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					      March / April 2007

FIT      : Fundamentals of Information

ISTA     : Information System & Theory

EDP      : Effective Documentation &

POS      : Programming Object Structure

DM       : Discrete Mathematics
                Bits of FIT Exam 2007
                        Part – A

1.   (a)   What is Primary Memory?
           Primary memory is the primary storage unit of
           the computer.
     (b)   How the data is represented in the System?
           Data represents in computer memory in the
           binary format as 0’s and 1’s.
     (c)   What are the parts of Central Processing
           The parts of CPU are:
                  - ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
                  - CU (Control Unit)
                  - Memory
     (d)   What is the main difference between
           Arithmetic and Logic Unit?

     (e)   Define Cache Memory?
           Cache Memory is a fast access memory lying
           between CPU and Primary Memory.
     (f)   What is machine language?
           It is computer’s own language. It is also
           considered as low level language.
     (g)   What are translators?
           Translators are:
                    - Assembler
                    - Compiler
                    - Interpreter
     (h)   What is Operating System?
           Operating System is a program which acts as
           an interface between a user and a
           computer hardware.
           It is a resource manager which allocates
           resources to solve a problem.
     (i)   What do you mean by Compatibility?
           Compatibility is the ability of a hardware or
      software to be used with another place
      hardware or software.
(j)   What is a Process?
      A process is a program in execution.
(k)   What is a File?
      A file is a set of records which is a combination
      of different fields.
(l)   What is an Entity?
      An entity is simply a person, place, event, or
      thing for which we intend to collect data.
      For example university environment, entities of
      interest might be students, faculty member,
      courses, and so on.
(m)   What is a Primary Key?
      Primary key is an attribute (or candidate key)
      selected to uniquely identify all other
      attribute values in any given row and cannot
      contain null entries.
(n)   What is DBMS?
      A Database Management System is the
      software that functions as the interface
      between the users, other programs, and the
      database itself.
(o)   Define DDL.
      It’s the formal language used by the
      programmers to specify the contents and
      structure of database.
(p)   What is Circuit Switching?
      Circuit Switching provides dedicated
      communication channel between two stations.
(q)   What is a modem?
      A modem is a device that converts digital
      signals to analog signals and back.
(r)   What is a Topology?
      The geometrical arrangement of computer,
      resources, remote devices, and
      communication facilities.

(s)   What are the types of Networks?
      Types of networks are:
              - LAN
              - WAN
              - MAN
(t)   Define a ‘Full Duplex Transmission’.
      Full Duplex Transmission is transmitting data in
      dual ways i.e., both sides.
(u)   What is Virtual reality?
      Virtual reality is presenting a view which differs
      from the originality.
(v)   How can IT be used in Tele Conferencing?
      Tele Conferencing can be used to bring people
      and ideas together despite geographic
      barrier. Tele Conferencing may be provided by
      the following four ways:
              1.      Audio conferencing
              2.      Video conferencing
              3.      Desktop conferencing
              4.      Computer Conferencing.
(w)   What is an EDI?
      Electronic Data Interchange is a computer-to-
      computer data interchange of business
      documents in standard format.
(x)   What is data warehousing?
      Data warehousing is a variation over
      conventional databases.
(y)   What is an Internet?
      An internet is a global interconnection of
      computers across the web popularity.

       Part - B (5 x 10 = 50 Marks)

2.    Explain how the CPU works and why it is called as
      “Brain of Computer”.


3.    Explain the following types of Computer
            (i)    Mainframe
                   Mainframe computers can process
                   several million-program instructions per
                   second. Large organizations rely on
                   these room-size systems to handle large
                   programs with lots of data.
                   Mainframes are mainly used by
                   insurance companies, banks, airline and
                   railway reservation systems, etc. an
                   advanced mainframe made by IBM is
            (ii)   Parallel

4.    (a)   Give the features of UNIX Operating System.

            The features of UNIX Operating System are:
                   a)     It is a multi-user, multitasking
                          Operating system.
                    b)    It is the first OS coded in a higher
                          level language (i.e., in C).
                    c)    It is the most popular OS on
                    d)    It is designed on the basis of
                          Layered design of Operating
                    e)    It consists of three layers: inner-
                          most layer is called Kernal,
                          middle layer is called as System
                          calls’ layer and the Outer-most
                  layer is called the Command
                  Interface or User Interface layer.
             f)   It provides for efficient handling of
                  the users’ files.
            g)    Security features are provided so
                  that unauthorized users cannot
                  enter into the system.
            h)    Individual files are also
                  associated with the access
                  permissions so that only intended
                  users can access the files.
             i)   It provides a user interface, called
                  shell, for the users to enter the
                  commands. It provides character
                  user interface.
             j)   Few of the popularly used
                  commands here are rmdir, mkdir,
                  cd, cat is, cp,
                  mv, rm etc.
(b)   What is Security and Protection?

      Protection is an internal problem. Security has
      to consider not only the computer system but
      also the environment with which the system is
      used. The various processes in a processing
      system are to be protected from one another’s
      activities. Computer system contains many
      objects like:
               Hardware (Memory, CPU time, I/O
               Software (Files, programs, and
                  abstract data types)
      These object need to be protected from misuse.
      These can be operated by only those
      processes that have gained proper
      authorization from the operating system.
      Protection refers to a mechanism for controlling
      the access of programs, processes, or uses to
           be resources defined by a computer system.
           An access right is permission to perform an
           operation on an object. A domain is a set of
           access rights. Processes execute in domains
           and may use any of the access rights in the
           domain to access and manipulate objects.
           Protection must provide a means for
           specifications of the controls to be imposed,
           together with the same means of enforcement.
           The reasons for providing protection are:
                - The need to prevent mischievous,
                  intentional violation of an access
                  restriction by a user. The need to ensure
                  that each program computer component
                  active in a system uses system
                  resources only in ways consistent with
                  the stated policies for the uses of these
               - Improves reliability by detecting latent
                  errors at the interfaces between
                  component subsystems.


5.   (a)   What is object linking and embedding?

           Object Linking and Embedding means your
           document can contain information that was
           created in different applications, and you edit
           any of this information from inside your
           documents. To change information that you
           have linked or embedded, you do not have
           to delete and copy it again. You can open one
           application from with another, make your
           changes, and keep on working.
                  To understand linking and embedding,
           you should be familiar with the following terms:

      An object is any piece of information
       created with a Windows application.
      The source document, from the server
       application, is the document where
       the object originates.
      The destination document, from the
       client application, is the document
       where you place the object.
       Some applications may be both a server
       and a client.
        When you embed an object, you are
inserting information from the source document
into a destination in a different application. To
make changes to an embedded object, you
simply choose the object in the destination
document. The application where the object
was created opens. Because the object is
embedded, there is no connection to the
document where you transferred the
information. So, when you edit an embedded
object, the source document is not affected.
        When you link an object, you are
creating a reference, or link, to the source
document. So, when you edit a linked object,
you are actually editing the information in the
source document. The destination document
only contains a link to where the object exists
in the source document.
        Many documents can contain a link to a
single source document, which must be saved
first. You have access to the object from any
document that contains a link to it, and you can
change the object from within any of them. The
updated version appears in all the documents.
Linking makes it easy to track information that
appears in more than one place and that must
be identical.

      (b)   Explain what is portability?

            Portability: A the same time, many software
            companies develop software that is portable.
            Software is considered portable when:
                 1. It has different versions for many
                      operating systems.
                  2. It is able to switch between two or
                      more operating systems.
                  3. It can be converted easily from one
                      operating system to another.
                   Portable software allows you what is or
            appears to be the same application program
            regardless of your computer system. You may
            use a mainframe computer at times and a
            minicomputer or microcomputer at other times,
            or you may switch between different types of
            microcomputers at your home and office. With
            portable software you may not have to learn
            how to operate several word processors simply
            because you must switch computer system
            from time to time. An organization that adopts
            software that has versions for most or all of its
            computer systems saves training time and
            personnel to move easily from one job
            assignment and location to another.


6.    (a)   Give the function of DBA.

            The functions of DBA are:
                  i)     DBA Presides over the task of
                         development of the database.

            ii)   DBA controls the overall structure
                  of the database.
           iii)   DBA’s job requires not only the
                  technical skills (like full
                  knowledge of software and
                  hardware) but also the
                  managerial skills (like planning
                  and designing of the database,
                  managing the manpower etc.).
           (iv)   DBA prepares the overall schema
                  (logical view) of the database,
                  and also all the external schemas
                  (external views).
           (v)    DBA decides the working-area for
                  all the users and programmers
                  using the database.
           (vi)   DBA decides the storage
                  structures of the data and its
                  efficient access in the database.
           (vii) DBA ensures the security and
                  integrity of the database and
                  takes the suitable measure to
                  safeguard the database from
                  unauthorized users.
           (viii) DBA supervises the performance
                  of DBMS and responds to the
                  changes in the user’s
           (ix)   Overall, a DBA acts as bridge
                  between the organization, the
                  employees and Databases.
(b)   What are the advantages of DBMS?

      The advantages of DBMS are:
            i)    Data can be shared
                  simultaneously among different

                   ii)    The access to the data becomes
                          very easier.
                   iii)   Redundancy can be controlled by
                          storing logically related data at a
                          single place.
                   iv)    Consistency and integrity of the
                          data can be maintained.
                   v)     Security can be provided
                          relatively easily from the
                          authorized users.
7.   Discuss the following:
          (i)    Views

           (ii)    Report Design
                   Report designing is another form of user
                   interface supported by many database
                   systems. For example for queries like
                   finding the total sales in certain region in
                   the past month, and comparing the total
                   sales in the region in the past month to
                   that of the corresponding month in the
                   previous year the output need to be
                   properly formatted in the form of a report
                   and set to the managers.
           (iii)   Form Design
                   To make the database more user-
                   friendly, forms are created and
                   displayed on the screen. Users then
                   type data in the various forms and it is
                   automatically entered into the database.
                   Once the data has been entered, the
                   form can also be used to view, edit or
                   delete it. More than one form is created
                   for the same database, giving different
                   users a different view of the data. For
                   example a payroll accountant looking at
                   a payroll database might see the
                   salaries of employees while a tax
                   accountant might see the with holding
                   information. The form also provide
                   several interface objects called controls
                   which makes the data access very easy.
                   Those are list box control, text box,
                   combo box, command buttons etc.

8.   Differentiate between Circuit Switching and
     Packet Switching.

            Circuit Switching: Many voice telephone
     networks link a sender and receiver over a channel
     that is dedicated to their communications for the
     length of their sessions. It does not matter if the
     sender and receiver remain silent for long periods of
     time; the channel is still theirs until they hang up. That
     type of channel mode is called circuit switching. A
     circuit switching network may use a different route to
     make the connection between sender and receiver
     each time they call each other. However, once the
     connection is made, the parties may use the channel
     as long as they wish. Both dial-up lines and leased
     lines offer circuit switching.
            Packet Switching: These networks offer a
     type of message switching. Packet-switching
     networks transmit messages in one or more fixed-
     size packets, or message blocks.
     Packet-switching networks consist of a series of
     channels that are connected to nodes, or
     computer-controlled switching centers. A voice,
     data, text, or image transmission is first broken
     into packets, and then each packet is sent to its
     destination via the fastest or shortest route. The
     packets may travel different routes to the
      destination. At the destination the packets are put
      in sequential order and delivered to the receiver.

9.    Explain the terms:
            (i)    Hosts
            (ii)   Servers
            (iii)  Work Station
            (iv)   Client
            (v)    Router


10.   Discuss the IT application to:
       (i) Home
            Applications of Computers in Home can
            be described as follows:
                - It was used to duplicate the role of
                   computer at work or to play games.
                   These simple roles are changing in the
                   present days. Home computer
                   applications are connected to a
                  CD-ROM drive, encyclopedic information,
                   movies, animations are instantly
                   available. Alternatively to a phone line,
                   you can use your community or other
                   parts of the world.
       (ii) Education
            Applications of Computers in Education can be
            described as follows:
                - There remains no difference between
                   education and entertainment when it
                   comes to computers. Anybody can learn
                   the interesting applications of computers
                   in a playful fashion. Initially when the
                   computers were very costly, only few
                   rich organizations and research
              universities were able to afford them.
              With the improvements in the
              technology and the reduced hardware
              costs, now a computer is affordable by
              many people.
           - Exploiting this phenomenon, computers
              are being introduced in the schools and
              universities at an early age. Software is
              exclusively being developed for school-
              kids which teach the lessons in an
              interactive way. The higher level
              language BASIC has become an
              exclusive school-kids’ language.
(iii) Training
      Applications of Computer in Training can be
       described as follows:
            - Since the advent of computer, manual
              training by “experts” is being substituted
              by Computer-Based Training (CBT). In
              that, computers are used to train people
              on new procedures and techniques they
              need to know about their jobs. Different
              screens are generated using the
              computers processing where each
              screen may describe a feature or a
              concept in an interactive way. This
              makes the CBT very exiting and
          - CBT may include a simple program to a
              complex multimedia application.
              Depending on the kind of training and
              the people involved in the training.
          - Computers are also being used to help
              a speaker in a seminar to give live-
              demos on the topic of the seminar.


11.   Give the difference between Internet and Intranet.

      The following table differentiates Internet and Intranet
       Internet                      Intranet
       Implemented by                Implemented by
       research organizations,       multinational
       Governments, various          organizations or by
       other organizations.          organizations covering lot
                                     of areas.
       It is not a proprietary       It is privately owned
       network. It is a collective   network.
       The structure of internet     The structure of such a
       is very complex.              network is relatively
       It connects different         It is used to connect
       networks, including           different LANs (or any
       intranets.                    other network), present in
                                     the different branches of
                                     the same organization.
                                     The branches may be
                                     located internationally.
       The scope is unlimited. It    The scope of such a
       is used to exchange           network is limited.
       almost any type of            It is used to exchange the
       information from any          information produced in
       where in the world            the same setup or
       provided the hosts are        organization.
       connected to the
       There is nothing called       Outsiders or outside
       outside. Anybody can          information is not allowed
       access my facility from       to enter.
       any host.
       Internet can be used by       Intranet is designed and
       anybody who can               being used by national
       connect to the internet       firms like Ford motors,
with the help of a modem Fujitsu etc.
and a telephone line.

                Bits of ISTA Exam
                March/April 2007
               PART- A (25 Marks)

1.   (a)   What is data?
           Data is a collection of facts and figures.
           It may be text, numbers, images or
           combination of these.
     (b)   What do you understand by
           A system is a set of inter related
           elements that collectively work together
           to achieve common purpose or goal. It is
           a collection of parts that work together
           harmoniously only to achieve specific
     (c)   What is “Feedback”?
           Feedback is data about the performance
           of system. A system needs feedback to
           do its job.
     (d)   What is efficiency?
           Efficiency is doing things right.
     (e)   What is transformation?
           It is a process of converting raw data
           into information.
     (f)   What is “TQC”?
           TQC is a commitment to the fabrication
           of quality product with a emphasis on
           preventing defects and planning
           responsibility for quantity control at
           every point in the production process.
     (g)   Expand P.O.S
     (h)   What is “JIT”?
           Just-In-Time is a system used to make
      certain that production materials are
      ordered in sufficient lead time to arrive
      at the point when they are needed in the
      production process.
(i)   Explain the types of decisions.
      Types of decisions are:
          1. Important and Unimportant:
             Important decision is obviously
             warrant close management
             attention and mangers should
             spend most of their time in
             improving the quality of the
             decision. Unimportant or routine
             decision where manager attention
             is less drawn.
         2. Frequent and Infrequent:
            Frequently made decisions are
             most common and routine
             decision and are also some times
             called programmable decisions.
             Infrequently decisions are such
             decision which may happen once
             in life time such as mergers and
             acquisitions once or twice over the
             course of its existence.
         3. Structured & Unstructured
              A structured decision is one that is
             made according to specified
             procedures or rules. It’s relatively
             easy to develop a procedure for
             handling such a situation.
             Unstructured decision are decision
             where often involves high degree
             of freedom and no precedent.

             These may require lot of creativity
             and intuition from decision maker.
(j)   What is “GDSS”?
      GDSS is quite broad and therefore, can
      apply to variety of group decision
      situations, including committees review
      panels, task forces, executive board
      meetings, remote workers etc.
(k)   What is a model?
      A model is a representation of a real
      world element (such as object, concept
      of event) or group of elements and the
      relationship among them.
(l)   Explain the phases of decision
      The phases of decision making are:
             - Define and crystallize the problem.
             - Secure and analyses pertinent
             - Develop alternative solution or
      course of actions.
             - Decide upon the best solution.
             - Convert the decision into effective
(m)   Expand EIS
      Executive Information System
(n)   What is an Information System?
      An information system is the system of
      person, data records and activities that
      process the data and information in a
      given organization, including manual
      processes or automated processes.
(o)   What is marketing mix?
      Marketing mix is a system which consists
      of four P’s they are Product, Price,
      Promotion and Place, how best these
      four P’s should be mixed so as to achieve
      the marketing objectives.
(p)   What is BSP?
      BSP is one of the methods adopted for
      business information system plans which
      assist a business in developing an
      information system plan which supports
      both short and long run information

(q)   Define Artificial Intelligence.
      Artificial intelligence is the simulation of
      human intelligence processes by
      machines, especially computer systems.
(r)   Can expert system make mistakes?
(s)   CSF is _____
      CSF is one of the methods for finding the
      data requirements of the system and
      addresses the information needs of the
      senior management.
(t)   ____ refers to people, actions,
      events or other situation that could
      trigger losses.
      There at
(u)   What are the phases of the systems
      development life cycle?
      The phases of SDLC are:
                1. Defining the problems.
                2. Feasibility study.
                3. System analysis.
                4. System design.
                5. Detailed design.
                6. Implementation.
                7. Maintenance

(v)   ____ are counter measures of
(w)   What is a Patch?
      A patch is an additional program written
      on an application to enhance its
(x)   What is a threat?

(y)   What is an exception report?
      Exception report is those information’s
      items which are of particular interest to
      the managers.


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