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下载电子课件unit 4

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					Unit 4

Buildings

建筑物
Teaching Steps
  Leading in
  Dialogue
  Text
  Exercises
  Guided writing
Lead-in Pictures
 to the Dialogue
        Unit 4

      Buildings

       建筑物



Modern high buildings
World Trade Buildings
Xiersi Building   Chrysler Building
                    DIALOGUE
   A: Why do people put up high buildings?

   B: The chief reason is to make the best use of the limited
    and expensive land areas available in the world’s major
    cities. New York City, largely confined to an island,
    could not spread outward, so it spreads upward.

   A: Is there a limit to the height of buildings?

   B: Yes. Structural engineers have calculated that
    buildings up to 3 kilometers tall are technically feasible.
   A: It’s said that a large tower block is the size of a village. Many
    skyscrapers are complete with shops, restaurants, and recreation
    facilities. What are the advantages and disadvantages?

   B: The advantages are that the whole of a large company’s staff
    can be housed together, with obvious gains in efficiency. Large
    buildings for homes, such as tower blocks of apartments, also
    make the best use of land and simplify the installation of services
    such as electricity and heating. On the other hand, they can create
    social problems. Living many meters above street level can lead to
    lack of contact with the surrounding community.
   A: A magazine says that there is a building called the pneumatic
    building. Can you explain it in details?

   B: Large “tents”, kept up by inflating them with air under slight
    pressure, are called pneumatic structures.

   A: What are they made of?

   B: They are made of strong fabrics and may be reinforced with
    membrane ribs and cables. So far these structures have been used
    mainly for temporary building, sometimes for protecting
    permanent ones while they are being built.
                            New Words
calculate
vt. To find out how much something will cost, how long something
   will take etc, by using numbers 计算
e.g. Oil prices are calculated in dollars. 油价以美元计算。
feasible
a. a plan, idea, or method that is feasible is possible and is likely to
   work 可行的
e.g. Your plan is not economically feasible.
recreation
n. an activity that you do for pleasure or amusement 娱乐,消遣
e.g. His only recreations are drinking beer and watching
   football.
            Phrases
put up 举起,建造(房屋等),张贴(布告等)
make use of… 利用……
be confined to 限制在……范围内
It is said that… 据说…

lead to 导致
in detail 详细地
be made of… 由……制成
so far 到目前为止
 Describe the teaching buildings and
 dormitories in your college.
“what are the advantages and the
 disadvantages? ”
“What is the building design?”
Lead-in Pictures
  to the Text
Inner walls   Out walls
Horizontal girders    Vertical columns




 Bearing walls       Honeycomb bricks
Steel girders   Wood girders
Sharply-pointed ridge roof buildings
                                       里
                                       加
                                       市
                                       政
                                       厅
   故宫
                                       圣
                                       索
                                       非
                                       亚
                                       大
                                       教
圣彼得大教堂                                 堂
  Flat surface roof buildings




旧民房建筑               新厂房建筑
卫浴隔板   帝王大厦
                         TEXT
       People have learned a lot about building since prehistoric
times. We’ve learned to use new methods to make buildings
taller, stronger and safer. We have developed new building
materials. We can cool our houses in summer and heat them in
winter.
      A building generally comprises outer and inner walls,
floors, roofs, doors, window frames and so on. Whatever the
size is, a building must shelter people from the elements and
have some systems for controlling the climate. It must provide
space for specific use and such services as elevators or
stairways for its users. As structures, buildings must be able to
carry not only their own load, but also the weight of the people
and objects within them.
     The framework, when construction of steel, is a complex cage
of horizontal girders and vertical columns. Now welding is widely
used to join its members because it makes the operations easier
and makes for a lighter structure. The walls can be of the stone,
brick or cement blocks. The floors may be constructed of wood or
of steel, girders, with special honeycomb bricks, or they may be of
reinforced concrete.
     The roof covers the building to protect it from the weather. It
can vary in shape from a sharply pointed ridge to a flat surface, or
may combine the both. In areas of much rain or snow, roofs are
usually built very high. The space under the roof may be used in a
number of ways, according to the size of the building. Generally
speaking, roofs have three purposes. They protect the interior of
the house against the weather, (2) prevent the escape of heat from
the interior during the cold weather, and are decorative.
   The foundations can be of many types, but
since they form the base of the whole
structure, they must be adequate to support its
weight, distributing this as evenly as possible
over the ground. In stonework or brick
buildings the bearing walls support the floors
of the various storeys, besides putting a wall
round the building and keeping apart from its
surroundings. In buildings of steel or
reinforced concrete, the walls serve only as
screens for enclosing and isolating the rooms.
     A new development in the construction of
tall buildings has taken place within the last
few years. The early high-rise buildings began
with structural steel framing. Economically
and competitively has reinforced concrete ever
since been used in a number of structures for
many purposes. The buildings from 50 to 110
storeys high are now being built all over the
United States. Greater height needs increased
column and beam sizes to make buildings
more rigid.
             New Words and Phrases
generally adv. In a general way, considering without details or
specific cases comprise大体上
e.g. The system has generally been found very easy to use.

shelter n. a place to live, considered as one of the basic needs of life.
栖身之地
 e.g. they are in desperate need of food, clothing and shelter.

complex adj. consisting of many different parts or processes that are
closely connected 结构复杂的
 e.g. There is a complex network of roads round the city.

honeycomb n. a structure made by bees, which consists of many six-
sided cells in which honey is stored 蜂巢
e.g. This building likes a honeycomb.
                  Intensive Reading
1. It must provide space for specific use and services as elevators or
   stair-ways for its users.

      它必须为居民提供特殊功能的用地和设施,如电梯或楼梯。

2. The framework, when construction of steel, is a complex cage of
   horizontal girders and vertical columns.
     钢结构的框架是由水平梁的和垂直柱组成的复杂的笼形结构。



3. Greater height needs increased column and beam sizes to make
buildings more rigid.
    建筑物的高度较大时,必须增大柱子和梁的尺寸,以便增大它
的刚度。
4. It can vary in sharp from a sharply pointed ridge to a flat
  surface, or may combine the both.
     它的形状是个是各式各样的,从尖顶式到平顶式,或
  者两者兼有。
                      EXERCISES
    I. Complete the sentences with the given words or expressions.
     Change the form where necessary.

    be adequate       serve a number of            protect…from          vary
    keep…from          support
                            serve
    1 Foreign languages can ____ as a tool.
   2 Our subjects comprisearchitectural engineering, mechanics, mathematics and
                    _______
    English.
                 protect               from
    3 We should _______our plants_______ the cold.
   4 A dam is a wall that holds back water and keeps it from running away.
                                                 ____     ____
                                         adequate
    5 The water in the reservoir is not __________ to meet the needs of the local
    people.

                  support
    6 We have to _______ the roof with pillars.
                                a number of
    7 The walls can be made of __________ materials: stone, brick or cement
    blocks.
             vary
    8 Roofs _______ in shape from place to place.
Translate the following words or phrases into English

      1.承重墙              1. The bearing walls
      2.隔板               2. sceens
      3.水平梁              3. horizontal girders
      4.垂直柱              4. vertical columns
      5.笼形结构             5. a complex cage
      6.蜂窝砖              6. honeycomb bricks
      7.木梁               7. wood girders
      8.钢梁               8. steel girders
      9.尖顶式屋顶            9.the roof with a sharply pointed ridge
      10.平顶式屋顶           10.the roof with a flat surface
      11.高层建筑            11.high-rise buildings
      12.内墙和外墙           12. inner and outer walls
   GUIDED WRITING
      Notice (通知)
  通知是上级对下级、组织对成员或平级单位
之间部署工作、传达事务或召开会议等所使用的
应用文。通知的写法有两种:一种是以布告形式
贴出,把事项通知有关人员,通常不用称呼;另
一种是以书信的形式分别发给有关人员,此种通
知的写作形式与普通书信基本相同。写通知时要
求言简意赅,只要将内容表达清楚、完整就可以
了。
 Notice on the Bulletin Board

      (布告形式的通知)

  此类通知通常在上方的正中写Notice
(通知),发出通知的单位名称可放在正文
前,也可放在正文后的右下角处;发出通知
的日期可写在左下角处,也可在文中写明。
 Sample
                                Notice
Class 1, Grade 3,
     A meeting to discuss how to learn English is to be held in our
classroom next Wednesday, March 15th, 2006, at 4:30 p.m..
     It will be a lively discussion. At the end of the meeting Professor
Smith from American will give us some advice on the language
learning.
All the students of our class are expected to be present on time.

三年一班:
  我班决定于下周三(3月15日)下午4:30在本班教室召开会
议,讨论如何学习英语这一主题。讨论将会非常激烈。会后,来
自美国的史密斯教授将会就语言学习给我们一些建议。要求大家
准时参加。
Thank you

				
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posted:4/29/2013
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