Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Worms

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 46

									Worms                                    http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75




http://www.quia.com/jg/352695list.html
                                                 Friend OR Foe ?


                                                      http://www.dof.virginia.gov/images/anim-worm-crawl.gif
 CHARACTERISITCS
   OF ALL WORMS
Invertebrate protostomes
    Elongated bodies
   Bilateral symmetry
      Cephalization
Cerebral ganglia “brain”
  No respiratory organs
    (Breathe through skin)
            WHERE DO THEY LIVE?
                                                                        http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/sws/images/grasscycling.jpg

    FREE LIVING
   _______________ -
   Found in environment

     PARASITIC
   _______________
   Live on or in another organism



http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=66&n=75
                                                                               http://www.placervillevet.com/heartworm.htm
    PARASITIC WORMS
Animal host where ADULT feeds and
                PRIMARY
reproduces = ______________HOST

Animal host where LARVAL form
lives and feeds = ______________ HOST
                  INTERMEDIATE
     FLATWORMS
   PHYLUM: Platyhelminthes
FREE LIVING        PARASITIC




 Planaria        Flukes & Tapeworms
http://www.quia.com/jg/352695list.html



                                         PLANARIA




     NOT
  PARASITES

                                         http://www.notatall.blogger.com.br/planaria.jpg
    ONE opening digestive system
http://www.biologia.edu.ar/animales/images/planaria.jpg




                        GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY
                        (Combination Digestive & circulatory)
                        EXCRETORY
                                                                     • FLAME
                                                                       CELLS collect
                                                                       excess water
                                                                       and nitrogen
                                                                       waste
                                                                     • Excreted
                                                                       through pores
                                                                       in skin

                                                                      Moving cilia look
http://tim.nccu.edu.tw/biotech/biolife/maricopa/flatwormexcret.gif
                                                                      like little “flames”
                       REPRODUCTION
   http://www.notatall.blogger.com.br/planaria.jpg
                                                     SEXUAL-
                                                         HERMAPHRODITES
                                                          (have both ovary & testes
                                                          in one organism)
                                                          but trade with a partner

                                              ASEXUAL-
                                              can use regeneration to
                                              grow a new organism from
                                              part of parent worm
http://faculty.stcc.edu/rapp/biol102/biology_links.htm
             PARASITIC FLATWORM
                  Schistosoma
NOT IN USA but infects over 250 million
 people worldwide

                                                    Worms can block blood
                                                    vessels to organs causing
                                                    irritation, bleeding,
                                                    tissue decay producing
                                                    disease called
http://www.coc.org/focus/food/pics/rice_paddy.jpg
                                                    = __________________
                                                       SCHISTOSOMIASIS
http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/lifecycles/schistosoma_lifecycle.gif


                 HUMAN BLOOD FLUKE
                     Schistosoma
                                 Adult worms mature & reproduce
                                 in blood vessels; eggs travel to intestines or bladder

                                                           Immature worms
                                                           burrow through skin
                                                           into blood vessels



              Eggs leave body in                              Larvae grow tails
              urine or feces                                  and leave snail



                                                  Larva hatches from
                                                  egg & infects snail
                                                  (intermediate host)
http://www.bangkokhealth.com/cimages/tapeworm02.jpg




                                                 TAPEWORMS
                                                                                  Dog tapeworm




                                        http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/pictures/whole_tapeworms.GIF



PARASITIC FLATWORM
  that lives in HOST animal intestines
                                                  http://www.microscopyu.com/galleries/smz1500/images/tapewormscolexsmall.jpg
                                                  http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__10_platy_nemat/images/taenia_scolex.jpg




         TAPEWORM VOCAB




     ____________- Head with suckers and
       SCOLEX
      hooks to help hold on inside host
http://www.nicksnowden.net/images/Taenia_scolex_drawing.gif
         TAPEWORM VOCAB
  PROGLOTTIDS
___________________-
hermaphroditic reproductive structures
(contain both male & female sex organs)
                                                                 Contain fertilized
                                                                 eggs

                                                                 Shed in feces



http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/labeled_taenia.html
      WORM VOCAB
 TEGUMENT
______________
 Thickened PROTECTIVE layer on
 the outside of worms made of CELLS

  CUTICLE
_______________
 NON-CELLULAR PROTECTIVE
 coating found on the outside of
 worms

                http://www.nicksnowden.net/images/Taenia_scolex_drawing.gif
        TAPEWORM
               http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=66&n=75




NO DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 -absorbs nutrients through skin

TEGUMENT protects them from host
 digestive enzymes and immune system
                 http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=65&n=75




 TAPEWORMS

Can grow up to 30 ft
  (2000 proglottids)

REPRODUCE WITH PROGLOTTIDS
   Add new proglottids behind scolex
   Mature ones drop off at tail end
   Leave body in feces
              EX: BEEF TAPEWORM
                                                                                           Adults attach
                                                                                           inside intestines
                                                                                           and absorb
                                 Humans eat                                                digested food
                                 undercooked meat
                                 containing cysts




                                   Proglottids burst
                                   releasing eggs with
                                   larvae inside on ground

                                                                                      Proglottids are
Cows eat grass;                                                                       released in feces
larvae travel through blood vessels;
make cysts in muscle                   http://net.unl.edu/wonderwise/12parasi/a-para.htm
           ROUND WORMS
                        Phylum: Nematoda
                                                                 Ascaris
                                                                 Trichinella
                                                                 Hookworms
                                                                 Pinworms
                                                                 Filarial worms

http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75
http://www.hillsdale.edu/Personal/Swinehart/Aquatics/Courses/Biodiv/ascaris_bolus.gif




                                                             ROUND WORM
                                                             Ascaris
                                                             PARASITIC


Have a 2 OPENING
digestive system

Lives in intestines
Feeds on passing food

                                                                 http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/images.html
Females can grow up to 1 ft long
& produce 200,000 eggs/day

Humans become
infected when they
eat FOOD or WATER
contaminated with
eggs

                     Image from: http://www.cibike.org/CartoonEating.gif
http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=0&n=75


                                                               Most common
                                                               worm infection
                                                               WORLD WIDE

                                                               Mostly in children

                                                               Estimated 25%
                                                               of world’s
                                                               population is
                                                               infected with
                                                               Ascaris
                               ROUND WORM
                                       Trichinella
                        Humans infected by                                Cysts release
                        eating undercooked                                larvae that burrow
                                                                          into intestinal wall &
                         meat containing cysts
                                                                         mature
                        
        Larvae forms
        cysts in muscle

                                                             Adults release
                                                             larvae that travel
                                                            through bloodstream
                                                             to muscles
http://jeggeri.pri.ee/Kontuur/Loomad/pig.gif
http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/lifecycles/trichinella_lifecycle.html
http://www.umm.edu/images/ency/fullsize/trichinella_spiralis_in_human_muscle_2638.jpg
              Trichinella
Trichinella infection can lead to disease
            TRICHINOSIS-
 called = __________________




Symptoms:                http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/unsegm3.jpg



Muscle pain & stiffness
Can be fatal if cysts form in heart
            TRICHINOSIS
Less than 100 cases/year in USA from PORK

Most from eating wild game

Curing (salting), drying, smoking, or
 microwaving meat does not consistently kill
 infective worms.
  PARASITIC ROUND WORMS
        Guinea worm
http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=5&n=75




                                                                 Found in AFRICA




                                                 http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=6&n=75
                   PARASITIC ROUND WORMS
http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=5&n=75

                                                                   Guinea worm

                                                                        Blisters pop and larvae
                                                                         are released in water
       Female bodies under skin fill with eggs
       and break open; larvae form blisters
                                                                                        
                                                                       Larvae eaten by small crustaceans
                                                                      Humans infected by drinking water

                                                                                     
                                                                 Larvae mature and adult worms
                                                                 migrate to skin



                      http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=6&n=75
  FILARIAL
ROUNDWORMS
     are transmitted
     by insects
   DISEASES caused by
FILARIAL ROUND WORMS

DOG HEARTWORM
Elephantiasis
Loa Loa - eye worm
      FILARIAL
    ROUND WORMS
DOG HEARTWORM
 Carried by
 mosquitoes




       http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=66&n=75
   DISEASES caused by
FILARIAL ROUND WORMS
                                                    Elephantiasis
                                                     Adult worms
                                                     live in lymph
                                                     nodes causing
                                                     blockage so
                                                     fluid back ups
http://www2.niaid.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/32FF6DCF-75CF-42D0-BCAE-297EFDE27CF1/0/elephantiasis.jpg
      ELEPHANTIASIS
                  Common in
                  tropical countries




Adult worms can
grow to 4” long
                      http://health-pictures.com/elephantiasis-picture.htm
ELEPHANTIASIS
    Mosquito picks up                              Larvae develop into
    larvae from blood                              juveniles inside mosquito
    when it feeds

                                                                   Mosquito injects
Adult worms live
and reproduce in
lymph vessels                                                    juveniles which
                                                                   migrate to lymph
                                                                   nodes and mature




                        http://www.acm.uiuc.edu/sigbio/project/updated-lymphatic/lymph3.html
FILARIAL ROUND WORMS
        Loa loa
                   Found in AFRICA




          http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/loa.html
                Loa Loa worm
• Humans are infected with
  larvae when bitten by loa fly

• Larvae mature & crawl
  around under skin
  (especially near face)

• Adults mate and produce
  larvae which can be picked
  up by another fly and
  transmitted to another
  person
                               http://maven.smith.edu/~sawlab/fgn/pnb/loaloa.html
             PARASITIC ROUND WORMS
                                        Hookworms http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75




http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/placoconus.html




     Live in intestine;
     feed on BLOOD
                                                                Ancylostoma
         HOOKWORM LIFE CYCLE
                                                          Return to intestines;
                Larvae are coughed                        mature & mate
                up & swallowed;
                                                                         



                                                Adult worms live in
Larvae enter body by burrowing
through skin on feet & travel to lungs           intestine and feed on blood
                                         
                              Eggs leave body in feces
                             and hatch as larvae in soil
                                         http://www.extension.iastate.edu/polk/health/carbon/fact3.htm
                                         http://www.retiredgreyhounds.co.uk/page12.htm
                                         http://www.barefooters.org/1995-spring/gifs/mtn_pjl_feet.jpg
        Hookworms in Humans
• PROBLEMS
  caused by
  migrating larvae
• Cause intense
  reaction in skin at
  site
• Infect 40 million
  people worldwide
   Parasitic ROUND WORMS
            Pinworms
• Most common
  parasitic infection IN
  UNITED STATES

• 1/5 children are
  infected

• Worldwide
  500 million people
  are infected with
  pinworms                                           Grow up to ½ inch long
    http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=16&n=75
  Parasitic ROUND WORMS
• Adult Pinworms live in intestine

• Females crawl out through anus at
  night and lay 15,000/day eggs on skin

• Intense itching causes host to scratch

• Eggs under fingernails and on hands
  are spread back to self or to others
  when objects/food are touched
SEGMENTED WORMS
              Annelida
FREE LIVING              PARASITIC




 Earthworms               Leeches
       SEGMENTED WORMS
Earthworms play an important role in soil fertility

                            Return nutrients to soil by
                              decomposing dead leaves
                              and organic matter

                            Burrowing allows air and
                              water to penetrate to
                              roots
“intestines of the earth”
           -Aristotle
                            Tunnels loosen soil so roots
                              can grow more easily
PARASITIC SEGMENTED WORMS
          LEECHES

             Medical uses

								
To top