Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Organic Food (PowerPoint) by vivi07

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									Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Organic Food
Cross-cultural study of Turkey and Germany

Nihan MUTLU
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Tilman Becker Institute for Agricultural Policy and Markets University of Hohenheim

CONTENTS
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Introduction Organic Agriculture in Turkey Organic Agriculture in Germany Research Objectives Methodology Results Conclusion

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Introduction
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Why organic food? Food safety, quality, ethical movements…etc. Different market structures between western and eastern Europe (emerging, growing, established) Necessity of consumer studies in organics; Lack of information in Turkey Continuous change in German consumer trends Cross-cultural example between west and east

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Organic Agriculture in Turkey
Start-up: mid 80’s with export orientated production First Regulation: 1994, based on (EEC) No 2092/91 and IFOAM Basic Standards. Last revision has done in 2005. Certification: 11 Agents ( 5 national) Export: 37 countries:

Germany (61%);
USA (15%); UK (5%) …etc. Domestic market: Urban area (Big supermarkets, a few organic shops and bazaar)
Product numbers, ETO, 2007 Organically managed area (ha) and producer numbers , ETO, 2007

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Organic Agriculture in Germany
Start-up: Early 20th century Regulation: First EU Regulation Domestic market: 2092/91 based IFOAM Basic Standards, private organic agriculture Organic food market share associations (Demeter, Naturland..etc) 3%, 4.5 billion € Certification: 22 inspection bodies Marketing channel: Supermarkets, organic shops, direct marketing, bazaar, discounts, health stores Import: Biggest importer of Europe with 38%

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Spatial distribution of organic farming in Germany in 2001, Bichler et al., 2005 Organically managed land and farms , ZMP, 2006

Research Objectives
What are the similarities and differences between Turkish and German consumers?
   

Socio-demographic distribution (age, gender, household structure, education, income…) Buying behaviour (frequency, shopping place and product preference) Organic food and label knowledge Motivations and barriers

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Methodology
Literature Research

Questionnaire design

Sampling (Only organic consumers)

Consumer Survey (Interviews in Germany, online survey in Turkey)

Conducting the results (SPSS, Excel)

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Results - Demographic Distribution
Turkey Age
25-50 (74%) 0-24 (13%) 50-64 (13%)

Germany
25-34 (32%) 50-64 (24%) 35-50 (22%) 0-24 (12%) Over 64 (10%) female(70%) 1 or 2 over 14 years university(52%) Full-time working middle / low-middle income

Gender Household number Children age

female(52%) 3 or over 4 with kids over 6 years university(88%) Full-time working middle / low-middle income

Education
Socio-economic status

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Source: Own Calculations

Results – Buying Behaviour
Frequency & first purchase time of organic food products
Turkey Germany

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Source: Own Calculations

Results – Shopping Place Preferences
Comparison of ranking in shopping place preferences
Turkey Today Supermarket Organic shops Bazaar 1 3 4 Future 1 2 3 Germany Today 2 1 3 Future 2 1 3

Farm
Discount

2
6 5

3
5 4

4
5 6

5
4 5

10

Specialized shops
Source: Own Calculations

Results – Product Preferences
Demand differences between products of today and future in Turkey
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
uc ts te xt ile su ga bak er r ba pr o y by du pr cts od be uc ve ts m ilk ra ge an d pu s m lse he ilk rb pro s s an duc t d sp s dr ic ie es d fru its o an ce il d re ve a ge l s ta ve bl ge es ta bl es fru its ro d
Respondents

Maximum Changes Meat products: +58% Textile: +50% Bakery, sugar and baby products: +40% Beverages: +36% Pulses: +31% Milk products: +27% Herbs & spices: +24% Oil products: +18% Cereals: +14%

m ea

ta

nd

m ea

tp

Today's product choice Future product choice

Product groups

Minimum Changes

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Source: Own Calculations

Fresh fruits and vegetables, dried fruits and nuts: +2-3%

Results – Product Preferences
Demand differences between products of today and future in Germany
Maximum Changes
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
l pu s t p lses ro du he cts m ilk rbs te dr ie and and xtile d fr u mi sp it a lk p ice nd ro s ve duc ge ts ta ble su s ga rp o r o il du ve c ba geta ts by b pr les od be uc ve ts ra ge ba s ke ry fr u it ce re a

Cereals: +16% Pulses and meat products: +14% Textile: +12% Herbs & spices: +8% Minimum Changes Milk products, dried fruits & vegetables oil and sugar products: +6% Vegetables, baby products: +4% Beverages and bakery products: +2%

Respondents

m ea

ta

nd

m ea

Today's product choice Future product choice

Product groups

12

No Changes
Source: Own Calculations

Fresh fruits: 0%

Results – Product Preferences
Most preferred products in Turkey & in Germany: Fresh fruits and vegetables Milk and milk products, cereals Less preferred products in Turkey & in Germany: Baby products and textile

Strategies for future organic market •Turkey’s organic market is satisfied with fresh fruits and vegetables & dried fruits and nuts or conventional products are also charming. •Meat products can easily find consumers in Turkey. Herbs and spices, pulses, beverages, bakery, cereals and sugar products expected to expand demand in Turkey. •Germany is a saturated market with all categories and will be difficult to introduce new product to the market. Cereals, pulses and meat products can be important goods to gain new consumers.

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Results – Organic Food Description
Comparison of overall ratings in organic food description
Turkey
Healthy High Nutritional Value Products are grown in harmony with nature Free from chemical pesticides and fertilizers Produced with environmentally / animal friendly techniques Free from GMO Products must be certified

Germany 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4 3.6

4.6 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.7

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(5: Strongly agree, 4: Agree, 3: Neutral, 2: Disagree, 1: Strongly disagree) Source: Own Calculations

Results – Label Knowledge
Government Logos; “Bio-Siegel” great success “Turkish logo” needs further actions Private Logos; Should be carefully introduced to both markets Danger of confusion

DE

TR

DE

TR

DE

15

TR
Source: Own Calculations

Results – Consumer Motivations
(5: Strongly agree, 4: Agree, 3: Neutral, 2: Disagree, 1: Strongly disagree) Source: Own Calculations

Turkey
List order 1 Average rating 4.64

Motivations
Health

Germany
Average rating 4.52 List order 1

2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4.61
4.50 4.36 4.27 4.23 4.16 4.13 4.00 3.92

Saving resources
Support organic movement / sustainability Food safety High quality Taste Environment Support local / small farmers Animal welfare Freshness

3.86
4.48 4.08 4.20 4.42 4.44 4.26 4.22 3.60

9
2 8 7 4 3 5 6 10

11

3.91
3.67 2.63

Positive image
Against big companies Fashion

3.53
3.44 2.56

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12 13

16

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Results – Consumer Barriers
(5: Strongly agree, 4: Agree, 3: Neutral, 2: Disagree, 1: Strongly disagree) Source: Own Calculations

Turkey
List order 1 2 Average rating 4.56 4.45

Barriers
Price Availability

Germany
Average rating 3.96 3.78 List order 1 2

3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

4.39
4.06 4.06 4.05 3.93 3.69 3.63 3.43 3.31 3.30 3.27 3.06

Assortment
Lack of media information Seasonality Income Durability Trust Regional origin Packaging Time to look for Recognition Appearance and taste Cooking conditions

3.42
<3 3.49 3.67 <3 <3 3.69 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3

6
5 4 3 -

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Conclusion
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Turkey; Need more research and development Production should be enlarged (to reduce high price, to raise availability and accessibility) Production aims should turn to domestic market Subsidies will be useful More organic shops should be established Both countries;

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Germany; Harmonisation of private labels Raising awareness of consumers to regional products should be taken into account! Discounts are overtaking the place of direct marketing from farms

•Should invest to inform consumers about certification and true labels

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•Demographic distributions and future product expectations are important for market actors

References
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Aksoy, U. 2002. Turkey. Report on Organic Agriculture in the Mediterranean Area – Mediterranean Organic Agriculture Network, Options Méditerranéennes, Series B: N°40, CIHEAM- IAMB, Bari. Al-Bitar (Ed.). p. 147 - 159. Babadogan, G. and Koc, D. 2005. Organik Tarım Ürünleri Dış Pazar Araştırması. IGEME, Turkey Bichler, B., Häring, A. M., Dabbert, S. and Lippert, C. 2005. ‘Determinants of Spatial Distribution of Organic Farming in Germany’. Paper presented at Researching Sustainable Systems, Adelaide/Australian, 21. - 23. 09. 2005, p. 304-307. ISOFAR / FIBL. 1 June 2007, available at: http://orgprints.org/6322/ BMELV, 2007. Verzeichnis der in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zugelassenen Kontrollstellen, 1 June 2007.available at: http://www.bmelv.de/cln_044/nn_750590/DE/04Landwirtschaft/OekologischerLandbau/VerzeichnisKontrollstellen.html BLE, 2006. At a glance information about the Bio-Siegel. Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE), Bonn, Germany. 1 June 2007, available at: http://www.oekolandbau.de/fileadmin/redaktion/bestellformular/pdf/BMVEL_Verbrau._engl_flyer.pdf Bolten, J., Kennerknecht R. and Spiller, A. 2006. Perspectives of small retailers in the organic market: Customer satisfaction and customer enthusiasm. Paper presented at 98. Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists EAAE, Crete, 29 June - 2 July 2006. 1 June 2007, available at: http://orgprints.org/10198/ Dempsey, T. 2007. Turkey. 1 June 2007, available at: http://www.photoseek.com/Turkey.html ETO, 2007. Ecological Agriculture in Turkey (in Turkish). Ecological Agriculture Organisation. 1 June 2007, available at: http://www.eto.org.tr/tureko.asp Güler, S., 2006. Organic Agriculture in Turkey. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture. OMU, Vol. 21, No.2. p. 238-242 Haccius, M. and Immo L., 2000. Organic Agriculture in Germany, Stiftung Ökologie & Landbau (SÖL), Bad Dürkheim, Germany. 15 June 2007, available at: http://www.organic-europe.net Hamm, U., and Gronefeld, F., 2004. The European Market for Organic Food: Revised and Updated Analysis. Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development: Volume 5, Aberystwyth, UK

References – cont.
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Kenanoğlu, Z. and Karahan, Ö. 2002. Policy implementations for organic agriculture in Turkey. British Food Journal, Vol. 104, No. 3/4/5, p. 300-318 Latacz-Lohmann, U. and Foster, C. 1997. From niche to mainstream strategies for marketing organic food in Germany and the UK. British Food Journal. Vol. 99, No. 8, p. 275-282 MARA, 2005. Organik Tarimin Esaslari Ve Uygulanmasina İlişkin Yönetmelik, Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. 15 June 2007, available at: http://www.tarim.gov.tr/uretim/organiktarim/organik.doc Padel, S. 2004. ‘Main Findings of the Delphi Survey on the market for organic food’ In: O. Schmid, J. Sanders, P. Midmore (Ed.), Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Vol.7, University of Wales Aberystwyth, UK, p.24-25 Rehber, E. and Turhan, S., 2002. Prospects and Challenges for developing Countries in trade and production of organic food and fibres - The case of Turkey, British Food Journal, Vol. 104 No: 3/4/5, p.371-390 Richter, T. 2005. ‘The Organic Market in Germany – Overview and information on market access, BLE. 15 June 2007, available at: http://www.oekolandbau.de/fileadmin/redaktion/bestellformular/pdf/031105.pdf Richter, T. and Hempfling, G. 2003. Supermarket Study 2002: Organic Products in European Supermarkets, FIBL. 10 June 2007, available at: http://orgprints.org/8356 Willer, H. 2007. Organic Agricultural Land and Farms in Europe, FIBL Survey 2007, 1 May 2007, available at: http://www.organic-europe.net/country_reports/germany/default.asp Zanoli, R. (ed), Baehr, M., Botschen, M., Laberenz, H., Naspetti, S., Thelen, E., 2004. The European Consumer and Organic Food. Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development: Vol. 4, Aberystwyth, UK ZMP, 2006. Marktüberblick. Oekomarkt Jahrbuch 2006. 1 May 2007, available at: http://www.oekolandbau.de/fileadmin/redaktion/dokumente/haendler/marktinformationen/zmp_jahrbuch _2006.pdf

THANK YOU

Nihan MUTLU
MSc “Organic Food Chain Management”


								
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