The Roads 2000 Programme Nyanza

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					Rural Roads and
 Where are we
To answer the question we need to
understand the dynamic tension between
the achievements of the rural transport
sector and the challenges it increasingly

Achievements can be illustrated by a
number of projects: in ITT’s case I am
using the Roads 2000 Programme in
Nyanza (GOK and Swedish Sida).
  The rights-based approach in Nyanza

• Emphasises the communities’ right to a
  voice; of access; to information; of future
  generations; to work; to minimum
  standards; to equal opportunities; to equal
  pay for equal work; of user to protection.
• MST project in Ghana and Roads Plus
  project in Nepal are similar and illustrate
  the roads + “add-ons” approach to rural
  transport development.
           The Challenges
• The more we raise expectations of what a
  road + “add-ons” can do the greater the
  tension we create with current
  development trends as set out in the Paris
  Declaration on Aid Effectiveness i.e. the
  promotion of greater ownership,
  alignment, harmonisation, management
  for results, and mutual accountability.
• We can identify four areas of tension:
       Development partner tensions
• Greater ownership, alignment and harmonisation
  reduces the “add-on” interest of bilaterals (they
  become silent partners).
• Results management means decisions are
  increasingly made on financial and economic
  grounds (and favour larger projects!).
• Roads with “add-ons” becomes an unnecessary
  complication to a straight forward financial decision.
• Greater accountability enhances the trend to
  Direct/Multi-donor Budget Support.
• Consequently, rural transport interventions are falling
  off the agenda (as happened with MDGs).
        Sustainability tensions
• The Road Fund model is the sustainability norm
  for the sector. But:
  – Income (fuel levy) is regarded by politicians and
    stakeholders as a tax as a result there will never be
    enough for maintenance,
  – Maintenance definitions and strategies will follow
    politics/votes and favour the national trunk roads,
  – Sector ministries are reluctant to decentralise
    decision making and finances.
• Rural roads do not carry enough traffic to be
  tolled or taxed.
     Decentralisation tensions
• Decentralisation is seen to be part of a
  governance agenda and as a threat to rural
  transport sector stakeholders.
• Transport sector priorities are not appreciated
  by local authorities/communities.
• Transport network integrity can be
• Rural districts/communities are not seen as
  having sufficient skills and resources to carry
  any weight in road transport terms.
  Rural Development Tensions
• Rural roads and transport are an
  expensive service which has to be paid
• There are no subsidies for rural transport
• Engineering standards and community
  expectations are too high for level of
  transport services generated by most rural
  road improvements.
• Have rural road/transport projects become
  too elaborate?
• Where is the institutional home of rural
  roads and transport?
• Do bilaterals still have a role to play in
  rural transport?
• What should our advocacy strategy be?

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