IPRO 314 Mid-Term Progress Report
The Mid-Term Progress report formalizes the process of midterm reporting by the team to the faculty and the sponsor, thereby providing an opportunity for feedback and dialogue among all concerned before the term ends. It is intended to prompt the team to review its approach and progress toward goals.
Recollection of the project primary objective and team goals:
Objective: The goal of IPRO Team 314 is to improve the efficiency of automobiles (design, hybrid, alteration, etc). The vehicle we are proposing to design and possibly build is one that contains ultra capacitor cells. The 2.7kF capacitors are charged from generators connected to the transmission via the drive axles. When discharged, the capacitors will power the water pump, steering pump, and air conditioning compressor in addition to aiding in braking by means of reversing the generator. Background Information: Ultra-capacitors are one of the latest technological breakthroughs in the electrical industry. Up until very recently capacitors had a maximum capacitance of roughly one or two farads. Recently, several companies have released devices that have capacitances in the kilofarad range. Such products can store an enormous amount of electrical energy in a fairly compact space. In a standard automobile there are several devices that are powered by the turning motion of the engine. By removing the rotary powered devices and replacing them with electrically powered devices, powered by the energy stored in the ultra-capacitors, the fuel consumption has a potential to be greatly reduced, and a much larger portion of the angular motion will be transferred to the transmission. Thus, fuel consumption will decrease, accompanied by an increase in overall power of the automobile. Methodology: We propose to attach electrical motors to the drive axles of a car. These motors will be powered by the energy stored in the ultra-capacitors. When the brake pedal is depressed, these motors will turn opposite to the current direction of motion, causing the vehicle to slow. It should be mentioned, however that the existing hydraulic brakes will be left untouched for emergency safety reasons. The energy stored in these ultracapacitors may also be used to power various electrical devices throughout the automobile. The following is the approach the team will take in achieving its ultimate goal: The research on the ultra capacitors, generators, pre fabricated converters, etc. must be completed prior to any designing or implementing of vehicle systems. The circuitry is to be designed in conjunction with the braking system before a possible implementation of the design.
Any digital logic systems needed in the vehicle are to be designed to ensure safety and efficiency in the automobile. The simulation is to be completed incorporating the specifications and design of the IPRO 314 team. If possible, the system may be implemented in a vehicle provided by the Illinois Institute of Technology. The poster for the final presentation is to be completed.
Expected Results: After the project has been completed, the automobile should gain increased gas mileage and power because of the energy gained from using the ultra capacitors to power the electrical components of the car. In addition, money will be saved because of the increase of gas mileage and efficiency. Another aspect of efficiency and decrease in spending occurs in the braking system design. With a significant amount of braking power coming from the electric motors mounted on the axles being reversed, maintenance costs of the braking system can also be significantly decreased. In addition to the efficiency optimization of the vehicle, the ultra-capacitors may be the natural choice for transition of the automotive industry to hybrid vehicles.
The adequate approach to a difficult problem is the primary key to success. In that spirit, the team members established a list of vital tasks that need to be completed during the course of the semester. The following is a list describing these tasks in the order in which they have to be completed: The specifications for the vehicle and equipment to be used (ultra capacitors, generators, and any other components) are to be researched and determined by February 28, 2002. The circuitry design for the vehicle is to be completed by March 22, 2002. The braking system is also to be designed by March 22, 2002. The engine/vehicle simulation is to be completed with the correct vehicle and equipment specifications by March 30, 2002. If there are no significant obstacles, the design may be implemented and if it is, it is to be completed by April 25, 2002. The poster board for the final presentation is to be completed by May 1, 2002. Next, each team member was assigned or volunteered to do their part to help the team accomplish its ultimate objective as stated above. The list below entails the details of all the responsibilities and tasks, along with whom they belong to: Team Leader/Project Facilitator……………………………………………Julianna Tassy Project Plan…………………………………………...……Mike Faron and Jeremy Pastin Midterm Progress Report……………………………Julianna Tassy and Marcin Okarmus Web Site………………………………………….……….…………………Deji Adekeye Final Oral Presentation………………………………………………………………..TBA 2
Professional – Style Poster…………………….……………...Russ Collier and Erwin Uy One Page Abstract………………………...…………………....Elia Sung and Ben Deang Final Project Report…………………………………..…...Julianna Tassy and Mike Faron Team Member Journal……………………..……….Jeremy Pastin and Alexander Tzakov Team Log……………………………….……..……Jeremy Pastin and Alexander Tzakov Without wasting any time, the team members engaged themselves with an extensive research. The areas that have been investigated included: generator motor selection, different possibilities of connecting the generator, transmission of power from alternator during various driving conditions (city, highway, etc.), electrical powered water pump, CV joints, and last but not least – ultra-capacitors. The team’s web site has been established at www.iit.edu/~ipro314so2. It has been constantly updated and used as an active resource for the team to manage its business during the semester. The information that can be found on the IPRO 314 web page includes: Project Plan Team log and meeting minutes Introduction of all group members along with the group photo Calendar of events Other useful links Several obstacles have been encountered during the research and methods to overcome them were discussed. The obstacles were the following: Extensive amount of power that will have to be stored and later retrieved from the ultra-capacitors DC-DC converter that would provide means to transfer the electric power from the generator/motor to ultra-capacitors “Smart circuit” design that will intelligently decide when the power stored in ultra-capacitors has to be retrieved Power steering compressor Financial constraints Contact has been established with several manufacturers of ultra-capacitors. Dr. Daniel Tomal’s active discussion with a few companies resulted in one of them – Maxwell Technologies – volunteering to support the project. Maxwell provided the IPRO team with about eight thousand dollars worth of equipment, intended for laboratory testing. The following is the detailed list of products sent by Maxwell Tech: 24 - PC2500 Capacitors 10 - 5F Capacitors 10 - Capacitor Assemblies 10 - 10F Capacitors In addition, Maxwell offered to give one class lecture to go over the basics of system design using ultra-capacitors in automotive applications as well as some of the design challenges needing engineering solutions. The agreement has been made that the issues 3
of cell balancing, system safety, current levels, thermal management and cycling are all possibilities for further development. Furthermore, other contacts have been made. Tom Bartley from ISE Corporation provided a very valuable feedback on the problem regarding ultra-capacitors packing and the power system that would control their charge. Here is the list of the most important issues and problems pointed out by Mr. Bartley: For vehicle drive motor applications 300 volt and 600 volt packs are required. Could your students design packs or modules that use the TC2700 and include connections for 400 amps? Cooling. Ease of assembly. Structural support. Charge equalization. Maintenance, replacement, etc. The above list of ideas and suggestions recognizes a necessity of performing simulation before proceeding to the actual lab testing. That issue was recognized much earlier. The search for any commercial computer software that would aid our research and help achieve the goals gave several positive results. The proposal from Gamma Technologies, Inc. – company specializing in the development of the software for simulation of internal combustion engines – has been obtained that will allow the team to use their simulation products. We were informed that the simulation process can begin as soon as the mathematical model describing the ultra-capacitor is obtained and implemented in the software. Preliminary simulations were run at Gamma Tech. The standard HEV models provided by Gamma were used. These models can be seen below in figures 1 and 2. Furthermore, figures 3 and 4 show several results obtained from the simulations.
Figure 1 – Standard HEV model used in simulation (model 1).
Figure 2 - Standard HEV model used in simulation (model 2).
Figure 3 – Some of the results obtained from simulation (battery charge and energy consumption).
Figure 4 – Other results (power, energy losses, and efficiency).
Results obtained from those preliminary simulations can later be compared with the outcome of simulations run after implementing the models with ultra-capacitors. Once the ultra-capacitors arrived, the team met with Dr. Emadi from the Electrical Engineering Department at IIT to obtain further expertise from him and view the testing laboratory in Siegel Hall. From the advice of Dr. Emadi, the team decided to focus the research on simulation and lab testing of ultra-capacitor / battery configurations. The team’s primary objective was modified and refined to be as follows: To show the advantage of using 2.7kF ultra-capacitors in parallel with battery, to improve the power and energy of an automobile via laboratory testing. As a result of the analysis guidelines will also be set for future IPRO implementation. Furthermore, other simulation to be used included the Spice software. New groups were created within the team, which include simulation, laboratory testing, and guidelines. The division of new tasks and responsibilities is outlined below: Simulation (Mike Faron, Alexandar Tzakov, Deji Adekeye) Lab Testing (Elia Sung, Erwin Uy, Benedict Deang, Russell Collier) Guidelines (Julianna Tassy, Marcin Okarmus, Jeremy Pastin) IPRO 314 team has had good progress towards reaching its goals. Although it is clear at this time that implementation will probably not occur during this semester, a solid foundation will be built once simulation and testing is completed. Success in drawing conclusions from all the data obtained will prove extremely useful to future IPRO’s.