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儿童的言语治疗

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					CHILDHOOD NUTRITION
    AND FEEDING
Nutrition

         Basal matabolism
         Maintain basic physiologic activity

Energy
         Special motility for food digestion
            peristalsis   infant 7%~8%
            digestion
            absorption    elder children 5%
Nutrition

         Physical activity

             Growth
Energy
            Fecal loss
                             Mentality and emotion
             Others
                                Envioronment
Nutrition

        General Energy Needs

      Infant      110 kcal/kg
      ↓every 3 yrs 10kcal/kg
      15yrs         60kcal/kg

               Basal metabolism    50%
    6~12yrs    Physical activity   25%
               Growth              12%
               Fecal                8%
Nutrition

Protein
      Essential amino acid
      Non-essential amino acid
      Recommend amount

      breast milk        2.0g/kg
      cow milk           3.5g/kg
      vegetative protein 4.0g/kg
Nutrition

   Fats

  Saturated fatty acid
                            ≥1:2
  Unsaturated fatty

  Linoliec acid →        n- 6 Linoliec

                         n-3 Linolenic
  Free fatty acids
Nutrition


 Carbohydrate    50%~60%



        1yr   12g/kg/d
        >2yrs 10g/kg/d
Nutrition


 Vitamin                               VitK
                                VitE
                         VitD
                  VitA
  Fat---soluble
Water---soluble
                           VitB

                                   VitC
Nutrition
  Mineral                            Na
                       Ca
                                K
     Macroelements     P


      Trace elements   Zn
                                Co
                           Fe
                                      Se
Nutrition


 Water                   Infant       150ml/kg
                         Every 3 yrs ↓25ml/kg
                         9 yr          75ml/kg
                         Adult         50ml/kg
    Neonatal   80%
    1 yr       70%
    …          …
    Adult      55%~60%
Nutrition


  Food fiber


  Physiological function
 —prevention constipation
Infant Feeding---Breast feeding


 Advantages



          Albumin 白蛋白     ↑
          Casein   酪蛋白    ↓   3:2
protein
          Taurine 牛磺酸     ↑
          Glutamate 谷氨酸   ↑
Infant Feeding---Breast feeding


     Fat        Long-chain lipid acid   ↑
                Linoleic acid ↑

 Carbohydrate      Lactose↑
                   Bacillus bifidus↑

   Vitamin               A/D/E ↑
Infant Feeding---Breast feeding


  minerals
                         --absorption
             Ca:P(2:1)


             Fe    50% absorption rate


              Zn
                     ↑
Infant Feeding---Breast feeding


         SIgA ↑

               Lactoferrin ↑

Immunization              Lysozyme ↑

                  Bifidus ↑    Bacillus


                     Antibody ↑
Infant Feeding---Breast feeding


  Others

   Natural food
   Convenient feeding
   Recovering from delivery
   Baby-mother attechment
Infant Feeding---Breast feeding

Elements of breast milk in different phase
colostrum:           0~5d     protein
transitional milk:   6~10d   lipid
mature milk:         11d~9m stable elements

late milk:           >10m    protein
Infant Feeding---Formula Feeding


    Formula milk


                               Zn
  Fortified nutrients
                        Fe
                                         …
                 VitA

                        VitB        VitC VitD
Infant Feeding---Supplementary Food

  Age                         food
  2w                     VitD
  4-6m                Rice powder
  7-9m              meshed vegetable、meet 、
                         fruit soft noddle biscuit
  10-12m    soft rice 、thick porridge、 fine-cut
         vegetable 、meat、 bean products etc.
  12-24m              piece-cut food
   24m-                  normal
Feeding priciples

    Reasonable food arrangement
     protein: fat: carbohydrate≌1:1:4-5
       10% 25-30% 50-60%

 Food quality
 Feeding behavior
 Feeding environment
Evaluation of nutrition condition

      History
      Nutrition study
       food investigation
       evaluation
       physical examination
       laboratory test
Standard

      Underweight   W≤-2SD

      Stunting       L≤-2SD

      Wasting
                     W/L≤-2SD
Thank you!

				
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posted:4/29/2013
language:Latin
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