Aluminium for Future Generations2009 update

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					                                   Aluminium for Future
                                   Generations/2009 update

The Aluminium for Future Generations                          2008 Sustainability Performance
initiative is a programme of continuous
improvement on the part of the global                    Voluntary Objective 1
aluminium industry, overseen by the                          Following the successful achievement of the
International Aluminium Institute (IAI), with                global goal for an 80% reduction in PFC
members representing about 80% of global                     emissions per tonne of primary aluminium
primary aluminium production.                                produced by 2006 (from the 1990 baseline), the
                                                             aluminium industry will further reduce global
                                                             emissions of PFCs per tonne of aluminium by at
The initiative comprises voluntary objectives                least 50% by 2020 as compared to 2006.
for improvements in the social, economic                 •   The primary aluminium industry seeks to
and environmental performance across all                     achieve the long term elimination of
the key phases of aluminium’s life cycle.                    perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions.
There are currently fourteen voluntary                   •   Coverage of the annual Survey of PFC
objectives, agreed by the IAI’s Board of                     emissions from IAI member and non-member
Directors – chief executives of the Institute’s              aluminium producers has doubled from a global
                                                             aluminium production of 12 Mt in 1990 to 24 Mt
twenty three member companies – and the                      (61% of the industry's production) in 2008.
number is increasing year by year. The                       Through the efforts of its member companies,
industry’s     performance    is    measured                 the IAI is striving to increase the global
annually against quantitative metrics or                     aluminium production coverage of its annual
                                                             Surveys to over 80%.
sustainable development indicators.
                                                         •   Based on IAI annual Survey results, by 2020 IAI
                                                             member companies commit to operate with
This update reports on the industry’s 2008                   PFC emissions per tonne of production no
performance.                                                 higher than the 2006 global median level for
                                                             their technology type.
For further information on IAI members and               •   Progress will be monitored and reported
activities visit www.world-aluminium.org.                    annually and reviewed periodically by a
                                                             recognised and independent third party. There
Year 2008 performance data was collected from                will be interim reviews to ensure progress
                                                             towards achievement of the 2020 objective
IAI members and non-member companies
representing:
                                                         A further improvement in the aluminium industry’s
                                                         perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions performance was
  Aluminium smelters producing 26 million
                                                         reported in 2008. These results continue the
   tonnes of primary aluminium, equivalent to            global aluminium industry’s trend of significant
   almost 65% of total global production;                reductions in PFC emissions (CF4 and C2F6), on a
                                                         total as well as per tonne of production basis.
  Alumina refineries producing 51 million
   tonnes of smelter grade alumina, equivalent           The 2008 results indicate that the global aluminium
   to more than 65% of total global production;          industry has reduced its PFC emission per tonne
                                                         of production by 86% from 4.93 in 1990 to 0.70 t
  Bauxite mines producing over 120 million              CO2e/t Al in 2008 – and is on course for a further
                                                         50% reduction from the 2006 level by 2020.
   tonnes of bauxite, equivalent to almost 70%
   of total global production.

            Overarching Objective

 The industry aims to increase              global
 participation in the IAI annual surveys.



                                                     1
                                                            Aluminium for Future Generations


                                                                                         A considerable range in performance continues to
  Tonnes CO2e per tonne Al




                             5
                                  4.93                                                   be reported in the benchmark data for facilities
                             4                                                           operating with similar reduction technologies. This
                                                                                         indicates that the opportunity remains to make
         produced




                             3                                                           further progress in reducing anode effect
                                                                                         frequency and duration and the resulting PFC
                             2
                                                                                         emissions from a greater achievement of industry
                                                 *                                       best practice.
                             1
                                  2 02 0 Goa l       0.70
                             0
                                                                                         Further details of the industry’s PFC emission
                                                                                         reduction performance can be found in the 2008
                   02

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                                                                                         Anode Effect Survey Report, available at
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                                                                                         www.world-aluminium.org/cache/fl0000300.pdf
* Revised 2006 and 2007 data

                                                                                           Voluntary Objective 2
                      Perfluorocarbons and Anode Effects
                                                                                           A minimum 33% reduction in fluoride emissions
  Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are a group of potent                                            by IAI member companies per tonne of
  greenhouse gases with long atmospheric                                                   aluminium produced by 2010 versus 1990.
  lifetimes, of which the greatest volume is
  emitted from industrial processes, including
                                                                                          kg fluoride emissions per tonne



  during intermittent events in the primary                                                                                 2.5
                                                                                                                                   2.4
  aluminium smelting process, known as “anode
                                                                                                aluminium produced




  effects”.                                                                                                                 2.0

                                                                                                                                  20 10 Go al    1.6
  An anode effect is a process upset condition                                                                              1.5
  where an insufficient amount of alumina (Al2O3)                                                                                               1.5
  is available to be chemically dissolved in the
                                                                                                                            1.0
  electrolyte bath, contained in the reduction
  cells (or “pots”). Under these conditions the
  electrolytic bath itself begins to undergo                                                                                0.5
  electrolysis resulting in the emission of gases
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  containing the PFCs tetrafluoroethane (CF4)                                                                               20
  and hexafluoroethane (C2F6).
                                                                                         Total fluoride emissions (gaseous and particulate)
                                                                                         were reduced by approximately 36% per tonne of
Total PFC emissions to the atmosphere in 2008                                            aluminium produced between 1990 and 2008,
from primary aluminium production have been                                              exceeding the 2010 voluntary objective. Since
estimated at less than 30 Mt of CO2e, a reduction                                        2006 all Russian facilities are included in the
of over 70% from 1990 levels, despite a doubling                                         dataset.
in aluminium production over the same period.

                       100                                  50
                        90                                  45
  Total PFC Emissions




                                                                 Primary Aluminium




                        80                                  40
                                                                  Production (Mt)




                        70                                  35
        (Mt CO2e)




                             60                             30
                             50                             25
                             40                             20
                             30                             15
                             20                             10
                             10                             5
                              0                             0
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                                                                                     2
                                                                                             Aluminium for Future Generations


                                                                                                                High Temperature and Bayer Sinter processes to
 Voluntary Objective 3
                                                                                                                produce one tonne of alumina in 2007. This
 A 10% reduction in smelter electrical energy                                                                   equals a reduction of 5% compared to 2006. Data
 usage by IAI member and reporting companies                                                                    are based on 39 IAI reporting companies
 per tonne of aluminium produced by 2010                                                                        supplemented with CRU data for 16 companies,
 versus 1990.                                                                                                   and it is planned to report 2008 global data by the
                                                                                                                end of 2009.
 Megawatt hours per tonne




                             16.2
                                                    16.1
   aluminium produced




                             16.0
                             15.8                                                                                 Voluntary Objective 5
                             15.6
                                                                                                    15.4          Following a 66% reduction in the lost time injury
                             15.4
                             15.2                                                                                 frequency rate and a 77% reduction in total
                             15.0                                                                                 recordable injury frequency rate between 2000
                             14.8                                                                                 and 2006, IAI member and reporting companies
                                                  2 01 0 Goa l                                      14.5
                             14.6                                                                                 will further reduce both of these rates by 50% by
                             14.4                                                                                 2010 as compared to 2006.
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                                                                                                                Safety performance data is collected in a survey
                                                                                                                with a wider reporting base than IAI membership.
The average electrical energy required by the                                                                   The survey was initiated in 1997, with a coverage
smelting process to produce one tonne of                                                                        of 107 million working hours. In 2008 the number
aluminium from alumina was cut by 4% between                                                                    of working hours surveyed had risen to 398 million.
1990 and 2008, mainly through investment in new                                                                 The survey now covers 95 aluminium smelters, 32
production capacity. This year’s data include for                                                               alumina refineries and 21 bauxite mines.
the first time two Chinese smelters. The 2008
survey results show a stabilisation in average                                                                                                5
electrical energy consumption compared with
                                                                                                                 (per million hours worked)




                                                                                                                                                  4.7
2007.
                                                                                                                   Lost Time Injury Rate




                                                                                                                                              4


 Voluntary Objective 4                                                                                                                        3

 A 10% reduction in energy use per tonne of
                                                                                                                                              2
 alumina produced for the industry as a whole by
                                                                                                                                                                 1.6
 2020 versus 2006 levels.                                                                                                                         2 01 0 Goa l
                                                                                                                                              1

                                                                                                                                                                       0.8
                GJ per tonne alum ina pr oduced




                            17.0                                                                                                              0

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                                                           15.1 Global data
                            15.0
                                                  2 02 0 Goa l
                            14.0
                                                                                             Global 14.4        The total recordable injury frequency rate has
                            13.0                                                                                decreased by 7% between 2007 and 2008. The
                            12.0                                                                                lost time injury frequency rate has remained
                                                             11.9 IAI data                                      constant for the past three years. A focus on
                            11.0
                                                                                                                improving injury rates has also seen the number of
                                                                                                                days lost per injury (the severity rate) decrease by
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                                                                                                                58% between 1997 and 2006.

IAI surveyed plants reported 11.9 GJ energy
consumption per tonne of alumina produced in
2008, compared to 11.7GJ in 2007 and 12.2 GJ in
2006.

On the global average (90% of global production),
15.1 GJ energy were used in Low Temperature,


                                                                                                            3
                                                                              Aluminium for Future Generations


                              25                                                                    Voluntary Objective 7
                                   22.2
 (per million hours worked)




                                                                                                    Implementation of an Employee Exposure
   Recordable Injury Rate




                              20
                                                                                                    Assessment      and Medical   Surveillance
                              15
                                                                                                    Programme in 95% of IAI member companies’
                                                                                                    plants by 2010.
                              10

                                                                                  5.6             In 2008, 100% of the surveyed plants had
                               5
                                   201 0 Goal
                                                                                                  employee exposure assessment and medical
                                                                                                  surveillance programmes in place, as defined in IAI
                                                                                        2.6
                               0                                                                  published guidelines.
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                                                                                                    Voluntary Objective 8

Improvement in the industry’s injury rates is being                                                 The industry will monitor annually aluminium
driven by factors including increased top                                                           semis shipments for use in transport in order to
management attention and commitment to safety,                                                      track aluminium's contribution through light-
a more systematic approach to the analysis and                                                      weighting to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)
follow up of accidents and higher levels of                                                         emissions from road, rail, air and sea transport.
involvement of the workforce, as well as
mechanization and automation as a means of
                                                                                                   pr oducts shipped to transport


                                                                                                                                    16.0
reducing hazards and safety risks.                                                                                                                    15.0
                                                                                                    Aluminium semi-fabricated




                                                                                                                                    14.0
                                                                                                          (million tonnes)
 Lost Time Accident Rate




                               8
                                                                   1998       1997                                                  12.0
   (Injuries per million




                               7                                 1999
     hours worked)




                               6
                                                           2000                                                                     10.0
                               5
                               4                                                                                                     8.0
                                                        2003         2001, 2002                                                             6.6
                               3
                                                 2005    2004
                               2                                                                                                     6.0
                               1                2006 2007
                                                    2008
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                                   0              50           100         150          200
                                                    Severity Rate
                                        (Days lost per million hours worked)
                                                                                                  Preliminary results show that aluminium semi-
                                                                                                  fabricated products shipped to the transport sector
                                                                                                  increased by approximately 22% in the five years
                                                                                                  from 2003. Global greenhouse gas savings from
  Voluntary Objective 6
                                                                                                  the use of aluminium for lightweighting vehicles
  Implementation of Management Systems for                                                        have the potential to double between 2005 and
  Environment (including ISO 14000 or equivalent                                                  2020 to 500 million tonnes of CO2 per year.
  certification) and/or Health and Safety in 95% of
  IAI member companies’ plants by 2010.
                                                                                                    Voluntary Objective 9
                                                                                                    The IAI has developed a mass flow model to
In 2008 the industry achieved this objective, with
                                                                                                    identify future recycling flows. The industry will
99% of surveyed plants having EHS management
                                                                                                    report regularly on its global recycling
systems in place. Of the surveyed facilities 97%
                                                                                                    performance.
had achieved ISO 14000 certification, while 51%
were OHSAS 18000 certified.
                                                                                                  The aluminium industry is a pioneer in tracking the
                                                                                                  global flows of its products through the full value
                                                                                                  chain from mining, through use, to recycling and
                                                                                                  reuse. To do so it has developed a comprehensive
                                                                                                  mass flow model based on “Material Flow
                                                                                                  Analysis” methodology. The industry illustrates the


                                                                                              4
                                          Aluminium for Future Generations


model’s output in a flow chart, which is made




                                                                                                                                                                       Ratio of primary and recycled
available to the public on an annual basis. The IAI                                                         160                                                  100




                                                                                                                                                                        aluminium production (%)
                                                               Total aluminium production
has published annual mass flow charts since 2003.




                                                                (million tonnes per year)
                                                                                                            140

                                                                                                            120                                                  75
The industry is continuously improving the model,                                                           100
with more accurate statistics and with the help of
                                                                                                             80                                                  50
research centres and universities. Due to
uncertainties in the data on product life times and                                                          60

recycling rates for some products in certain                                                                 40                                                  25

regions, the IAI is conducting additional research                                                           20
on the 3.5 million tonnes of scrap which has been                                                               0                                                0
identified as possibly available for recycling or




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Preliminary results illustrate that around 46 million
                                                                                                                Total Metal Production                Primary Production
tonnes of aluminium, from primary and recycled
                                                                                                                Recycling Production
sources, ended up in finished products in 2008.

In the same year, approximately one-third of the
metal in products available on the market is                 The global stock of aluminium in productive use is
sourced from recycled (18 million tonnes) and two-           growing every year, in 2008 by 28 million tonnes.
thirds from primary metal (39 million tonnes).
Projected growth rates in the demand for                     The preliminary results of the mass flow model in
aluminium products, combined with the long                   2008 are shown in the diagram on page seven.
lifetimes of most products, suggest that this ratio of
recycled to primary sourced metal is unlikely to
change in the short to medium term.                            Voluntary Objective 10
                                                               The global aluminium industry will work to
Around 8.7 million tonnes of scrap from used                   encourage a global aluminium UBC (used
products (old scrap) were recovered globally in                beverage cans) recycling target of 75% by 2015.
2008.

Three quarters of all the aluminium ever produced            The collection rate of UBC depends greatly upon
(since the 1880s) is still in productive use. In 2008        individual national incentives including deposit
this stock had grown to more than 640 million                systems, voluntary prepaid recycling charges or
tonnes. Of the aluminium currently stored in                 advertising, and the efficiency of the collection
productive use, equally one third is in buildings            schemes. Globally the collection rate of UBC is
(windows, roofing, cladding etc), transport                  approximately 69% in 2007.
(automotive, public transport etc.) and engineering
& cable (overland cable, machinery) applications.                                                           90
                                                                                UBC collection* rate (%)




                                                                                                                                                                         75%
                                                                                                            80
                                                                                                                    201 5 Go al

                                                                                                            70
                                                                                                                                       69%*
                                                                                                            60


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                                                             * Includes 2008 data for the USA and unregistered collection for
                                                             some regions




                                                         5
                                         Aluminium for Future Generations


 Voluntary Objectives 11 & 12
                                                           Spent pot lining (SPL) is an unavoidable by-
 The IAI member companies will seek to reduce              product of the aluminium smelting process. On
 their fresh water consumption per tonne of (10)           average, 15-35 kg of SPL is produced per tonne of
 aluminium and (11) alumina produced.                      aluminium, with a global weighted mean of 22 kg in
                                                           2008. Compared to 2007, reporting plants have
 IAI member companies will concentrate efforts             slightly decreased from 73 to 71 plants. Reported
 to minimise fresh water consumption where                 production increased from 16 to 17 million tonnes.
 there are limited available fresh water                   In 2008, 34% of SPL output was recycled
 resources.                                                externally out of a total reported output of 377
                                                           thousand tonnes of SPL. Close to 50% of the SPL
Fresh water is a significant issue to the industry         output was deposited in form of treated deposition
and the Institute continues to collect data on fresh       or stored pending final deposition or recycling.
water consumption. There are some smelters that
operate with very low water usage and “0” water            The industry has systematically worked to
discharge. Progress is being made in reducing              minimize the amount of SPL produced, by
water use in many refineries. Due to differences           extending the lifetime of the lining in the smelter
between regions and facilities in the definitions of       pots. Since the 1970s, SPL has been recognised
fresh water consumption and in the level of fresh          as a valuable resource for other industries,
water stress, further analysis and development of          including as a feedstock in the cement, mineral
indicators is required before full quantification of       wool and steel production processes. However,
the industry’s environmental impact can be                 the main barrier to supply of SPL as a feedstock
assessed.                                                  has been economics. Individual smelters do not
                                                           produce enough SPL to provide a continuous
                                                           supply of feedstock for a cement plant to justify
 Voluntary Objective 13                                    their conversion to receiving this material.
 The IAI member companies will seek to                     Through collaboration with potential customers,
 increase the proportion of bauxite mining land            and between companies to increase regional
 rehabilitated annually.                                   supply, the recycling of this material has become
                                                           more viable and widespread.

Globally, bauxite mining disturbed around 30 km2
in 2006, an area equivalent in size to one half of
Manhattan Island, NY. In the same year, an
equivalent area of mined land was rehabilitated.
Bauxite mining has therefore reached a steady
state in which newly mined areas are offset by
rehabilitation of existing mining areas.

 Voluntary Objective 14
 The Aluminium Industry recognises that spent
 pot-lining has properties that makes it a
 valuable material for use in other processes and
 will therefore strive to convert all spent pot-
 lining into feedstocks for other industries, which         International Aluminium Institute
 include cement, steel, mineral wool and                    New Zealand House,
 construction aggregate companies or to re-use              80 Haymarket,
 and or process all SPL in its own facilities.              London,
                                                            SW1Y 4TE
 Pending final deposition, the industry will                UK
 endeavour to store all spent pot-lining in secure,
 waterproof, ventilated buildings/containers that           Tel: +44 (0) 20 7930 0528
 will maintain the spent pot-lining in a dry state          Email: iai@world-aluminium.org
 with no potential for the build up of noxious              Website: www.world-aluminium.org
 gases.



                                                       6
    Bauxite5 208.3                                  MATERIAL FLOW               METAL FLOW


                                                Alumina6 76.1



                                                                                                                                            Total Products
                                                                                                                                            Stored in Use
                                                                                                                                            Since 1888
                                                                                                  Semi-fabricated                           640.4
                                                                                                  and Finished
                                                                       Ingots 78.5                Products (input)         Finished Products                  Building         Transport 28%
                                     Primary                                                      76.9                     (output) 46.3                       32%             a.o.Automotive16%
                             Aluminium used
                                        39.3
                                                                                                                                                             Net Addition 2008: 27.9




7
                                   Remelted                                                                                                                                        Packaging
                              Aluminium 39.2                                                                                                                                          1%
                                                                                                                       Other                                  Other
                                incl.Recycled                                                                                                                               Engineering
                                                                                                                Applications3                                 11%
                              Aluminium 18.4                                                                                                                                and Cable 28%
                                                                                                                          1.7
                                                                   Traded         Fabricator                        Traded           Old
                                                                     New             Scrap2                         New            Scrap
                                                                Scrap1 1.6              20.8                        Scrap7 9.8       8.7



    Bauxite Residues 87.7
    and Water 44.6                                      Metal Losses 1.7                                                   Recovery and Disposal8 4.5           Under Investigation4 3.5

    Values in millions of metric tonnes. Values might not add up due to rounding. Production stocks not shown
    1 Aluminium in skimmings; 2 Scrap generated by foundries, rolling mills and extruders. Most is internal scrap and not taken into account in statistics; 3 Such as deoxidation aluminium (metal
    property is lost ) 4 Area of current research to identify final aluminium destination (reuse, recycling, recovery or disposal); 5 Calculated based on IAI LCI report - update 2005. Includes,
    depending on the ore, between 30% and 50% alumina; 6 Calculated. Includes on a global average 52% aluminium; 7 Scrap generated during the production of finished products from
    semis; 8 Either incinerated with/without energy recovery, material recovery or disposal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Aluminium for Future Generations

				
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