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chapter 2 notes


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									Cornell Notes    Topic/Objective: 2-1                                    Name:
                 Define element & compound. Identify and describe some   Class/Period:
                 common compounds.                                       Date:
Essential Question:
What are elements and compounds?
Questions:                Notes:

                          ATOMS & ELEMENTS
                           All matter is made of atoms
                           100+ elements
                           Solid, liquid, or gas
                           Bromine & mercury are liquid

                           Combination of elements (2 or more)
                           H2O (water)

                          MORE THAN ITS PARTS
                           properties change from elements to compounds
                           Na (sodium) – soft metal
                           Cl (Chlorine) – poisonous gas
                           NaCl = table salt

Cornell Notes       Topic/Objective: 2-2                            Name:
                    Interpret chemical symbols. Recognize common    Class/Period:
                    chemical formulas of some familiar compounds.
Essential Question:
What are chemical formulas?
Questions:                    Notes:
1. Why do some element
Have unusual letters for      CHEMICAL SYMBOLS
Their symbols?                 Each element has a symbol
                               Capital or capital & lowercase (H or He)
                               Not all from English names

                              CHEMICAL FORMULAS
                               Compounds have formulas
2. How are chemical
Symbols and chemical          SUBSCRIPTS
Formulas related?              Below the line
                               After the symbol
                               No subscript = ONE
                               H = one hydrogen
                               H2O = 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
3. What do subscripts

Cornell Notes        Topic/Objective: 2-3                                  Name:
                     Define mineral. Identify and describe some minerals   Class/Period:
                     Found in Earth’s crust.                               Date:
Essential Question:
What are minerals?
Questions:                     Notes:

1. What does Earth’s           EARTH’S CRUST
crust consist of?               Made of elements & compounds
                                75% silica (oxygen + silicon)
                                Sand is silica in the form of quartz

                               NATURAL SOLIDS
                               Minerals are:
2. What are the elements
                                Naturally occurring
that make up halite?            Solids
                                Elements (gold, silver)
                                Compounds (quartz)
                                NOT from living things
                                Definite chemical make-up
3. Why are rocks called
                               ROCK-FORMING MINERALS
                                2000+ minerals on Earth
                                Only 20 common in Earth’s crust

                               METAL MINERALS
                                Resources – recovered for use
                                Aluminum, copper, silver
                                Useful - can be flattened, hammered, & stretched
Cornell Notes       Topic/Objective: 2-4                                   Name:
                    Describe the properties that can be used to identify   Class/Period:
                    minerals.                                              Date:
Essential Question: How do we identify minerals?

Questions:                      Notes:
1. What are some
                                PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
                                 Used to ID minerals
Physical properties of
                                 Color, streak, luster, hardness

                                COLOR AND STREAK
                                 NOT always the same
2. What is the streak of         Malachite – green (color)
Calcite?                         Azurite – blue (color)
                                 Streak – across a white plate
                                 Streak is always the same
                                 Color can be different
3. What are two kinds
Of luster?                      LUSTER
                                 Metallic (shiny)
                                 Nonmetallic (dull)
4. What mineral is the
Hardest on Mohs’ scale?         HARDNESS
                                 Resistance to being scratched
                                 Mohs’ Scale
                                 #1 Talc – softest
                                 #10 diamond – hardest

Cornell Notes        Topic/Objective: 2-5                                      Name:
                     Explain how density, magnetism, and an acid test can be   Class/Period:
                     Used to identify minerals>                                Date:
Essential Question: What are some other ways to identify minerals?

Questions:                     Notes:
1. How can density be
Used to identify minerals?     DENSITY
                                Mass ÷ volume
                                g/cm3
                                Always the same for a mineral
2. How could you use a
Magnet to determine if an      MAGNETISM
Unknown mineral is              Iron, nickel, cobalt, or steel
Magnetite?                      Ex: magnetite contains iron and is magnetic

                               THE ACID TEST
3. What is the acid test?       Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) will fizz
                                Calcite & dolomite

Cornell Notes         Topic/Objective: 2-6                                       Name:
                      Define crystals & show how they are related to minerals.   Class/Period:
                      Distinguish between fracture and cleavage in minerals.     Date:
Essential Question: What are crystals, cleavage, and fracture?

Questions:                      Notes:

1. What is a crystal?           CRYSTAL SHAPES
                                 All minerals are made of crystals
                                 6 basic crystal systems

                                 Smooth, flat planes
                                 Mica – thin, flat sheets
2. What is cleavage in
                                 Galena – cubes
                                 Feldspar – step-like cleavage

                                 Uneven surfaces
3. How are fracture and
                                 Copper – hackly
                                 Obsidian – concoidal
Cleavage different?
                                 Asbestos – splinters

Cornell Notes       Topic/Objective: 2-7                           Name:
                    Describe the main ways minerals are formed.    Class/Period:
Essential Question: How are minerals formed?

Questions:                     Notes:
1. How are minerals and
                               MINERALS IN THE CRUST
Rocks related?
                                Earth’s crust is made of rocks and minerals

                               MAGMA COOLING
2. How do crystals that         Magma is molten (melted) rock
Cool very slowly differ from    Slow cooling = large crystals
Crystals that cool rapidly?     Fast cooling = small crystals

                                Water evaporates and crystals remain
                                Crystals grow together to form rock

3. How do crystals form        PRECIPITATION
Evaporated water?               Warm solutions hold more
                                As it cools, elements & minerals leave the solution
                                They crystalize out as solids

4. What are chimneys?

Cornell Notes       Topic/Objective: 2-8                       Name:
                    State some common uses of minerals.        Class/Period:
Essential Question: How are minerals used?

Questions:                   Notes:
1. What are 2 minerals
                             MINERAL USES
Used by the human body?
                              Used in products
                                 o Talc – powder
                                 o Graphite – pencils
                              Human Body
                                 o Calcium & phosphorous – bones & teeth
2. What is an ore?               o Iron – makes new red blood cells

                              Hematite – iron
                              Bauxite – aluminum
                              Halite - salt

3. What are three
Precious stones?             GEMSTONES AND GEMS
                              Gemstones – beautiful and long-lasting
                              Gems - cut and polished gemstones
                              Precious stones – rare
                                  o Diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds
                              Semi-precious – more common
                                  o Opal, amethyst, topaz, garnet, aquamarine


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