March / April 2007
FIT : Fundamentals of Information
ISTA : Information System & Theory
EDP : Effective Documentation &
POS : Programming Object Structure
DM : Discrete Mathematics
Bits of FIT Exam 2007
Part – A
1. (a) What is Primary Memory?
Primary memory is the primary storage unit of
(b) How the data is represented in the System?
Data represents in computer memory in the
binary format as 0’s and 1’s.
(c) What are the parts of Central Processing
The parts of CPU are:
- ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
- CU (Control Unit)
(d) What is the main difference between
Arithmetic and Logic Unit?
(e) Define Cache Memory?
Cache Memory is a fast access memory lying
between CPU and Primary Memory.
(f) What is machine language?
It is computer’s own language. It is also
considered as low level language.
(g) What are translators?
(h) What is Operating System?
Operating System is a program which acts as
an interface between a user and a
It is a resource manager which allocates
resources to solve a problem.
(i) What do you mean by Compatibility?
Compatibility is the ability of a hardware or
software to be used with another place
hardware or software.
(j) What is a Process?
A process is a program in execution.
(k) What is a File?
A file is a set of records which is a combination
of different fields.
(l) What is an Entity?
An entity is simply a person, place, event, or
thing for which we intend to collect data.
For example university environment, entities of
interest might be students, faculty member,
courses, and so on.
(m) What is a Primary Key?
Primary key is an attribute (or candidate key)
selected to uniquely identify all other
attribute values in any given row and cannot
contain null entries.
(n) What is DBMS?
A Database Management System is the
software that functions as the interface
between the users, other programs, and the
(o) Define DDL.
It’s the formal language used by the
programmers to specify the contents and
structure of database.
(p) What is Circuit Switching?
Circuit Switching provides dedicated
communication channel between two stations.
(q) What is a modem?
A modem is a device that converts digital
signals to analog signals and back.
(r) What is a Topology?
The geometrical arrangement of computer,
resources, remote devices, and
(s) What are the types of Networks?
Types of networks are:
(t) Define a ‘Full Duplex Transmission’.
Full Duplex Transmission is transmitting data in
dual ways i.e., both sides.
(u) What is Virtual reality?
Virtual reality is presenting a view which differs
from the originality.
(v) How can IT be used in Tele Conferencing?
Tele Conferencing can be used to bring people
and ideas together despite geographic
barrier. Tele Conferencing may be provided by
the following four ways:
1. Audio conferencing
2. Video conferencing
3. Desktop conferencing
4. Computer Conferencing.
(w) What is an EDI?
Electronic Data Interchange is a computer-to-
computer data interchange of business
documents in standard format.
(x) What is data warehousing?
Data warehousing is a variation over
(y) What is an Internet?
An internet is a global interconnection of
computers across the web popularity.
Part - B (5 x 10 = 50 Marks)
2. Explain how the CPU works and why it is called as
“Brain of Computer”.
3. Explain the following types of Computer
Mainframe computers can process
several million-program instructions per
second. Large organizations rely on
these room-size systems to handle large
programs with lots of data.
Mainframes are mainly used by
insurance companies, banks, airline and
railway reservation systems, etc. an
advanced mainframe made by IBM is
4. (a) Give the features of UNIX Operating System.
The features of UNIX Operating System are:
a) It is a multi-user, multitasking
b) It is the first OS coded in a higher
level language (i.e., in C).
c) It is the most popular OS on
d) It is designed on the basis of
Layered design of Operating
e) It consists of three layers: inner-
most layer is called Kernal,
middle layer is called as System
calls’ layer and the Outer-most
layer is called the Command
Interface or User Interface layer.
f) It provides for efficient handling of
the users’ files.
g) Security features are provided so
that unauthorized users cannot
enter into the system.
h) Individual files are also
associated with the access
permissions so that only intended
users can access the files.
i) It provides a user interface, called
shell, for the users to enter the
commands. It provides character
j) Few of the popularly used
commands here are rmdir, mkdir,
cd, cat is, cp,
mv, rm etc.
(b) What is Security and Protection?
Protection is an internal problem. Security has
to consider not only the computer system but
also the environment with which the system is
used. The various processes in a processing
system are to be protected from one another’s
activities. Computer system contains many
Hardware (Memory, CPU time, I/O
Software (Files, programs, and
abstract data types)
These object need to be protected from misuse.
These can be operated by only those
processes that have gained proper
authorization from the operating system.
Protection refers to a mechanism for controlling
the access of programs, processes, or uses to
be resources defined by a computer system.
An access right is permission to perform an
operation on an object. A domain is a set of
access rights. Processes execute in domains
and may use any of the access rights in the
domain to access and manipulate objects.
Protection must provide a means for
specifications of the controls to be imposed,
together with the same means of enforcement.
The reasons for providing protection are:
- The need to prevent mischievous,
intentional violation of an access
restriction by a user. The need to ensure
that each program computer component
active in a system uses system
resources only in ways consistent with
the stated policies for the uses of these
- Improves reliability by detecting latent
errors at the interfaces between
5. (a) What is object linking and embedding?
Object Linking and Embedding means your
document can contain information that was
created in different applications, and you edit
any of this information from inside your
documents. To change information that you
have linked or embedded, you do not have
to delete and copy it again. You can open one
application from with another, make your
changes, and keep on working.
To understand linking and embedding,
you should be familiar with the following terms:
An object is any piece of information
created with a Windows application.
The source document, from the server
application, is the document where
the object originates.
The destination document, from the
client application, is the document
where you place the object.
Some applications may be both a server
and a client.
When you embed an object, you are
inserting information from the source document
into a destination in a different application. To
make changes to an embedded object, you
simply choose the object in the destination
document. The application where the object
was created opens. Because the object is
embedded, there is no connection to the
document where you transferred the
information. So, when you edit an embedded
object, the source document is not affected.
When you link an object, you are
creating a reference, or link, to the source
document. So, when you edit a linked object,
you are actually editing the information in the
source document. The destination document
only contains a link to where the object exists
in the source document.
Many documents can contain a link to a
single source document, which must be saved
first. You have access to the object from any
document that contains a link to it, and you can
change the object from within any of them. The
updated version appears in all the documents.
Linking makes it easy to track information that
appears in more than one place and that must
(b) Explain what is portability?
Portability: A the same time, many software
companies develop software that is portable.
Software is considered portable when:
1. It has different versions for many
2. It is able to switch between two or
more operating systems.
3. It can be converted easily from one
operating system to another.
Portable software allows you what is or
appears to be the same application program
regardless of your computer system. You may
use a mainframe computer at times and a
minicomputer or microcomputer at other times,
or you may switch between different types of
microcomputers at your home and office. With
portable software you may not have to learn
how to operate several word processors simply
because you must switch computer system
from time to time. An organization that adopts
software that has versions for most or all of its
computer systems saves training time and
personnel to move easily from one job
assignment and location to another.
6. (a) Give the function of DBA.
The functions of DBA are:
i) DBA Presides over the task of
development of the database.
ii) DBA controls the overall structure
of the database.
iii) DBA’s job requires not only the
technical skills (like full
knowledge of software and
hardware) but also the
managerial skills (like planning
and designing of the database,
managing the manpower etc.).
(iv) DBA prepares the overall schema
(logical view) of the database,
and also all the external schemas
(v) DBA decides the working-area for
all the users and programmers
using the database.
(vi) DBA decides the storage
structures of the data and its
efficient access in the database.
(vii) DBA ensures the security and
integrity of the database and
takes the suitable measure to
safeguard the database from
(viii) DBA supervises the performance
of DBMS and responds to the
changes in the user’s
(ix) Overall, a DBA acts as bridge
between the organization, the
employees and Databases.
(b) What are the advantages of DBMS?
The advantages of DBMS are:
i) Data can be shared
simultaneously among different
ii) The access to the data becomes
iii) Redundancy can be controlled by
storing logically related data at a
iv) Consistency and integrity of the
data can be maintained.
v) Security can be provided
relatively easily from the
7. Discuss the following:
(ii) Report Design
Report designing is another form of user
interface supported by many database
systems. For example for queries like
finding the total sales in certain region in
the past month, and comparing the total
sales in the region in the past month to
that of the corresponding month in the
previous year the output need to be
properly formatted in the form of a report
and set to the managers.
(iii) Form Design
To make the database more user-
friendly, forms are created and
displayed on the screen. Users then
type data in the various forms and it is
automatically entered into the database.
Once the data has been entered, the
form can also be used to view, edit or
delete it. More than one form is created
for the same database, giving different
users a different view of the data. For
example a payroll accountant looking at
a payroll database might see the
salaries of employees while a tax
accountant might see the with holding
information. The form also provide
several interface objects called controls
which makes the data access very easy.
Those are list box control, text box,
combo box, command buttons etc.
8. Differentiate between Circuit Switching and
Circuit Switching: Many voice telephone
networks link a sender and receiver over a channel
that is dedicated to their communications for the
length of their sessions. It does not matter if the
sender and receiver remain silent for long periods of
time; the channel is still theirs until they hang up. That
type of channel mode is called circuit switching. A
circuit switching network may use a different route to
make the connection between sender and receiver
each time they call each other. However, once the
connection is made, the parties may use the channel
as long as they wish. Both dial-up lines and leased
lines offer circuit switching.
Packet Switching: These networks offer a
type of message switching. Packet-switching
networks transmit messages in one or more fixed-
size packets, or message blocks.
Packet-switching networks consist of a series of
channels that are connected to nodes, or
computer-controlled switching centers. A voice,
data, text, or image transmission is first broken
into packets, and then each packet is sent to its
destination via the fastest or shortest route. The
packets may travel different routes to the
destination. At the destination the packets are put
in sequential order and delivered to the receiver.
9. Explain the terms:
(iii) Work Station
10. Discuss the IT application to:
Applications of Computers in Home can
be described as follows:
- It was used to duplicate the role of
computer at work or to play games.
These simple roles are changing in the
present days. Home computer
applications are connected to a
CD-ROM drive, encyclopedic information,
movies, animations are instantly
available. Alternatively to a phone line,
you can use your community or other
parts of the world.
Applications of Computers in Education can be
described as follows:
- There remains no difference between
education and entertainment when it
comes to computers. Anybody can learn
the interesting applications of computers
in a playful fashion. Initially when the
computers were very costly, only few
rich organizations and research
universities were able to afford them.
With the improvements in the
technology and the reduced hardware
costs, now a computer is affordable by
- Exploiting this phenomenon, computers
are being introduced in the schools and
universities at an early age. Software is
exclusively being developed for school-
kids which teach the lessons in an
interactive way. The higher level
language BASIC has become an
exclusive school-kids’ language.
Applications of Computer in Training can be
described as follows:
- Since the advent of computer, manual
training by “experts” is being substituted
by Computer-Based Training (CBT). In
that, computers are used to train people
on new procedures and techniques they
need to know about their jobs. Different
screens are generated using the
computers processing where each
screen may describe a feature or a
concept in an interactive way. This
makes the CBT very exiting and
- CBT may include a simple program to a
complex multimedia application.
Depending on the kind of training and
the people involved in the training.
- Computers are also being used to help
a speaker in a seminar to give live-
demos on the topic of the seminar.
11. Give the difference between Internet and Intranet.
The following table differentiates Internet and Intranet
Implemented by Implemented by
research organizations, multinational
Governments, various organizations or by
other organizations. organizations covering lot
It is not a proprietary It is privately owned
network. It is a collective network.
The structure of internet The structure of such a
is very complex. network is relatively
It connects different It is used to connect
networks, including different LANs (or any
intranets. other network), present in
the different branches of
the same organization.
The branches may be
The scope is unlimited. It The scope of such a
is used to exchange network is limited.
almost any type of It is used to exchange the
information from any information produced in
where in the world the same setup or
provided the hosts are organization.
connected to the
There is nothing called Outsiders or outside
outside. Anybody can information is not allowed
access my facility from to enter.
Internet can be used by Intranet is designed and
anybody who can being used by national
connect to the internet firms like Ford motors,
with the help of a modem Fujitsu etc.
and a telephone line.
Bits of ISTA Exam
PART- A (25 Marks)
1. (a) What is data?
Data is a collection of facts and figures.
It may be text, numbers, images or
combination of these.
(b) What do you understand by
A system is a set of inter related
elements that collectively work together
to achieve common purpose or goal. It is
a collection of parts that work together
harmoniously only to achieve specific
(c) What is “Feedback”?
Feedback is data about the performance
of system. A system needs feedback to
do its job.
(d) What is efficiency?
Efficiency is doing things right.
(e) What is transformation?
It is a process of converting raw data
(f) What is “TQC”?
TQC is a commitment to the fabrication
of quality product with a emphasis on
preventing defects and planning
responsibility for quantity control at
every point in the production process.
(g) Expand P.O.S
(h) What is “JIT”?
Just-In-Time is a system used to make
certain that production materials are
ordered in sufficient lead time to arrive
at the point when they are needed in the
(i) Explain the types of decisions.
Types of decisions are:
1. Important and Unimportant:
Important decision is obviously
warrant close management
attention and mangers should
spend most of their time in
improving the quality of the
decision. Unimportant or routine
decision where manager attention
is less drawn.
2. Frequent and Infrequent:
Frequently made decisions are
most common and routine
decision and are also some times
called programmable decisions.
Infrequently decisions are such
decision which may happen once
in life time such as mergers and
acquisitions once or twice over the
course of its existence.
3. Structured & Unstructured
A structured decision is one that is
made according to specified
procedures or rules. It’s relatively
easy to develop a procedure for
handling such a situation.
Unstructured decision are decision
where often involves high degree
of freedom and no precedent.
These may require lot of creativity
and intuition from decision maker.
(j) What is “GDSS”?
GDSS is quite broad and therefore, can
apply to variety of group decision
situations, including committees review
panels, task forces, executive board
meetings, remote workers etc.
(k) What is a model?
A model is a representation of a real
world element (such as object, concept
of event) or group of elements and the
relationship among them.
(l) Explain the phases of decision
The phases of decision making are:
- Define and crystallize the problem.
- Secure and analyses pertinent
- Develop alternative solution or
course of actions.
- Decide upon the best solution.
- Convert the decision into effective
(m) Expand EIS
Executive Information System
(n) What is an Information System?
An information system is the system of
person, data records and activities that
process the data and information in a
given organization, including manual
processes or automated processes.
(o) What is marketing mix?
Marketing mix is a system which consists
of four P’s they are Product, Price,
Promotion and Place, how best these
four P’s should be mixed so as to achieve
the marketing objectives.
(p) What is BSP?
BSP is one of the methods adopted for
business information system plans which
assist a business in developing an
information system plan which supports
both short and long run information
(q) Define Artificial Intelligence.
Artificial intelligence is the simulation of
human intelligence processes by
machines, especially computer systems.
(r) Can expert system make mistakes?
(s) CSF is _____
CSF is one of the methods for finding the
data requirements of the system and
addresses the information needs of the
(t) ____ refers to people, actions,
events or other situation that could
(u) What are the phases of the systems
development life cycle?
The phases of SDLC are:
1. Defining the problems.
2. Feasibility study.
3. System analysis.
4. System design.
5. Detailed design.
(v) ____ are counter measures of
(w) What is a Patch?
A patch is an additional program written
on an application to enhance its
(x) What is a threat?
(y) What is an exception report?
Exception report is those information’s
items which are of particular interest to