Title Decision Making Tool by pitbull99

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 6

									                                                             Decision Making Tool Page 1 of 6




Decision Making Tool: Decisions are the solutions that we arrive at that end uncertainty
or dispute. We make multiple decisions on a daily basis, but often don’t have the time to
get the input and information needed to make the best decisions that will result in creative
and appropriate solutions and an end the organizational dispute. There are at least six
main elements that make up any decision process. Those elements are:

       the people making the decision
       the other stakeholders who care about the decision but aren’t part of the team
       the problem itself and how it is described
       the information that the team members (and eventually stakeholders ) need to
        make the decision
       the type of decision you choose to make, and
       the supervision of the decision process.



Goals: To understand the various types of decisions, to know which type of decision to
make in different situations and to identify whom to communicate those decisions with,
and valuing the importance of managing the decision process.

Group Size: Participants can range from 5 – 50, as they will be working in small groups.

Time Required: 30 to 60 minutes depending upon the amount of work assigned.

Materials:
   Handout on “Types of Decision.” (see below)
   Copies of team meeting minutes where decisions were made

Physical Setting: A room conducive for the size of the audience. The exercises include
large and small group discussion. Small group discussion typically takes more room as
groups separate and need more space between each other.

Process:
      1. Facilitator and/or leader make copies of minutes from meetings, choosing
         those where decisions were made and documented.
      2. Explain the process to participants, the goals for meeting and discussing
         decisions in their team and organization. Ask the participants what and/or
         how many decisions that they’ve made during the last week. Capture those on
         a flipchart.
      3. Explain the different types of decisions that leaders and team members
         typically make in organizations. Use the examples that they have given you to
         illustrate the different models.


                          Launching New Leaders
Joyce Sjoberg                 (503) 235-4616 / (503) 780-1482             jsjoberg@spiritone.com
Sharon Stack            (704) 739-2371 (ext. 1678) / (704) 734 - 4535     sstack@carolina.rr.com
                                                             Decision Making Tool Page 2 of 6


        4. Distribute the hand out, “Types of Decisions,” and ask the participants to
           divide into groups of 4 – 6 each. Explain that in order to make better
           decisions in groups at work it helps to practice identifying types of decisions
           made. Give each group a different copy of meeting minutes and ask them to
           read through the handout and then analyze what type of decision was made in
           the meeting they are reviewing.
        5. Ask each group to share their results and thoughts with the rest of the group.
           The facilitator records what types of decisions are occurring in the
           organization.
        6. Encourage the group to reflect on their work teams and use the following
           questions to lead a discussion.
                Whose role is it in meetings and/or groups to bring information back to
                   team members when issues are in the process of being decided?
                Are most decisions in your organization made at appropriate levels,
                   where the most adequate and accurate information is available?
                Do you notice that your decisions are resulting in good decisions with
                   creative and appropriate solutions occurring?
                What channels exist in your organization to communicate decisions?

        7. This is a wonderful point to stop, if you wish. If you want to discuss
            leadership challenges while making decisions then proceed with the next
            exercise.
        8. Ask participants to pair up with each other. Encourage them to reflect on a
            time when they made a complicated decision with multiple impacts on the
            organization. Share this decision with their partner.
        9. Ask the participants to ask each other the following questions:
                 What went well with the decision that you made?
                 What role did you take? Others?
                 What channels did you find that communicated this decision?
        10. Distribute the handout, “Decision Making Factors.” Ask participants to work
            in pairs and discuss one element that will be a learning goal in the next year.
            Identify 1 – 3 things that they can do to achieve this goal. Point out that their
            partner can be a supportive resource, someone they can periodically check in
            with through the year to ensure they have achieved their goal.

Evaluation:
Decisions made can be evaluated by tracking the results and surveying the team
members, stakeholders and any other customers affected by the decision. Questions
pertaining to the specifics of that decision can help to quantify and measure the success
of that decision. Surveys are usually sent within 6 – 12 months of changes in service or
changes in policy, sooner for other changes. Many organizations are also using values to
base their decisions on, which a great tool and something that you can incorporate after
you have established basic decision making tools, processes and stated your
organizational values.


                          Launching New Leaders
Joyce Sjoberg                 (503) 235-4616 / (503) 780-1482             jsjoberg@spiritone.com
Sharon Stack            (704) 739-2371 (ext. 1678) / (704) 734 - 4535     sstack@carolina.rr.com
                                                             Decision Making Tool Page 3 of 6


                                 Types of Decisions
There are four main decisions that individuals make in organizations:, Autocratic,
Autocratic with individual Input, Leader with group input, or total Consensus.

For this exercise, read through the four types of decisions, then read through the copy of
the meeting minute and discuss in your group what type of decision the group made in
the meeting.


                                                                          Autocratic Decision

                                                 Definition: One person, typically the leader,
                                                         makes a decision for the entire team.

                                                      Examples: Organizational restructuring
                                                                  dealing with emergencies

                                                                Team Member Influence: None




                                                        Autocratic with Input from Individuals

                                                   Definition: The leader requests input from
                                                     individual team members, then makes a
                                                                        decision using input.

                                               Examples: Leader is deciding on office space
                                               reorganization, taking into account individual
                                                                                preferences.

                                           Individual collects editing remarks on a document
                                                 before sending or publishing that document.

                                                     Team member influence: Low - medium




                          Launching New Leaders
Joyce Sjoberg                 (503) 235-4616 / (503) 780-1482             jsjoberg@spiritone.com
Sharon Stack            (704) 739-2371 (ext. 1678) / (704) 734 - 4535     sstack@carolina.rr.com
                                                            Decision Making Tool Page 4 of 6




                                                      Autocratic decision with input from the
                                                                             group as a team


                                                      Definition: A leader asks for the group
                                                       to meet, collect input, and then he/she
                                                            makes decisions using that input.

                                                          Examples: A task force makes a
                                                  recommendation for leader to decide upon.

                                                     Team member influence: low – medium




                                                                         Consensus Decision

                                              Definition: Leader and group reach a decision
                                                      that everyone understands, can support
                                                and is willing to implement. If the decision
                                                        can’t be reached a fall-back decision
                                                   (agreed upon at the onset) option is used.

                                            Examples: Team members with leader problem
                                              solve issues impacting the whole department.

                                         Strategic visioning that the organization agrees on.

                                                                Team member influence: High


       There are situations in which constraints (such as budgetary) are given within a
                                                   consensual decision-making process.
   There are situations in which consensual decision-making is unanimous and occurs
                                                                         spontaneously.
  Consensus doesn’t imply that everyone agrees with the decision, just that everyone is
                                         willing to work with and support the decision.




                         Launching New Leaders
Joyce Sjoberg                (503) 235-4616 / (503) 780-1482             jsjoberg@spiritone.com
Sharon Stack           (704) 739-2371 (ext. 1678) / (704) 734 - 4535     sstack@carolina.rr.com
                                                             Decision Making Tool Page 5 of 6


                              Decision Making Factors

There are at least six main elements that are in any decision process. Those elements are:

       the people making the decision
       the other stakeholders who care about the decision but aren’t part of the team
       the problem itself and how it is described
       the information that the team members (and eventually stakeholders ) need to
        make the decision
       the type of decision you choose to make, and
       the administration of the decision process.


When you are preparing to make a decision, you must take into account who is making
the decision. Ensure that the team members have the skills, information, and resources to
make the decision. It is helpful if someone leads or facilitates/manages the process
involved with making the decision, is able to choose the type of decision to be used and
informs all stakeholders involved.

The stakeholders can be defined as anyone who benefits or pays for part of the process.
They can implement or support the decision; they can also have authority or
responsibility in the situation. They might be someone in a role that needs to know about
the decision to be made or has expertise or knowledge in the area of the decision.

The problem itself should be defined so you know what constitutes success. Separate any
different issues into sub-problems so each can be dealt with one at a time. Define the
problem so that it is concrete and limited. For example: What budget challenges are we
faced with next year? As opposed to: Create a budget deficit plan and outline potential
strategies.

Information used to make decisions includes strong information as well as the team
members experience, knowledge and judgment. Ask other team members and
stakeholders what information might be missing. Stick to essential information as
opposed to what might be nice to know. Present the information so that all decision
makers can digest the information easily.

The Type of Decision (see handout)

Administer the process by taking into account the above pieces. Once you have
identified your team members, stakeholders, and information needed, invite input on the
potential decision and consider alternatives. Document your decision and communicate
the decision and the process: keep all stakeholders involved frequently. Monitor the
implementation of your decision by personally observing and listening to all
stakeholders. Identify new issues and start the decision making process if needed.


                          Launching New Leaders
Joyce Sjoberg                 (503) 235-4616 / (503) 780-1482             jsjoberg@spiritone.com
Sharon Stack            (704) 739-2371 (ext. 1678) / (704) 734 - 4535     sstack@carolina.rr.com
                                                               Decision Making Tool Page 6 of 6


One way to track communicating with other stakeholders is a Decision Grid.

In the column list your stakeholders. In the row across the top, list the type of decision
the team you are working with frequently makes. Then where the column and row
intersect, note whether the decision is made by that stakeholder, needs recommendation,
whether they give input or just need to be informed. This can be helpful for new leaders
who are still learning about all the different stakeholders.

Example for one Library System:

                Policy            Circulation       Facility         Staffing         Service
                Changes           Changes           Changes          Changes          changes
Library         Inform            Inform            Inform           Inform           Recommend
Board
Library         Recommend         Recommend         Recommend        Recommend        Decide
Director        Decide
Facilities      Inform            Inform            Decide           Inform           Give input
Administrator
Reference       Decide            Give input        Give Input       Decide           Give input
Administrator
Circulation     Recommend         Decide            Give Input       Decide           Give input
Administrator

Decide: Makes the final decision then informs others. Most decisions are made after
receiving input from others. Occasionally are autocratic decisions.

Recommend: Decision maker must include the stakeholder in the decision process. The
stakeholder then reviews the proposal and gives their “recommendation.”

Give Input: Decision maker must ask the stakeholder to give input before the decision is
made. Input is less formal than a recommendation.

Inform: The decision maker agrees to keep the stakeholder in the loop before and after
the decision is made.




                           Launching New Leaders
Joyce Sjoberg                  (503) 235-4616 / (503) 780-1482                jsjoberg@spiritone.com
Sharon Stack             (704) 739-2371 (ext. 1678) / (704) 734 - 4535        sstack@carolina.rr.com

								
To top