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									National Airborne Field Experiment
Dept of Civil and Env Engg The University of Melbourne, Australia School of Civil, Surveying and Env Engg The University of Newcastle, Australia Airborne Research Australia Flinders University, Australia Presented by Christoph Rüdiger Dept of Civil and Env Engg The University of Melbourne, Australia

NAFE

Jeffrey Walker Jetse Kalma

Jörg Hacker

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

The Science

Questions
• Spatial, temporal and accuracy requirements for satellite missions • Development and validation of passive microwave algorithms – AMSR-E/SMOS/ Hydros – scaling, multiangle, etc • Downscaling of low resolution passive microwave soil moisture measurements using high resolution visible/thermal data and/or radar (ie Hydros) • Retrieval and validation of derived root zone soil moisture from the assimilation of nearsurface measurements
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Ground Requirements
• Long-term monitoring of soil moisture profiles and associated meteorological data
• for modelling and evaluation of root zone soil moisture

• Extensive ground-based measurement of nearsurface soil moisture and soil temperature across individual farms at scales of 2.5m to 150m spacing during airborne monitoring campaigns
• for aircraft validation and scaling, algorithm development, downscaling and mission requirements

• Continuous near-surface soil moisture, soil temperature, and thermal infrared logging at focus farms
• for relating air-to-ground measurements
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

• Fly with passive microwave, thermal and NDVI scanner • Air measurements coinciding with ground measurements, as early in the morning as possible
• would also like lidar scan and digital photography (once)

Air Requirements

• Fly at a range of altitudes to achieve a range of ground resolutions
• provides data for scaling, root-zone, algorithm development/validation and mission requirements
• 50m at 500ft (farms) to 1km at 10,000ft (regions) for microwave • 1m at 500ft to 20m at 10,000ft for thermal & NDVI

• soil and veg temperatures are more closely aligned • more uniform soil temperature profile • Hydros/SMOS have 6am/pm overpass; AMSR-E has 10am/pm overpass

• Fly farms with instrument in multiangle configuration
• Provides data for SMOS algorithm development
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

The Catchments

www.civenv.unimelb.edu.au/~jwalker/data/oznet

OzNet

Nov 2005 Nov 2006
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

The Goulburn Catchment

Vegetation and Soils

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Instrumentation
- Currently installed …
- 2 weather stations and several pluviometers - 26 soil moisture monitoring sites - 1 flume and 5 stream gauges

- Use of …

- 3 existing weather stations - 3 stream gauges - numerous rain gauges

- To come …

- Pluviometers at all 26 soil moisture sites - 0-6cm soil moisture measurements - Telemetry
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Location of Instrumentation

Weather Stations Soil Moisture Sites Stream Gauges
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

The Murrumbidgee Catchment

Weather Stations Soil Moisture Stream Gauges

Murray-Darling Basin

200km
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Instrumentation
- Currently installed …
38 soil moisture monitoring sites 38 pluviometers 26 groundwater monitoring wells 1 3D eddy correlation system

- Use of …

- 1 or more automatic weather stations for each focus area - 2 stream gauges in Kyeamba Creek catchment

- To come …

- 0-6cm soil moisture measurements - Telemetry for a remaining 20 of the 38 soil moisture sites
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Murrumbidgee Catchment
Yanco Study Area Kyeamba Creek Adelong Creek

Flux Tower

200 km
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

The Aircraft

Instruments
The Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer specifications are: frequency/bandwidth: 1.413GHz/24MHz, V and H polarisations: single receiver w/ polarisation switch, 50m resolution data at 150m flying height, weight 46kg & size 91.5cm × 91.5cm × 17.25cm, NEDT and accuracy better than 1K for an integration time of 0.5s, 1K repeatability over 4 hours, incidence angles: +/- 7°, +/-21.5°, +/- 38.5° @ pushbroom, and rotatable by 90º (so can be configured to look fore/aft). The FLIRTS ThermaCam S60 thermal infrared imager specifications are: spectral range 7.5 to 13 m, 1m resolution data at 150m flying height, weight 2kg & size 10cm × 12cm × 22cm, accuracy +/- 2 °C or +/-2% of reading, thermal sensitivity 0.08 °C, and 80° × 60° FOV lens with 1.3mrad IFOV.
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Instruments cont’d
These instruments can be flown together with: a tri-spectral scanner (NDVI) with 1m resolution at 150m flying height, a meteorological package that includes eddy correlation measurements of evapotranspiration, sensible heat and CO2 fluxes, a scanning lidar altimeter with 0.1m vertical and 1m horizontal resolution at 150m flying height for ground/vegetation elevation and structure, digital video, and high resolution (11 MegaPixel) digital stills.

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Airborne Soil Moisture
twin-engine Cessna 404 with the old SLFMR instrument mounted under the fuselage

single-engine SERA Diamond Dimona MPX with the new PLMR instrument mounted under the fuselage

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

www.civenv.unimelb.edu.au/~jwalker/plmr/

Instruments

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

The Field Plan

Ground Monitoring Approach
0-5cm soil moisture 0-5cm soil temperature Study Catchment Focus Farm
150m 150m grid

2.5m grid 150m

Base Station

5m grid

• 0-5cm soil moisture • 0-5cm soil temperature • Air temperature • TIR

Soil Moisture Station
75m

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Airborne Monitoring Approach
A range of resolutions/flying heights across different sized study areas

Study Catchment
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

50km x 60km ~ 4hrs h 35km x 20km ~ 1.5hrs a d c b e g f

500ft – 50m res & 2,500ft – 250m res 5,000ft – 500m res

10,000ft – 1000m res

a – Illogan: cropping

Monday & Thursday

Merriwa Wednesday Tuesday & Friday

b – Roscommon: grazing, red soil c – Stanley: grazing, microcatch d – Pembroke (n/s): crop/grazing

e – Cullingral: cropping f – Merriwa Park: cropping g – Midlothian: grazing h – Dales: grazing

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Yanco Study Area
45km x 20km ~ 2hrs Y1 Y4 Y2 Y5
10,000ft – 1000m res

60km x 60km ~ 5hrs

500ft – 50m res & 2,500ft – 250m res 5,000ft – 500m res

Y1 – mixed flood irrigation/dryland, grazing, barley, sandy loam Y2 – native veg, sheep grazing, sandy loam Y4 – rice irrigation, black clay Y5 – barley, red soil

Monday & Thursday 50 km

Narrendera Wednesday

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Wagga Wagga

35km x 5km ~ 0.5hrs

Kyeamba Creek
500ft – 50m res & 2,500ft – 250m res 5,000ft – 500m res

K14 50km x 25km ~ 1.2hrs

Flux Tower
10,000ft – 1000m res

K13

K10 Tuesday & Friday K5 K4 10 km
K4 – beef grazing, valley, g/water K5 – beef grazing, gentle slope K10 – sheep grazing, valley, g/water K13 – native veg, gentle slope, sandy loam K14 – native veg, sheep grazing, clay loam, flat, g/water

Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Flight Schedule Summary
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 500ft 2,500ft 5,000ft 10,000ft 500ft 2,500ft 5,000ft 10,000ft Yanco Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Kyeamba

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri 500ft 2,500ft 5,000ft 10,000ft 500ft 2,500ft 5,000ft 10,000ft

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Merriwa

Krui

All flights – PLMR, Thermal Imager & NDVI Extra flight prior to campaign or at end – Digital Camera & LIDAR
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger

Invitation
Scientists interested in collaborations can submit proposals for projects for either the November 2005 or 2006 campaigns to: j.walker@unimelb.edu.au by 15 May 2005 (for Nov 2005) or early 2006 (for Nov 2006)
Jeffrey Walker, Jetse Kalma and Jörg Hacker Presented by Christoph Rüdiger


								
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