The Propaganda Model

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The Propaganda Model Powered By Docstoc
					                         STYLE
Style is the way language is used: words, phrases, sentences,
paragraphs and whole texts. Style is described with adjectives
such as:
                              • academic
                              • business-like
                              • colloquial
                              • cultured
                              • formal
                              • informal
                              • poetic
                              • precise
                              • vulgar
         STYLE: Formal and informal
The two main categories of style are formal and informal.

The choice of formal or informal language communicates
social messages, such as:

               • respect vs. intimacy
               • distance vs. solidarity
               • expertise vs. openness
               • trustworthiness vs. friendliness
         STYLE: Formal and informal
Formality is expressed through the following:
           • Diction
           • Syntax
               Verb forms
               Noun phrases
           • Sentence complexity
               Length
               Clause structure
               Completeness
           • Attitude
               Involvement
               Commitment (modality)
           • Point of view
           • Structure
               Diction
FORMAL                   INFORMAL

Words are                Words are
• long                   • short
• rare                   • common
• abstract               • concrete
• specific               • general
• of French, Latin       • of Anglo-Saxon or
or Greek origin          Germanic origin
                         Syntax
Noun phrases

Informal texts tend to favour that clauses for post-
modification



                Verbs

                Formal texts favour passive verb forms

                Informal texts favour active verb forms
        Sentence complexity

FORMAL                   INFORMAL

Sentences                Sentences
• are long               • are short
• favour subordination   • favour coordination
• use full verb forms    • feature ellipsis and
                         contractions
                      Attitude
INVOLVEMENT:

Formal texts are impersonal, objective and neutral

Informal texts are personal, subjective and emotive


                COMMITMENT:

                Formal texts are tentative and indirect

                Informal texts are direct, straightforward
                and blunt
                 Structure

FORMAL                       INFORMAL

Longer paragraphs,           Looser organisation,
tightly organised with       may rely on short
cohesive devices such        paragraphs to separate
as linking words             individual ideas

				
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posted:4/28/2013
language:English
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