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文秘专业英语Unit 1

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					文秘专业英语

               Unit 8
         Business Negotiations
 Study Objectives


 掌握与客人洽商时英语口语表达

 掌握一些基本的商务谈判技巧

 掌握英文询盘信及回信的写法

 了解祝贺和称赞的礼仪
    Tips for Business Negotiation

Negotiating is often referred to as an “art ”. While some people may be
naturally more skillful as negotiators, everyone can learn to negotiate. As
they often say in business, everything is negotiable. However, lack of
preparation in a negotiation almost always sets a person up for failure.

 First of all, each party must clearly define their own goals and objectives.
   What can you trade with the other party? Do you have any alternatives that
   are acceptable to you?
 Secondly, each party must anticipate the goals of the opposition. This may
   require doing some background research.
    Effective Meeting Preparation Tips

 Thirdly, each party must come up with various alternatives to their main
   objectives. If you can also work out possible solutions, then it is easier to find
   an acceptable outcome.
 Finally, you should be clear about your “bottom line”, the point at which you
   can offer no more.
Contents


           Part One         Dialogues


           Part Two Useful Expressions


           Part Three       Simple Writing


           Part Four        Exercises

           Part Five        Social Etiquette
   Dialogues

  Dialogue One

A distributor, James Lee, who is from UK, wants to discuss the prices of
heaters. However, Susan’s manager, Mr.Henry Stevenson is still on a
business trip in America. He asks Susan to negotiate the prices with the
distributor on behalf of the company.

S: Susan Brown            J: James Lee
                                                               .
S: Hello, James. I haven’t seen you since last year’s trade fair1
   How is everything going on?2
J: Hi, Susan. I am doing very well. Thank you. How about you?


  2. 你最近怎样?
  1. 交易会


                 Part 1     Part 2   Part 3     Part 4    Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue One

S: Oh, I am doing fine, too. Thank you. You know, Mr. Henry Stevenson is still
   in U.S. So I’ve got a lot of stuff to follow.
J: Right. I heard about it. So today’s meeting is just between two of us?
S: That’s right. Shall we get down to business now?
J: Sure. Well, I’ve studied the latest catalogue. Most of the products are very
   impressive. However, I must point out that prices are much higher than
   before.




                   Part 1     Part 2     Part 3    Part 4   Part 5
   Dialogues

  Dialogue One

S: Well, as you may know, the increased labour costs, high price of oil
   appreciation of RMB have made business pretty tough.3 We
   have no choice but4 to raise the prices. Actually our margins are razor thin5.
   Our prices still compare very favourably with those offered by other suppliers.
J: I see your point, but your selling offer is much higher than what we expected.
   You know, we are in a market slump6 We will lose all of our customers if we
                                     .
   raise the prices.



  3. 你要知道,劳动成本的上升,高油价和人民币的升值使我们生意非常的难做。
  5. 事实上,我们的利润是非常薄的。
  4. 除……之外别无他法。
  6. 市场不景气


                  Part 1   Part 2     Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue One

S: I admit the present market is very unfavourable to us. But it won’t last long.
   Plus the Christmas Holiday is coming. I think sales would be fine this year.
J: Well, considering our long-run relationship, could you knock down7 the
   prices, say, 15 % discount?
S: 15 %?! You can’t be serious! That would drive us out of business. The best
  we can do is 5%8.




  8. 降低
  7. 我们最低只能降5%。


                 Part 1     Part 2    Part 3     Part 4    Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue One

J: I understand where you’re coming from, but that high price also forces us
   out of the game.
S: Well, it will get us nowhere9 if we keep haggling10 over this issue. How
   about meeting half way11 ? We can give you a reduction of 10% provided
   you could double the order.
J: Hmm, let me see... All right, You do have a way of talking me into it.12
S: Thank you, James. I am glad we’ve settled the question of price.



 11. 你真有办法说服我。
 10. 妥协,让步
 9. 争论
 12.无进展


                  Part 1    Part 2    Part 3     Part 4    Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue Two
After taking a short break, Susan and James continue to discuss the terms
of payment and delivery.

S: Susan Brown       J: James Lee
S: Now that the price has been settled, let’s move on to the issue of payment.
J: Err, about that, the terms of payment would be a bit different from last time.
   We are wondering if we could defer payment until the end of next month
   because we are having a little trouble in receiving payment.




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   Dialogues

   Dialogue Two

S: Well, we have been doing business for a long time. We really want to help
   you this, but this is a very large order. We have to pay to make the goods.
   We’ll have money trouble too if you defer the payment.
J: Let’s do it this way. We’ll pay in instalments1 for our present purchase. What
   do you think?
S: Well, I have to consult with Mr. Stevenson. Would you wait a moment
   please? I need to call Mr. Stevenson for this...




 1. 分期付款


                   Part 1   Part 2    Part 3     Part 4   Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue Two

(Susan walks out of the room and calls Mr. Stevenson. Later on, Susan walks
back to the room. )
S: I am sorry for having kept you waiting so long. I just spoke to Mr. Henry
   Stevenson. He said it would be fine unless you make a twenty percent
   initial payment2 in two weeks, and pay off3 the rest in three monthly
   instalments.
J: That’s really nice of you. This is a fair suggestion. Good. So what about the
   delivery? Is it possible for you to ship the goods before the end of October?


 3. 还清
 2. 首期付款


                  Part 1    Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue Two

S: Well, I am afraid we can’t make it.
J: Then when at the earliest can we expect the shipment?
S: By the end of November. That’s the best we can do.
J: Is that your best offer? I’m afraid that’s not acceptable to us. We need the
   goods to be there by the end of October for our Christmas sales. You know
   Christmas sales usually start about a month before 25 December.
S: I see your point. But the factories are fully committed now.4




 4. 但是现在工厂已经满负荷了。

                 Part 1     Part 2       Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
   Dialogues

   Dialogue Two

J: I do hope you can try to step up5 the production. There’s no harm trying.
S: Look. To meet your demand, we’ll manage to advance the shipment from
   November to October. But the best we can do is just ship 40% promptly
  and the balance will be delivered in the middle of November.6
   I hope it won’t be late for the Christmas sales.
J: Well, I can’t see any problem with that.




  5. 加快,加速
  6. 但是我们最多能准时运送40%的货物,其余的会在11月中旬交货。


                 Part 1     Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
   Dialogues

  Dialogue Two

S: Good. I think we’ve both agreed on the terms. Can we shake on it?7
   (Susan holds out8 her hand.)
J: (James shakes it) Let’s get something to drink to celebrate the success of
   the negotiations.
S: That sounds a good idea. Let’s go!




  7. 伸出
  8. 那我们就一言为定了!(握手有表示“赞同、认可”的意思)


                 Part 1    Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
  Dialogues

 New Words

advance               [Ed5B:ns] v.            提前, 预付
commit                [k[5mIt]       v.        承诺; 使自己受约束
consult               [k[n5sQlt] v.            商议, 请教
defer                 [dI5f\:]       v.        使推迟, 使延期
impressive            [Im5presI] a.           给人深刻印象的, 感人的
initial               [I5nIFl] a.              最初的, 开头的
instalment            [In5stR:lm[nt] n. 分期付款
issue                 [5IFu:] n.               问题




             Part 1      Part 2    Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
 Dialogues

New Words

margin               [5mB:dVIn] n.            利润
promptly             [5prmptli] ad.           敏捷地, 迅速地
razor                [5reIz[] n.              剃刀
reduction            [rI5dQkFn] n.            减少, 缩小
slump                [slQmp] n.               消沉, 衰退; 物价,暴跌
stuff                [stQf] n.                材料; 东西
tough                [tQf] a.                 艰苦的, 坚强的




            Part 1      Part 2    Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
   Dialogues
  Word Bank

a bargain sale            廉价出售                  partial shipment   分批装船
a long-term contract      长期合同                  postpone delivery 推迟交货
accessories               配件                    prompt shipment 即期装运
C.I.F.                    成本加保险费,运费价 quotation                     报价
CFR                       成本加运费价                sample             样品
Chamber of Commerce       商会                    spare parts        备件
competitive bidding       竟价投标                  time of delivery   交货期
F.O.B.                    船上交货                  trade mark         商标
make offers               报价                    turnover tax       营业税
on display                展出




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   Useful Expressions

  For a Supplier

1. I must point out that prices are much higher than before.
  我必须要指出价格要比先前的高很多。
2. I see your point, but your selling offer is much higher than what we
   expected.
   我明白,但是您的报盘比预期的还要高。
3. Could you knock down the prices? Your price sounds too high and it is
   really beyond our reach.
   您可以降低价钱吗?你们的价格太高,我们根本支付不起。




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   Useful Expressions

  For a Supplier

4. How much do you think you could bring the price down?
  您认为您能降多少价?
5. If you can’t offer us the goods at a more competitive price, we’ll have to turn
   to other suppliers.
  如果你们的产品价格不能再优惠些,那我们就只得从其他供应商那里购买了。
6. What is your regular practice about the terms of payment?
  你们一般采用何种付款方式?
7. I do hope you can try to step up the production.
   我很希望你能尽量加快生产进度。


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   Useful Expressions

  For a Supplier

8. Could you do something to advance the time of delivery?
  你们能否想些办法提前交货?
9. I ask that the shipment be made in one single lot.
  我要求一次性把货交完。
10. Shipment should be made before July, otherwise we are not able to catch
   the season.
  7月底前必须装船,否则就赶不上销售季节了。




                 Part 1    Part 2    Part 3    Part 4   Part 5
   Useful Expressions

  For a Customer

1. The increased labour costs, high price of oil, appreciation of RMB have
   made business pretty tough.
  劳动成本的上升,高油价和人民币的升值使我们生意非常的难做。
2. Our margins are razor thin,I do not think there is any room for bargaining.
   我们的利润已经很薄了,我认为我们已经没有还价的余地了。
3. The best we can do is 5%. I mean if both parties could compromise a little
   and meet each other half way.
  我们最低只能给5%,我的意思是双方能否都退一步,从而达成协议。




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   Useful Expressions

  For a Customer

4. This is our rock-bottom price / floor price. We can’t make any further
   reduction.
  这是我方的最低价格,我们不能再让了。
5. We can give you a reduction of 10% provided you could double the order.
  我们可以给你10%的优惠,只要您多订一倍。
6. It would be fine unless you make a twenty percent initial payment in two
   weeks, and pay off the rest in three monthly instalments.
  除非你可以在两周内先付20%,然后剩下的分三个月还清。




                 Part 1    Part 2    Part 3     Part 4    Part 5
   Useful Expressions

  For a Customer

7. But the factories are fully committed now.
   但是现在工厂已经满负荷了。

8. Your payment of $5,000 has been 50 days past due.
   你们的5,000美元的应付款已拖欠50天了。
9. Please clear your account by sending us your check for $1,000 right away.
  请马上向我们寄来金额为1 000美元的支票以结清您的欠款。
10. If you agree to the partial shipment term, we’ll accept your order.
  如果您同意分批装运,我们就可以接受您的订货。




                 Part 1    Part 2     Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
     Sample Writing

    Section 1: A Letter of Enquiry

 A letter of enquiry may be used to gather information regarding products or
  services, prices and operation, etc.
 This kind of letters should be short and accurate. Avoid the temptation to add
  excessive detail and try to maintain a professional tone throughout the letter.
  Your letter can be fairly short, but it should be long enough to adequately
  explain what it is that you are inquiring about and what you want the reader to
  do in response to your letter.
 Make sure to include contact information so that the person can easily get in
  touch with you if necessary, such as your cell or home phone number or
  email address.



                  Part 1    Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
  Sample Writing

  Section 1: Minutes

 询价函可以用来收集信息,如关于产品或服务,价格和运作等。
 这类信函应该要简短和准确。避免加上过多的细节,而要尽量使整封信保持一种专
 业的语气。
 邀请信可以简短,但一定要有足够的长度来阐述你要咨询的内容,以及你期望对方
 怎样回应你的信。
 必须要写上你的联系方式,这样对方如果有需要,就可以很容易地与你联系。譬如
 说留下你的手机号码或家庭电话,或者电子邮箱。




             Part 1    Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
      Sample Writing

Sample
Dear Sir/Madam,
We learn from the Textile Chamber of Commerce that you are producing a range of
high-fashion scarves and gloves. We operate a large chain of retail business and are
looking for a manufacturer who could supply us with a wide range of scarves and
gloves for the teenage market. Would you please send me a copy of your scarves
and gloves catalogue with details of your prices and payment terms?

We would find it most helpful if you could also supply samples of the various materials
from which the goods are made.

Yours faithfully
Mathew Black
Marketing Manager
Spencer Retail Group

                    Part 1     Part 2     Part 3    Part 4     Part 5
      Sample Writing

     Section 2: A Reply Letter to the Enquiry

     It is very important to make a good impression when responding to enquiries
from potential customers.
 Express your appreciation for the person’s interest.
 The best impression will be made by providing the materials or information that
  the perspective client has asked for. This positive impression will be improved
  by a well written response.
 If appropriate, you might want to include additional information about your
  organization, the products or services you sell, or the subject matter of the
  inquiry, beyond the scope of the original inquiry.




                   Part 1     Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
  Sample Writing

  Section 2: A Reply Letter to the Enquiry

当回复潜在客户的询盘信时,要给对方留一个好印象是非常重要的。

 要感谢对方对你公司产品的兴趣。
 要建立最好的印象,就是提供潜在的客人所要求的材料或信息。这样一个正面的印
 象还可以通过一封书写得体的信得以改善。
 如果合适,也可以附加一些关于你公司的信息,你们的产品或服务,或者就他/她咨询
 的问题再进一步说明。




              Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
     Sample Writing

Sample
Dear Mr. Black,
We welcome your enquiry of July 8 and thank you for your interest in our scarves
and gloves. As requested, a copy of our illustrated catalogue and price list are being
sent to you today, with samples of our products.
We are also manufacturing a wide range of socks in which we think you might be
interested. They are fully illustrated in the catalogue and are of the same high
quality as our scarves and gloves.
We hope the samples will reach you in good time. If you have any questions
please don’t hesitate to contact us. We are looking forward to your order.
Yours sincerely
Joe Smith,
Marketing Manager
Meili Garment Manufacturing Ltd.

                    Part 1     Part 2     Part 3     Part 4     Part 5
     Exercises

    1. Listening.
    Listen to the following passage carefully and fill in the blanks according
to what you hear.
     Negotiation is the art of arriving at 1 ______________on a subject to the
                                              a compromise
satisfaction of the parties 2 _________ . Negotiation can take place between two
                               involved
people or several people. Negotiations can also happen between different
3 __________________ . Business negotiations could involve purchases, sales,
   firms or companies
loans, contracts or anything regarding business.
     It is extremely important to 4 __________ a strategy before starting any
                                     formulate
negotiation. And you should 5 ___________ this strategy during the negotiations.
                                adhere to




                   Part 1    Part 2    Part 3      Part 4   Part 5
      Exercises

     1. Listening.

      Before trying to buy anything you should make a study of the product or
service and 6 __________ in the market. You should study the 7 ___________
               its value                                        availability
of the product from different 8 __________ . This will give you a very good
                                  sources
9 __________ to negotiate its price.
    insight
     During the negotiation one should be very 10 ___________ and never
                                                    confident
11 _________ the real position or the maximum price at which he is prepared to
     reveal
buy the product. One should pose as if he is prepared to 12 _________ if the
                                                             walkout
price is not to his satisfaction.




                     Part 1     Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
      Exercises

     2. Role play.

    You and your customer are in the office to negotiate the terms of the order.
You want the customer to pay a 20% deposit immediately and the payment
should be in dollars. While the customer wants a discount for bulk purchase and
an earlier delivery.




                       Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5
     Exercises

    3. Interpret the following Chinese expressions and complete the dialogue.

A: Good morning. I am Martha Stone of Endless Fun Videos Shop.
   1 ________________________________________.
      We wish to place an order of your home videos
   (我们想订你们的家庭影碟机).
B: Good morning, Ms Stone. I am Jessica Lee.
   2 ________________________________? (你是从我们目录上下订单吗)?
       Are you ordering from our catalogue
A: Yes, I have the item numbers. The first item is 2389. We’d like 52 copies and 30
   copies of Item 8673. 3 _____________________________________________?
                           Is it possible to have a wholesale price for this amount
   (这个数量可以要到批发价吗)?
B: I am sorry, Ms. Stone.
       I’m afraid we couldn’t make it unless you buy more than 200 copies
   4 __________________________________________________________.
   (恐怕您要订够200张以上才有批发价).

                   Part 1    Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
     Exercises

    3. Interpret the following Chinese expressions and complete the dialogue.

A: Oh, that would be rather expensive. Is there any discount?
B: Err, let me see. 5 ________________________________________________
                        There is a price reduction of 10% on Item 2389 if you buy
    over 60 copies
   ______________________________________________________________.
   (如果你购买编号2389超过60 张以上,可以享受10%的价格优惠).
   6 _____________________________. (那么单价就变成$19了).
      That brings the net price to $19
A: Ok. So I’ll order 60 copies of Item 2389 and 30 copies of Item 8673.
      Can you fax over an invoice for the items I just ordered
   7 ________________________________________________?
   (你可以把我刚才所订的东西的发票传真过来吗)?
B: No problem. I’ll fax it to you by the end of the day. Thank for choosing GP
   Entertainment Company. See you.
A: See you.

                   Part 1    Part 2    Part 3     Part 4    Part 5
     Exercises

   4. Practical Writing.

Task 1: You work in the Marketing Department in Wal-mart (沃尔玛). Your
        manager asks you to look for a new toilet rolls supplier for the super
        market. Write an enquiry letter about the details of the products
        price, payment terms and delivery.

Task 2: According to Task 1, write a reply to the above enquiry. In your letter,
        you should include the information of the products, price, payment
        terms and delivery.




                  Part 1    Part 2   Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
    Exercises

  5. Reading Activity.

       The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
     Most of us negotiate every day without realizing it. However when
mentioning the word “negotiation” some people will get nervous. It frightens
them. They imagine themselves at the car dealership and the hassles and
pressure associated with making a deal with someone who is an expert
negotiator. However, 99.9% of the time negotiation is simply working with
someone to find a solution that benefits both parties equally. Whether you’re
negotiating with your two year old about bedtime or your biggest customer, the
principles are the same.




                  Part 1    Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
      Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

         The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
     1. Creating a Win-Win situation. When you approach a negotiation with
the right attitude, it takes the pressure off of both parties. What is the right
attitude? The desire for both parties to get what they want. To create a win-win
situation. If one party is only in the process for themselves, a resolution will be
difficult to come by.




                        Part 1   Part 2   Part 3     Part 4     Part 5
     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

         The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
    2. Listening skills. In order to know what the other party hopes to get from a
negotiation, you have to listen. In fact, your ability to ask the right questions, and
listen to the answers, is your No.1 most important negotiating skill. A skilled
negotiator enters a negotiation with a questioning mindset. When you make it your
No.1 mission to learn more about your customer, you are more likely to learn
quality information, information that you can use to build a rapport and establish a
collaborative environment. Look to learn what your customer needs, wants, what
makes them successful, and how you can sell to them.




                    Part 1     Part 2     Part 3    Part 4     Part 5
     Exercises

   5. Reading Activity.

        The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
    3. Creativity. This relates to creative problem solving. When you’re
approaching a negotiation as a win-win situation and you’re listening to the
needs of the other party, creative problem solving can help design a solution that
meets everyone’s needs. Negotiation is about more than winning the highest
contract.




                  Part 1     Part 2    Part 3    Part 4    Part 5
     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

         The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
     4. Patience. Many negotiations take time. This is particularly true when
forging new territory with a client or vendor. Creating a solution that works for both
businesses can take several drafts, have to be approved by several parties, and
quite honestly many businesses aren’t accustomed to win-win negotiations so they
may take some time to adjust to the concept. Give them the time they need
because when you show you’re willing to be patient and that you’re invested in
their interests too, they’ll be willing to work with you today and ten years from now.
You’ll form a lasting and mutually beneficial relationship.




                    Part 1    Part 2     Part 3    Part 4     Part 5
     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

            The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
     5. Research. Take the time to learn all you can about the business you’re
negotiating with and you’ll be one step ahead to understanding their needs
concerns and how you can work together to come up with a mutually beneficial
solution.
     6. Confidence is the key to a successful negotiation. If you show fear
the person or company you’re negotiating with can perceive that as power over
you or a lack of confidence in your business product or service.




                    Part 1   Part 2    Part 3    Part 4     Part 5
     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

         The Seven Principles of Mastering the Art of Negotiation
     7. Knowing when to walk away. Not all negotiations result in a win-win
situation. Sometimes it’s better to walk away but more importantly it is better to be
prepared to walk away. When a negotiation is a MUST then it gives some of your
power away. Go into a negotiation with a positive attitude and a desire to make it
work, however keep the awareness that it may not in your back pocket.




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     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

Please fill in the blanks according to what you have learnt from the passages.

1. When it comes to “negotiation”, some people will _____________ . This is
                                                     get nervous
   because _____________________________________ making a deal with
             the hassles and pressure associated with
   someone who is an expert negotiator.
2. __________________ is the circumstance where both parties can get what
    A win-win situation
   they want. When you are at this circumstance, _______________________
                                                   creative problem solving
   can help design a solution that meets everyone's needs.




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     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

Please fill in the blanks according to what you have learnt from the passages.

3. The most important negotiating skill is the ability______________________,
                                                       to ask the right questions
   and _____________________. The more you know about your customers,
         listen to the answers
   you are more likely to learn quality information, information that you can use
   to ______________ and establish a ______________________.
       build a rapport                collaborative environment




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     Exercises

    5. Reading Activity.

Please fill in the blanks according to what you have learnt from the passages.

4. _________________ take time. You should give them the time they need
     Many negotiations
   because when you show you're willing to _____________ and that you're
                                             be patient
  ________________ interests too, they'll be willing to work with you today and
    invested in their
   ten years from now.
5. Not all the negotiations end in a win-win situation. Sometimes it's better to
  __________ but more importantly it is better to ______________________.
   walk away                                       be prepared to walk away




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     Social Etiquette


              The Etiquette of Giving Compliments in Business
    Everyone likes to hear nice things about him or herself, regardless of where
they are in the world. Giving compliments in business is tricky so it’s important to
know how to do it properly. Compliments are easy to give in the work place as
long as you don’t comment on someone’s appearance. It’s best to comment on
someone’s behaviour, for example, “Great job on that report,” The more specific
you can be about a compliment in the workplace, the better.




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     Social Etiquette


              The Etiquette of Giving Compliments in Business
You don’t want to say “Gee, Joe, you look great today in that suit” or even “Mary,
you look terrific in that skirt” as those are inappropriate for the workplace. If you
are in senior management, and you give someone a compliment, it encourages
them because it makes them feel like they’re worthy. If your workmate gets
promoted, it is also a very gracious and respectful act to acknowledge his or her
success by sending a hand-written note or a card.
     However, it’s important to remember that being genuinely interested in other
people, and expressing sincere compliments is much more effective in developing
rapport with people.



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      Social Etiquette

    Group Disccussion

      Study the following saying carefully and discuss with your partners. What
can you learn from it? Can you give any example for it﹖ What is the good result
for a negotiation﹖ How can you reach that?
      —It is unwise to pay too much, but it is worse to pay too little. When you pay
too much, you will lose some money. However, when you pay too little, you
sometimes lose everything, because the thing you bought was incapable of doing
the things it was bought to do. The common law of business balance prohibits
paying a little and getting a lot...
                                                    —By John Ruskin (1819-1900)




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大连理工大学出版社


				
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