persons
    [B] different cultures have different even contrast images of
ageing
    [C] western media often convey more on the young people
    [D] policy-designers used to believe that their society was still
a youthful one
    3. With the new ageing policy, ______.
    [A] older people will become myths
    [B] ageing will be a drain on resources
    [C] ageing will be a panorama of near homogeneity
    [D] unnecessary dependencies will be prevented
    Questions 4--7 Answer the following questions by using NO MORE
THAN four words from the passage.
    4. What can change the social infrastructure?
    5. What society shall we build toward in terms of demography?
    6. How many people will be over 60 in the near future?
    7. What should policy-makers keep in mind?
    Questions 8--10 Complete the following sentences with NO MORE
THAN four words for each blank.
    8. Ageing of the population permeates all ______ spheres.
    9. Western media tend to depict older persons ______.
    10. The core to understand the contribution of older citizens is
______.
                                  Part Ⅱ

    Exercise 1 Gapped text
    In the following article some paragraphs have been removed. For
Questions 66-70, choose the most suitable paragraph from the list A--
F to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There is one paragraph which
does not fit in any of the gaps.
                         What Does Ageing Bring

    The press is constantly reminding us that the dramatic increase
in the age of our population over the next 30 or so years will cause
national healthcare systems to collapse, economies to crumple under
the strain of pension demands and disintegrating families to buckle
under increasing care commitments. Yet research at Oxford is
beginning to expose some of the widespread myths that underlie this
rhetoric. Demographic ageing is undoubtedly a reality. Life
expectancy in developed countries has risen continuously over the
past century, increasing the percentage of those over the age of 60
relative to those under the age of 15. By 2030 half the population of
Western Europe will be over the age of 50, with a predicted average
life expectancy of a further 40 years. By then, a quarter of the
population will be over 65 and by 2050 the UK's current number of
10,000 centenarians are predicted to have reached a quarter of a
million.
    1. ______
    Indeed, if this could be achieved throughout the world, it would
surely count as the success of civilisation, for then we would also
have conquered the killers of poverty, disease, famine and war.
    Decreasing mortality rates, increasing longevity and declining
fertility mean smaller percentages of young people within populations.
Over the past 20 years life expectancy at birth in the UK has risen
by four years for men (to 75) and three years for women (to 80).
Meanwhile fertility rates across Europe have declined more or less
continuously over the past 40 years and remain well below the levels
required for European populations to be able to replace themselves
without substantive immigration. But again, rather than seeing this
as a doom and gloom scenario, we need to explore the positive aspects
of these demographics. The next 50 years should provide us with an
opportunity to enjoy the many advantages of a society with a mature
population structure.
    2. ______
    The first of these is the current political rhetoric, which
claims that health services across the Western world are collapsing
under the strain of demographic ageing.
    3. ______
    The second myth is the view that the ratio of workers to non-
workers will become so acute that Western economies will collapse,
compounded by a massive growth in pension debt. While there are
undoubted concerns over current pension shortfalls, it is also clear
that working lives will themselves change over the next few decades,
with a predicted increase in flexible and part-time work and the
probable extension of working life until the age of 70. Indeed, we
have to recognise that we cannot expect to retire at the age of 50
and then be able to support ourselves for another 40 or so years.
    4. ______
    A further myth is that we will all live in loose,
multigenerational families, experiencing increased emotional
distancing from our kin. Evidence from a variety of studies across
the developed world suggests that, if anything, the modern family is
actually becoming more close-knit. Work carried out by the Oxford
Institute shows that despite the influence of the welfare state, over
the past 10 years, people have come to value family relationships
more than previously.
    5. ______
    In the developed world, therefore, we can see actual benefits
from population ageing: a better balance between age groups, mature
and less volatile societies, with an emphasis on age integration. The
issues will be very different in other parts of the world.
    Herein lies another myth: that the less developed world will
escape from demographic ageing. Instead, the massive increase in the
age of populations facing these countries -- predicted to be up to
one billion older people within 30 years -- is potentially
devastating. The problem is not only that demographic ageing is
occurring at a far greater pace than we have seen in Western nations,
but also that few if any developing countries have the economic
development and infrastructure necessary to provide widespread public
pensions and healthcare to these growing elderly populations.
    As a result, older people are among the poorest in every
developing country. They have the lowest levels of income, education
and literacy, they lack savings and assets, have only limited access
to work, and even in times of crisis are usually the last to be cared
for under emergency aid programs. Perhaps of most concern is
healthcare, for as we conquer acute diseases, we are going to see a
rapid increase in levels of chronic illness and disability, but no
long-term care programs or facilities to tackle this.
    A Since it is likely that a longer active working life will
coincide with a predicted labour shortage resulting from a lack of
younger workers, we need to provide the opportunities and training to
encourage older men and women to remain economically productive. Our
studies show that there are benefits from having an age-integrated
workforce. It is another myth that older workers are less productive
than younger ones. In fact, the combined energy of younger workers
with the experience of older ones can lead to increased productivity
-- something from which young and old alike will benefit.
    B In 2001, in recognition of the significance of these
demographic changes and the global challenges and opportunities that
will accompany them, the Oxford Institute of Ageing was established
at the University. It is made up of researchers in demography,
sociology, economics, social anthropology, philosophy and psychology,
with links to other specialists in medicine, biology, law and policy
in research units across the University. This cross-disciplinary
approach has made it possible to challenge some of the most pervasive
myths about ageing societies.
    C As Institute healthcare ethicist Kenneth Howse points out,
family obligations towards older relatives may change over the next
20 years, but current indications are that families are retaining a
strong responsibility to care. Furthermore, as societies age, the
contributory role of older people as grandparents becomes more
important. Work by Institute researchers on another European Union
study on multi-generational families has highlighted the role that
grandparents play by freeing up the responsibilities of the younger
reproductive population.
    D It is clear that the changing demographic landscape poses
challenges for the future. The necessity now is to develop
appropriate economic, social and political structures to take
advantage of the opportunities that mature societies will bring,
while ensuring that there are appropriate safety nets for those left
vulnerable within these populations -- which will include both young
and old alike.?
    E Rather than fearing such a future, however, we should see this
trend as a great success. It must undoubtedly be a major achievement
of civilisation that most individuals within a society can expect to
enjoy a long and healthy lifespan.
    F George Leeson, a demographer at the Institute, points out that
while a number of cross-national studies have considered the
determinants of spiralling healthcare costs, only one has found the
explanatory factor to be the proportion of the population aged 65 and
over. Rather, it is growth in income, lifestyle characteristics and
environmental factors such as technology and drugs that are driving
up healthcare costs. In addition, the costs are shifting between
population groups. The key here, he adds, is to develop sufficiently
flexible health service structures to shift not only economic
resources but also personnel.
    Exercise 2 Speaking
    For each of the following topics, you will have two minutes to
prepare and then give a two-minute presentation.
        a.            Should women be allowed to retire at the
    Retirement    same age as their male counterparts?
        b.            The increasing number of elderly
    Healthcare    individuals will pose a challenge to our
                  country's welfare system. What should the
                  government do to handle it?
         c. Care      Many young people are unable to take care
                  of their parents so they send them to
                  retirement homes. What are the advantages and
                  disadvantages of this modern day phenomenon?
    Exercise 3 Writing
    You are expected to write at least 250 words about the following
topic.
    Nowadays many elderly people don't need to worry about material
things, However, they often feel lonely, depressed with a sense of
being useless. What are your suggestions to help them?
    四、阅读答案及详解
    1.B。采用排除法。选项 A 混淆了过去和现在的变化,选项 C 与原文意思
相反,见第五段第一句话。选项 D 中的 more alternative 并没有让人们的购物
经历变得更好。正确 答案见第二段第一句话,The call of the mall, or the
lure of material goods, dominates popular ideas about consumption and
consumerism 人们通常认为购物中心及各种商品的吸引是消费主义的原因。
    2.C。详见课文疑难详解 3。
    3.C。采用排除法。利用人名 Dr. Frank Trentmann 做关键词定位信息,
答案见第七段…consumption is as much about services, experiences, and
citizenship as it is about the acquisition of goods.选项 C 正是文章批
判的内容。
    4.D。利用专有名词 BT's Big Button 定位信息在第九段,此例子是用来
说明消费者不仅能够为新产品创造新功能,还能发掘已有产品的使用。
    5.aspirational consumerism。答案见第二段…become slaves to an
aspirational consumerism, buying things we do not need…其中的 slaves
被题目中的 influenced 替换。
    6.teenage consumers。见第八段 It was their teenage consumers who
led the way by popularising texting and even inventing a new language
for it. 强调句型。正是十几岁的年轻人普及了短信还专为此创造了一种新的
语言。
    7.subvert。见第 12 段。
    8.health care, legal advice, investment management。利用专有名词
The Cultures of Consumption Programme 定位,见第 13 段最后一句话,The
services featured in this particular study are health care, legal
advice and investment management.
    五、课后练习答案与详解
    Exercise 1 Use of English
    1.worse。根据语法判断句子结构,通读上下文,大意为“各种设备越
多,问题就越严重”。
    2.at。固定搭配 at one's disposal,意思是“由某人随意支配”。
    3.poll/investigation。根据宾语从句中的数字、百分比确定答案。
    4.saw/observed/found。根据句子结构判断此处应为及物动词的过去式,
句子意思为 1000 名受访者中 70%都认为手机使用者的礼仪比使用其他设备更
差。
    5.according。固定搭配。
    6.them。指代上文提到的手机。
    7.off。根据意思判断应为看电影的时候关闭手机。
    8.on。固定搭配,和谁在通电话用 on the phone 表示。
    9.at。介词惯用法。
    10.calls。根据语法此空应为可带双宾语的及物动词。
    11.as/because/since/for。此处应为表示因果关系的连词。
    12.aware。根据上下文大意以及前半句话中的 unconscious 可以推测出答
案。
    13.where。句子结构为定语从句,先行词为 plane,train or bus,故选
择关系副词 where。
    14.to。固定搭配 be subjected to,“遭遇,受到”的意思。against
your will 是“违背你的意志”的意思,是插入语。
    15.what。此空前面的 and 用来连接对等的成分,所以此空为 what 引导的
名词性从句。
    16.takes/possesses/occupies。此句话意为“在公众场合打手机实际上
是占用了共有空间,并隔离成小的私人空间”。
    17.divide/separate。
    18.were。根据时间状语 a short time ago 确定时态,句子结构为被动语
态。
    19.comply/agree/follow。大意为以前如果你礼貌地请手机使用者们在公
共场合放低声音,他们一般都会听从。Chagrin 是“懊恼”的意思。
    20.normal/acceptable。这句话和上句话形成了对比,现在更多人的反应
是为什么你不理解大声讲手机电话足正常的事。
    Exercise 2 Multiple Matching
    1.C。Paragraph 7: The problem for the critics, as Moore sees
them, stem from the tastes of consumer. Moore 认为消费者的品味造成了
评酒师的问题。下面几句话解释了在英国,人们不如美国、法国和意大利人那
么热爱红酒,这也影响了他们的阅读习惯。
    2.D。Paragraph 9: Gluck was more forthright, "It is the person
who takes no account of his or her readership and simply parades
toffee-nosed views about how much you should spend, implying the more
you spend, the better the value—which is absolute rubbish." Gluck 的
话更尖刻,“评酒师毫不关心读者,只是推荐你应该花多少钱去买酒,暗示你
花的钱越多,酒的价值越好,这完全是胡说八道。”
    3.A。Paragraph 8: "There are undoubtedly one or two people at
the top, " said Rose, "such as Robert Parker, Hugh Johnson, Jancis
Robinson and Oz Clarke, who are making a reasonable living from wine
because they're popular, they're good and they've successfully
branded themselves…在评酒师中这些人收入不菲,因为他们已经成名而且成
功的包装了他们自己。
    4.B。Paragraph 4: …he hadn't had any hesitation in panning a
recent book published by a colleague, despite the potential
awkwardness. 尽管可能会尴尬,他毫不犹豫地批评了刚出版的一本同行写的
书。下一句话是 Malcolm Gluck agreed wholeheartedly, even deriding his
colleagues who form part of a special wine literary circle Malcolm
Gluck 完全同意他的说法,还嘲笑了那些组成一个特别的酒俱乐部的同行。
    5.D。Paragraph 4: …he hadn't had any hesitation in panning a
recent book published by a colleague, despite the potential
awkwardness. 尽管可能会尴尬,他毫不犹豫地批评了刚出版的一本同行写的
书。下一句话是 Malcolm Gluck agreed wholeheartedly, even deriding his
colleagues who form part of a special wine literary circle Malcolm
Gluck 完全同意他的说法,还嘲笑了那些组成一个特别的酒俱乐部的同行。
    6.B。Paragraph 4: Rose, however, felt that integrity ultimately
wins out…
    7.C。Paragraph 7: …Moore confirms that the USA is now a much
more important market than the domestic UK market. Even worse, he
didn't feel that the UK market is well served. 他认为美国市场远比英国
本土市场重要,问题的严重性在于,他认为英国市场发展不良。下句话揭示了
原因:市场上可选择的品牌太少。
    8.D。Paragraph 11: I believe that wine critics will eventually
write themselves out of existence.他认为消费者会越来越有主见,而评酒
师们的职业最终将消失。
    9.A。Paragraph 5: She confirmed, though, that her newspaper
editors have never put any pressure on her to write about any
specific wines. She 指代前一句话中的 Robinson。她声称她的编辑从来没有
强迫她写某些评论。
    10.B。Paragraph 3: "Wine tasting is an inadequate science. It
requires…and then a form in which you can communicate this to the
reader.
    Exercise 3 Speaking
    Topic: Factors influencing your choices of consumption
    Tips, Words and Expressions Necessity: only go shopping when I
really need to buy stuff/basic needs / grocery shopping
    Advertisement: Advertisements, direct or indirect, are so
pervasive that you cannot escape from it. / One tends to choose
familiar brands when he does not have particular preference.
    Friends' suggestion: A referral often impresses us as more
trustworthy. / first hand information
    Peer pressure: There are people who would have panic if they are
different from their friends. So they choose to follow" the others.
    Habit: loyalty to a brand / childhood memory/just got used to it
and would not bother to change into another brand.
    Brand: guaranteed quality / capture the attention / feel good /
proud / pretentious
    Celebrity: Young people would do whatever crazy things for their
idol. So they will buy the products endorsed by them. / copy the
celebrity by choosing the same brands
    Exercise 4 Writing
    Topic: How do people make consumer choices and what will be the
impact of online shopping?
    Tips, Words and Expressions The pros
    more convenience / You can do it 24 / 7. / People can do shopping
in the comfort of their own home with the help of the internet. /
Prices are often lower online, you don't have to queue up in busy
shops and you can buy almost any product imaginable with just a few
clicks of your mouse. / Discount coupons are more readily available
online. / Comparison shopping is simplified. / Online shopping is
perfect for buying gifts that are to be sent to distant friends or
relatives. / One can shop in private. There are times when privacy
really matters for many people. / When you buy these items online,
that embarrassment is minimized.
    The cons
    the security of entering their card details on the internet and
the reliability of the internet / You can only see what will fit on
one page at a time. / If you have a slow connection or if there are
many shoppers at this site, shopping will take forever. / Errors in
billing are more common online. / You cannot touch the item, let
alone try it on. / Shipping and handling costs can be astronomical. /
Packaging materials can take over your home (and our earth). /
Dangerous for shopaholics.
    四、阅读答案及详解
    1.B。选项 A 与文章第二部分第一段 While this has been recognized
for some time in developed countries, it is only recently that this
phenomenon has been fully acknowledged 的内容不符,过去人们认为老龄化
只是发达国家的问题;选项 C 中的时间不对,见第二部分第二段…a
demographic revolution…will be felt in just three generations。选项
D 与文章第三部分第三段意思不符。选项 A 见第一部分第二段末尾。
    2.A。采用排除法,文章中一直强调的是老龄化问题不仅仅与老年人有
关,需要全社会的重视。
    3.D。题干巾的关键词 new aging policy 提示我们到第三部分 Policy
Consideration 中寻找答案,见此部分第二段 Policy interventions that
include social and human, as well as economic investments, can
prevent unnecessary dependencies from arising whether in late life
for individuals or downstream in ageing societies 下文具体阐述了如何
帮助老年人更好的生活。
    4.Upward shift in population/Ageing。见第三段,关键词为
infrastructure。
    5.Society for all ages。见第五段,It is crucial that societies
adjust to this human paradigm as record numbers of people live into
very old age, if we are to move towards a society for all ages.
    6.1/3 of the population。题目中的“60”可以做关键词定位原文中的
信息在第三部分第一段,…every third individual will be over the age
of 60…。
    7.An ageing society。答案见第三部分第一段,关键词为 policy-
makers。
    8.social, economic, cultural。见第二部分最后一段。
    9.in stereotypes。关键词 western media,答案见第二部分第二段。
    10.recognition of the uniqueness。见最后一段。
    五、课后练习答案与详解
    Exercise 1 Gapped Text
    1.E。第一段中的关键词 yet 提示我们作者的观点。开篇即是说媒体如何
渲染老龄化将引发的种种社会问题,但是牛津大学的研究揭开了问题的另一
面。在题目上方的数字是用以说明老龄化的趋势,题目后的第一句话就说如果
这件事情(this)能成功的话,可以看作是文明的胜利。只有题目 E 中提到了思
维的转变,即不应对此感到恐惧,而应该看成是社会的进步。
    2.B。这里有两个提示,一是在本题目的上文中作者列举了各种数据以说
明人口预期寿命延长、人口结构稳定等未来社会将面临的变化,与 B 选项中第
一句话的 in recognition of the significance of these demographic
changes…相呼应。选项 B 中提到牛津大学老龄化问题研究中心所做的研究对普
遍流行的一些观点提出了挑战,与下文中的 the first, the second…的列举
结构相符合。
    3.F。这一部分的结构是典型的列举清单,题目上一段提到了 health
care,题目下一段以 the second 开头,所以缺少的这一段落应该是围绕医疗问
题的。
    4.A。原因同上,作者列举的第二点为老龄化对劳动力市场的影响。
    5.C。根据题目上一段提到老龄化问题对家庭的影响,这一段应该仍然是
围绕老年人与家庭的关系。
    Exercise 2 Speaking
    Topic 1: Retirement
    Tips, Words and Expressions A breakthrough needs to be made on
retirement age to better realize equality between men and women. /
The negative growth of working population will become worse, which
suggests a longer work time for women. / shorten the retirement age
gap between male and female / the average life expectancy of Chinese
people has risen by more than 20 years since the founding of the
People's Republic of China, while their retirement age remains no
change for more than 50 years. According to law in China, a man
retires at 60, and women workers at 50. In the 1950s, women had to
take care of more children than now on average. Playing an important
role in family life, women were permitted to retire five years
earlier than men at that time. But situation has changed greatly
nowadays. Women are freed from the household chore and they have the
capacity of working and earning to support their family. / Women
outlive men by 3 years on average.
    Topic 2: Healthcare
    Tips, Words and Expressions Make great effort to develop
residential care system / build more nursing home places at community
level / Appropriate agencies, such as governments and private health
insurers, need to provide sufficient funding to support the level of
professional care required. / promote individual responsibility for
health
    Topic 3: Care
    Tips, Words and Expressions The pros
    "sandwich generation" -- they have to support their parents as
well as raise their children, at the same time they are expected to
work hard to advance their career. / Most city-dwellers are double-
income families due to the increasing life expenditure in urban
cities. It is highly unlikely for them to quit their work and take
care of their elderly parents at home. / Older people can find others
with common ideas and hobbies in nursing home / improved condition of
retirement homes
    The cons
    sense of being abandoned by their families / causing mental
problems / conventional idea / feel awkward to face relatives and
friends
    Exercise 3 Writing
    Topic: What are your suggestions to help elderly people to cure
their mental health?
    Tips, Words and Expressions
    Physical activity is good for older people's mental health. /
Depression is much more common in the years after retirement, when
people may struggle to adjust to a new role and routine in life. /
Dealing with social isolation is another important part of treating
depression. The health benefits of being part of a family or tight
community are well known. / try to stay active, keep your brain alive
/ Learn something new. "Lifelong learning keeps the mind and spirit
alive." / Retirement can be an opportunity to pursue unfulfilled
plans and learn new skills. / Many older people say that volunteering
helps them to maintain good mental health and well-being in later
life. "The best cure for the blues is activity. Do something --
preferably for someone else."

								
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