Regional Cooperation in Disaster Risk Reduction in South Asia

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Regional Cooperation in Disaster Risk Reduction in South Asia Powered By Docstoc
					  Emerging Risk and Regional
  Cooperation in South Asia
Dr Sanjay Srivastava
SAARC Disaster Management Centre
sanjay.saarc@gmail.com

Regional Workshop on GLOF Risk Mitigation
Paro, Jan 20-21, 2009
Why Regional
Cooperation
– A Must South Asia..
• Sharing Common Climate
 and Geology - endemic to
 the Natural Disasters
• Depth of Vulnerability
• Shared Vulnerability
• Induced Vulnerability
  - Climate Risk

 ‘Hotspots’
South Asia:
Depth of
Vulnerability
• South Asia - A Disaster
  ‘Hotspot’
  • Causes huge loss of life and
    property - estimated GDP
    loss range between 2 to 20%
    and revenue loss between 12
    to 66%
  • Affects Poverty Alleviation,
    Food Security and
    Sustainable Development
    Outcomes
South Asia: Induced
Vulnerability
(Climate Change/Variability)

• Two thirds of the disasters the
  region experiences are of
  climate related (Cyclone, Floods,
  Drought/Desertication, GLOF..)
• There have been phenomenal
  increase in their frequency,
  severity and unpredictability in
  the recent times
• Climate Risk – on the Rise
  South Asia:
  Shared Vulnerability
Disasters are often regional :
   • Aug 2008 Koshi floods hit
       Nepal and Bihar, India
   • South Asian Floods 2007 –
       Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and
       Pakistan
   • Cyclones of Bay of Bengal
       Arabian Sea Bangladesh, India
       and Pakistan
                                       Trans-boundary Kosi Flood 2008
   • Indian Ocean Tsunami              (Source: Down to Earth..)
       wounded four India, Maldives,
       Sri Lanka..
Information Exchange and
Cooperation in Reducing Glacial
Flood Risk
     Glacier Land Slide : Pareechu Lake in Tibet
        Rising Risk of Massive Flash Floods Downstream in India
                               Lake formed
                               Due to Landslide
                               (August 2004)
                                                                      Overflow




                           Part of Sutlej Basin
                           Using IRS-P6 LISS-4 MSS Image
                                                           Blockade




                                                    Lake
Area prior to
the lake formation         Water spread
                           ~ 193 ha
(May 2004)

                     Threat of massive flash floods
                                                    Concurrent Monitoring
Observations:                                                    - Part of Sutlej Basin
• On 14th & 16th August 2004
• The blockade is seen clearly
• Flow of water downstream of the blockade is also seen
  clearly
                                                          Water spread Area:
                                                          193 ha
                                                          [including downstream and upstream
                                                          reaches]

                                                          Lake Length [E-W]:
                                                          Total 5.0 km
                                                                Upstream reach: 2.6 km
                                                                Lake proper: 1.9 km
                                                                Downstream reach: 0.5 km
                                           Downstream
                                                          Lake Width [N-S]: 1.1 km
                          Lake              water flow          Avg. upstream width:
                                                                0.16 km
                            Monitoring of the Pareechu Lake
   isk ion
                                           …. ….. …. … Interventions
 R t
      c                                --- + Monitoring ------------------------------------------ --- ---
   du               .. Early Warning ...
Re
                                                                                                   --- ---


 Detection of Risk … …
                                                 Blockade190+ ha


                                 ~180 ha
                                                                   Water             <100 ha
                                                          impoundment
                                                               at its max.
                                               Lake    (Early June 2005)
                                                                             Water
                                     - formed due to      High Risk of draining out
                                           Landslide      Flash Floods (Late June 2005)
                                          (Aug 2004)
                                                                       Declining Risk
                           Water           Risk of
                    accumulating      Flash Floods
                   in the existing
                       depression
                   - forming lake                                   Marginal
                                                                    Marginal
                      (June 2004)                                   increase in
                                                                    increase in
    Prior to the
                   Posing Risk                                      Inflow noticed
                                                                    Inflow noticed
 lake formation
    (May 2004)                                                      (June 12, 2007)
                                                                    (June 12, 2007)
   No Risk of
 Flash Floods
Pareechu Lake Now – No Risk, No Vulnerability & No Hazard


                                      IRS-P6 LISS-IV MX Image
                                      of June 06, 2008
                                      Significant inflow & outflow seen




     IRS-P6 LISS-IV MX Image
     of July 10, 2008
     Reduced water-spread
     as compared with June 06, 2008
  Institutionalization
            of
Information Exchange
           and
Regional Cooperation
SAARC Mechanisms :
A Paradigm Shift
SAARC is now transitioning itself from a
declaratory
to
implementation phase
and thereby envisages playing more
enabling roles in addressing the regional
issues
Institutionalization of Regional Cooperation
SAARC Framework of Disaster Management
                                  National Focal Points of
                                      Member Countries
                    Bangladesh

                                               Bangladesh: DMB
      Afghanistan                Bhutan
                                               Bhutan: MH&CA
                                               India: NIDM/MHA

Sri Lanka             SCDM             India   Maldives: NDMC
                                               Nepal: MHA
                                               Pakistan: NDMA
      Pakistan                   Maldives      Sri Lanka: MDMHR
                       Nepal                   Afghanistan: ANDMA
SDMC :                                       • South Asia
                                               Disaster
Three                                          Knowledge
                                               Network (SADKN)
Pronged             Knowledge                • South Asia Digital
                                               Vulnerability
Strategies          Management                 Atlas




         Natural                 Capacity
         Disaster                Development
         Rapid Response          -Specialized Training
                                 -Specialized Training
         Mechanism               -Regional Workshops
                                 -Regional Workshops
                                 -Policy Notes
                                 -Policy Notes
         (NDRRM)
         (NDRRM)                 -Documentation
                                 -Documentation
                                 -- ….
                                    ….
SDMC:
                              Bottom‐up Approach
Knowledge
Management
                                             Top‐down Approach
Strategy            National
                    National
                     National
                          Unlocking of
                     National
                      National
                           Unlocking of
                      National
                       National
                       National
                        National
                    TWCIndigenous
                     TWCNational
                    TWCIndigenous
                         National
                                              Academia
                     TWC
                      TWC
                      TWCNational
                       TWC
                                              R&D Organizations
                       TWC
                        TWC
                          Knowledge
                        TWCKnowledge
                         TWC
                                              Operational Agencies
                                            Regional
                                            Regional
                         TWC
                          -Documentation     Regional
                                               Interlocking of
                                             Regional
                                                Interlocking of
                           -Documentation
                          -Replication        Regional
                                            TWC
                                              Regional
                                            TWC
                           -Replication
                                             TWC
                                               Knowledge
                                             TWCKnowledge
                          -CBDRR
                           -CBDRR             TWC
                                              TWC
                                               Institutions
                                                Institutions
         Creating the Regional Knowledge        -South Asia Disaster
                                                 -South Asia Disaster
                                                Knowledge Networks
                                                 Knowledge Networks
         Repository for Disaster Risk 
         Reduction in South Asia



 SADKN and a repository of SA Indigenous Knowledge base viz.,
 seismic resilient habitats in Nepal, coping and resilience of
 coastal hazards in Sri Lanka, Flood and Drought in India..
Information
Exchange and
Advocacy
                                                           Bi-annual                         Annual
        Weekly                      Quarterly
                                                     Journal of South Asian         South Asia Disaster Report
South Asia Disaster News          SDMC Informs
                                                        Disaster Studies



                                      A FEW SDMC
           SAARC                       PRODUCTS
Commmunity Based Disaster Risk
                                                                              Indigenous Knowledge on Disaster
       Management
                                                                                 Risk Reduction in South Asia


       Road Map                                                                Case Studies from India,
                                                                                Nepal and Sri Lanka


                                                                               SAARC Disaster Management
            Dhaka                                                                  Centre, New Delhi
     17-18 November 2007                                                                   2008


         Road Map
                                 Feasibility Study
                                                     Reprint                      Documentation
SDMC Roadmap
Development of Toolkits
and Methodology in
general and specific
sectors

The Tool Kits shall, inter
alia, spell out multi-
hazard specific entry-
point activities in
specific sectors

 Training and Technical
Support

Disaster Impact
Assessment of trans-
boundary development
projects
SAARC Action Plan on
Climate Change
Seven thematic areas and six priority action plans
Major Highlights – DRR and CCA Integration
  ▫ Adaptation to extreme climate events viz., flood,
    cyclone, glacial outburst, droughts and heat and cold
    waves;
  ▫ Adaptation to climate change impact viz., sea level rise,
    salinity intrusion, glacier melt and coastal and soil
    erosion;
  ▫ Sharing of information and capacity building in the
    management of climate change impacts and risks, early
    forecasting, warning and adaptation measures.
Integration of DRR to CCA:
     SDMC Road Map
 Programme guidelines for
 integration of DRR in CCA
 projects and vice versa in respect
 of floods, cyclones, droughts and
 glacial lake outbursts

 Technology need assessment -
 those related to Early Warning
 Systems

 Research study on micro-credit,
 micro-insurance and crop
 Insurance

 Training Modules on Climate Risk
 Assessment and Capacity
 Building
SDMC Road Map
Regional Plan for Coastal and
Marine Risk Mitigation (Bay of
Bengal & Arabian Sea basins) –
Harmonizing Coastal Risk and
Coastal Zone Management

Template for National Plan for
Coastal and Marine Risk
Mitigation

Regional protocols for sharing
Early Warning (Cyclone, Storm
Surge, Tsunami etc)

Densification/unification of
Early Warning along North
Indian Ocean basin
               Joint Work Programme of
              SAARC Disaster Management
             Centre and SAARC Coastal Zone
               Management Centre, Male
SAARC Action Plan on
Climate Change
  Seven Thematic Areas and Six Priority Action Plans
    Major Highlights – Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
    in and Climate Change Adaptation
▫ Adaptation to extreme climate events viz., flood,
  cyclone, glacial outburst, droughts and heat and cold
  waves;
▫ Adaptation to climate change impact viz., sea level rise,
  salinity intrusion, glacier melt and coastal and soil
  erosion;
▫ Sharing of information and capacity building in the
  management of climate change impacts and risks, early
  forecasting, warning and adaptation measures.
    Marrying Climate Change
Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk
         Reduction (DRR)
          - Major Trends
Climate                                                          Vulnerability
Proofing                                                         Reduction
             Externalities
                                              Externalities


               Planned                          Preparedness
              Adaptation                   = f(Technologies, Investment..)
       = f(Technologies, Investment..)




              Autonomous
                                               Autonomous
               Adaptation
                                                Resilience
               -Adaptive
                                                - Coping
                Capacity


 Climate Change Adaptation               Disaster Risk Reduction
                   Autonomous Adaptation
“The issue is not how much water you have- It is how you
    learn to use, store and relate to that water. In other
     words, the culture of dealing with water is far more
                important than any issue of technology “
                             -Late Anil Agarwal, ‘Dying Wisdom’

A culture of dealing with water
Ralegaon Siddhi, Maharashtra
(Avg annual rainfall < 300 mm):
Irrigation increased from 80 to 1200 acre;
3 crops every year worth Rs. 600,000.        Watershed - Ralegaon Siddhi
Planned Adaptation                                           Sujala Watershed
                                                             Development
                                                             Sujala
                        Road
                        Parcel
                                                             Govt. of Karnataka




                                     PRA
                        Water
                        Drain
                         Soil                                     Ph I Impact Assessment
                                                                 Increased …
                        LU/LC



                                                                 • crop yields (24%)
Satellite Inputs (Resource Maps)                                 • crop diversity (2-5 to 4-9)




                                     Field Survey
                                                                 • household income
                                                                   (Rs 10-13K to Rs 15-25K)
                                                                     -Aide Memoire of World Bank,
                                                                                       June, 2005
                                     Implementation
                                                             “a model of excellence and
                                                             should be promoted widely
                                                             for other projects to follow”
                                                             “

            GIS / MIS              Community Participation   – World Bank Review Team
Planned Resilience Building
Bangladesh Cyclone Preparedness Programme
‘SIDR’ (B’desh Cyclone 2007)

      Community                People’s Centric EWS,
      preparedness –           Large scale evacuation (0.3 M)
      cyclone shelters,
      awareness ..             Saving thousands of lives..
                      Capacity building
      National Meteorological,
      Hydrological Services      Cyclone Intensity, Track and
      and Observational          Landfall Predictions, Storm
      Networks (Radar, Met..)    surge modeling for risk mapping..
                       Capacity building
       International/Regional
       Agencies: WMO, WMO-       Detection and Tracking of
       ESCP Panel on Tropical    Cyclone in Bay of Bengal
       Cyclone, NOAA, JMA..
DRR and CCA Coupling in SAARC Region
National Efforts – Emerging Signals
• National Adaptation Programme for Action (NAPA) –
  Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal (Under-
  preparation)
• Draft Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan - (2008)
  – Bangladesh
• National Environment Protection Act (NEPA) –
  Afghanistan
• National Environmental policy 2005 Pakistan
• National Action Plan on Climate Change in June 2008,
  National Communications UNFCC- India (8 Major
  National Missions, spending 2% GDP on Adaptation in
  multiple sectors of development)
                             Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
                  - Early Warning Systems (EWS), HVR Assessment/Monitoring,
                          Mitigation & Preparedness Strategies, Response
                                           Strategies ..

    Areas of Divergence          Integration of Technologies
    -Diverse                                                            Areas of Convergence
    institutional                      Priority Areas                   -Coastal Zone
    structure
                                                                        Management
    -Disconnected             Targeting Climate Risk Hotspots           -Watershed
    Policies,                 Designing DRR Strategies                  Development
     Planning and             Climate & EWS Info in CCA                 -Land Use Planning
    Programmes
                              Mainstreaming DRR & CCA coupling          -Settlements Planning
    -Lack of relevant
                                                                        -Floodplain
    information
                                                                        Management..
    -Ad-hoc Short term
    Approaches                    Institutional Networking


                    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)
                          • Human Health          • Agriculture & forestry
                          • Food, Water &         • Trade & tourism
                            Environment           • Industry, Mining etc
                            Security              • Land use, settlements
                          • Energy

DRR – CCA Integration
Story of
Story of
Sabina..Anand, Gujarat
Sabina..Anand, Gujarat

No more vulnerable, refusee ;;
 No more vulnerable, refusee
Empowered by soft skills
 Empowered by soft skills
Holds a bank account;
 Holds a bank account;
Finds voices in decision making;
 Finds voices in decision making;
Children in schools…
 Children in schools…
                  When CCA and DRR are coupled
                  - Autonomous +Planned
                  Adaptation also lead to risk
II                reduction at community level
Leadership       Value of        Zero !!
 & vision
                                                            Resources

             Management        HRD         Infrastructure




             0 0 ,0 0 ,0 0 0
                  Technology         BPR         Partnership