The City of Cape Towns Role in Creating a Better Life for All by mifei


									Understanding Bulk
An overview
Presented by: Sydney Holden and Gregory September Date: 23 November 2007 Compiled by: Sydney Holden Directorate: Strategy and Planning

Understanding Bulk
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Introduction Definitions Of Bulk and related informants Measurement / Calculation of Bulk / Floor Space Key Considerations in striving for Bulk Application of Bulk in the City: Some Examples International Practice / Trends towards Bulk Broader challenges relating to Bulk. Conclusion

Bulk and massing are used in many cities internationally to control the amount of construction in a particular area. This is usually done by using a certain formula for floor-to-area ratios – termed differently in different cities. In Cape Town, for instance, this is called the Permissible Floor Area Ratio, in New York the Floor Area Ratio or Floor Space Index, and in London Plot Ratios. The purpose of this paper is to provide some understanding on the concept of bulk. In Cape Town with increasing urbanization, land scarcity and land price escalation, the use of air rights in the form of increased bulk is a reality in our Central City Environs and adjacent areas of higher amenity and economic value.

Introduction (cont.)
However, a key driver of the concept of bulk is economic development and tourism. In this respect just a few pointers as it relates to Cape Town. Between 2003 and 2006 there has been a 4% growth Building Plans processed (48 000 plans in 2006). The growth in plan value has escalated by 85% over the same period from R6,5 billion to R12 billion. Between 1995 and 2006 the City contributed 16 % of National Growth and 82% of new Provincial Economic Growth. 22% of all economic activity takes place in the Central Business District whilst Cape Town, Bellville and Claremont support 46% of total Business Turnover and contain 42% of formal businesses in the City. The current population in the City stands at 3,27 million people. In the next 3 – 5 years there are already over R30 billion worth of private and public sector development projects in the Central Cape Town area that will impact on our economy.

Mapping impact of key development projects in the Cape Town Central City worth approximately R28,5bn over the next 3-5 years
Private sector Private sector
19. Harbour Bridge, Roggebaai (R180m) 20. Canal Quay, Roggebaai (R220m) 21. Cnr Riebeeck/ Bree – two sites 22. The Pulse (R600m) 23. T1, Strand/ Buitengracht 24. New Hotel, Buitengracht/ Wale 25. Wembley Square extension, Lower

V&A Waterfront expansion (multiple projects) 2. Jarvis House, Green Point (R300m) 3. De Waterkant Centre, Green Point (R100m) 4. Somerset Square, Green Point (R100m) 5. Cape Royal Hotel, Green Point 6. Strand on Adderley (R2,2bn) 7. Golden Acre upgrade (R475m) 8. 11 Adderley upgrade 9. Oscar Pearse Hotel (new - R220m) 10. Taj Hotel (new - R500m) 11. 106 Adderley commercial/ retail (R300m) 12. Cape Sun upgrade (R56m) 13. Townhouse Hotel/ Plein Park upgrade 14. Citroen Building (R90m) 15. Oval Institute (R12m) 16. Malgas/ Brian Porter site 17. Amway House site 18. Liebenberg and Stander Building

Gardens 26. Orangerie, lower Gardens (R180m) 27. 15 on Orange Hotel, Lower Gardens (R500m) 28. Creative House, Church Square 29. #4 Church Square (R20m) 30. Piazza on the Square (R70m) 31. Four Seasons, Buitenkant (R100m) 32. Temple House, Buitenkant 33. Ogilvy Building, Woodstock 34. The District, Woodstock 35. Boulevard, Woodstock 36. D6 Homecoming/ Sacks Futeran (R30m) 37. Desmond Tutu Peace Centre (R140m) 38. Erf 9 and 10, Jan smuts, Foreshore

Mapping impact of key development projects in the Cape Town Central City worth approximately R28,5bn over the next 3-5 years
Public sector / JVs
1. 2.

Public sector / JVs
15. Grand

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

13. 14.

Green Point Stadium (R3,2bn) Green Point Sport and Urban Park (R160m) Granger Bay Boulevard Somerset Hospital site Parliamentary extension (R750m) (Proposed) Parliamentary residential complex (R1,2bn) City Hall (R81m) Good Hope Centre (R50-75m) Granary Building (R35m) CT Station, phase one (R265m), phase two CT Harbour expansion (R4,5bn) Foreshore: Blocks A (City) B (Media 24) and C (PGWC) CTICC Expansion and hotel and office site (R680m) Site B, Old Power Station Site

Parade (R23,5m) 16. Greenmarket Square (R4m) 17. St Andrew‟s Square (R8m) 18. Pier Place (R2m) 19. Harrington Square (proposed) 20. Electricity network upgrade (R300m) 21. Inner City Transport Projects (R50m) 22. District Six 23. Salt River Market (R1m) 24. Social Housing projects: Woodstock, Bo Kaap 25. Fibre Optic Network rollout (phase one R50) 26. Iziko Social History Centre (R50m) 27. Drill Hall/ CT Library 28. Company‟s Gardens upgrade (R1m)

Definitions of bulk and related informants

Bulk in the City of Cape Town is governed by the following definitions: Actual Floor Area, in relation to a building, means the total floor area of such building, inclusive of areas covered by walls of such building. Permissible Floor Area, in relation to a site means the floor area which may not be exceeded by the actual floor area of buildings on such site. The permissible floor area shall be equal to the area of the site multiplied by a factor quantified for the use zone. In the City‟s proposed Integrated Zoning Scheme, the following term is used: Floor Factor: means the factor (expressed as a proportion of 1) which is prescribed for the calculation of maximum floor space of a building or buildings permissible in a land unit. If the floor factor is known, the maximum permissible floor space can be calculated by multiplying the floor factor by the area of the land unit.

City of The Johannesburg (Sandton) sum of the area covered by the buildings at definitions of bulk in some major “Floor area ratio” means the the floor level of each cities are: area, provided that in to site South Africanstorey in relation could be excluded. Exclusions: calculating the floor area certain areas roofs, staircases, parking areas etc. City of Mangaung (Bloemfontein) “Bulk” means the floor areas of all storeys of a building(s) on a site except that certain areas are excluded from this by the scheme. The maximum permissible floor area is expressed as a factor which is to be multiplied by the area of the site in each case, to obtain the said maximum. Exclusions: floor area used for parking, lift wells, staircases etc.

The definitions of bulk in some major South African cities are: (cont.)
Buffalo City (East London) "Maximum floor space" means the greatest total floor space which is allowed for a building or buildings with all of its floors on a site; such floor space is calculated by multiplying the floor factor with the net erf area of a site or that portion of the site which is situated within the particular zone; provided that where a site has more than one zoning to which different floor factors apply, the maximum floor space for the whole site shall be the total of the maximum floor space for each portion of the site. Exclusions include parking areas, external fire escape areas, stairs, balconies etc. “Floor factor” means the factor that is prescribed for the calculation of the maximum floor space of a building or buildings permissible on a land unit; it is the maximum floor space as a proportion of the net erf area.

The definitions of bulk in some major South African cities are: cont.
Generally speaking, a floor-to-area ratio is the ratio of the total floor area of buildings on a certain location to the size of the land of that location, or the limit imposed on such a ratio. The Permissible Floor Area Ratio is the total building square metres (building area) divided by the erf size square meterage (erf area). Thus, as a formula, floor-to-area ratio is the total covered area on all floors of all buildings on a certain erf. A floor-to-area ratio of 2.0 would indicate that the total floor area of a building is two times the gross area of the erf on which it is constructed. Certain exclusions usually apply. In Cape Town, for instance, this excludes „non habitable‟ space like corridors, lifts and stairs.
Plot size 100 sq. meters 100 sq. meters 200 sq. meters Building footprint 25 sq. meters Number of stories 4 Resulting floor-to-area ratio 1.0

100 sq. meters
100 sq. meters



Development Rules
Floor Space (Bulk) Height Coverage Building Lines Setback

Floor Space (Bulk)
Quantification of development rights Traffic & Service implications Bulk service levy Urban form implications

Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space
Different Zones and Sub Zones have different Bulk Factors General Residential Sub Zones (R1 – R12) Bulk Factor 0,4 – 5,6 Special Business Bulk Factor 1,0 General Business / Commercial (B1/ C1 – B4 / C4) Bulk Factor 1,2 – 5,6 General / Noxious Industrial Unlimited General Commercial / Business (C6 / B6) Unlimited The width of abutting streets can reduce your bulk factor for certain buildings, e.g. Places of assembly B4 / C4 / B5 / C5 General Business / Commercial

Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.)
Certain components of buildings are INCLUDED in the calculation of Floor Space: Portions covered by walls Floors / paved areas covered by portion of building Galleries and passages Floors of verandahs, porches, balconies Floors of terraces, flat roofs to which occupants have access Internal courtyards, light wells, uncovered shafts which do not exceed 10m² Lift shaft, stair shaft, pipe duct or other internal floor opening Area covered by roof, slab or projection Floor space measured from outer face of exterior walls Total floor space = sum of all floors and basements Stairs, atriums and common passages covered by roof

Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.)
Certain components of buildings are EXCLUDED in the calculation of Floor Space: Stoeps Entrance steps / landings Garages (parking and loading) Covered paved area outside / adjoining building at or below ground floor level Uncovered flat roof (recreation area) for occupants only and uncovered balcony which exceeds 10 m² Eaves, sun screen, architectural features Public arcade connecting public places

Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.)
Different uses can have different floor space calculations: Hotels EXCLUDE the following in the calculation of floor space: Dining Rooms, Banqueting Rooms. Public Foyers. Shops in Hotel for exclusive use of guests. Administration Offices. Kitchens. Store Rooms. Staff quarters.

Measurement / Calculation of bulk / floor space (cont.)
The calculation of floor space for blocks of flats is governed by – A habitable room factor


• Other critical informants relating to bulk are coverage, height, building lines, and street centre line set backs.

Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS)
In order to achieve consistency of measurement of floor space in arriving at bulk the proposed IZS is suggesting the following definition of floor space depicting certain exclusions: “Floor space” in relation to any building means the area of a floor which is covered by a slab, roof or projection; provided that: i. any area, including a basement, which is reserved solely for parking or loading or vehicles, shall be excluded: ii. external entrance steps and landings, any canopy, any stoep and any area required for external fire escapes shall be excluded: iii. a projection including a projection of eaves, and a projection which acts as a sunscreen or an architectural feature, which projection does not exceed 1,0 m beyond the exterior wall or similar support, shall be excluded;

Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) (cont.)
iv. v.


any uncovered internal courtyard, lightwell or other uncovered shaft which has an area in excess of 10 m² shall be excluded; any common pedestrian thoroughfare which provides access through the building concerned from parking, public street or open space, to some other parking, public street or open space, and which is accessible to the general public during normal business hours, shall be excluded; any covered paved area outside and immediately adjoining a building at or below the ground floor level, where such paved area is part of a forecourt, yard, external courtyard, pedestrian walkway, parking area or vehicular access, and which is permanently open to the elements on at least the front or long side, shall be excluded;

Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) (cont.)

viii. ix.


any covered balcony, verandah or terrace which, apart from protective railings, is permanently open to the elements on at least the front or long side, and which does not exceed 2,5 m in width, shall be excluded: subject to clause (ix), any stairs, stairwells and atriums that are covered by a roof shall be included; in the case of multi-level buildings, any stairwells, liftwells, lightwells or other wells, and any atrium, shall only be counted once; and provided further that: floor space shall be measured from the outer face of the exterior walls or similar supports of such building, and where the building consists of more than one level, the total floor space shall be the sum of the floor space of all the levels, including the basements

Integrated Zoning Scheme (IZS) (cont.)
It is essential to distinguish permissible floor area / floor space from gross leasable area; hence the IZS states; “Gross leasable area” means the area of a building designed for, or capable of, occupancy and control by tenants, measured from the centre line of the joint partitions to the inside finished surface of the outside walls, and shall exclude the following: i. all exclusions from the definition of floor space; ii. toilets, iii. lift shafts, service ducts, vertical penetrations of floors, iv. lift motor rooms and rooms for other mechanical equipment required for the proper functioning of the building; v. areas reasonably used in connection with the cleaning, maintenance and care of the building excluding dwelling units for caretakers, supervisors, cleaners or maintenance staff; vi. interior parking and loading bays;

Floor Space
Floor space vs gross leasable area Floor space = area covered by a slab, roof or projection - Measured from the outer face of exterior walls - Total floor space = sum of all floors + basements - Stairs, atriums & common passages covered by a roof are included Parking & balconies are excluded

Floor Space Exclusions
Balconies Eaves, sunscreen, architectural features Uncovered internal courtyard, light well Public arcade connecting public places Areas for parking & loading

Key considerations in striving for bulk
Site Area Zoning Development Parameters: (Height / Coverage / Building Lines / Parking) Title Deeds Servitudes (Services / Height) Geotechnics Road Widening Schemes Development Conditions (Sec. 42 (Lupo) Development Costs / Feasibility Analysis / Cost-Benefit / Value Policies (Overlays / Scenic Drives / Special Regulations) Impacts: Environmental / Heritage Visual / Daylight / Shadow Urban Design Aesthetics Public Realm Interface Scale / Context Wind Tunneling Services Infrastructure Traffic Finance (Development Contributions) Time / Development Horizon / Risk

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
TAJ PALACE HOTEL Hotels are regarded as “Bulk Friendly” in view of the significant areas of exclusion from Bulk Calculation / Measurement. Bulk Area permissible: 18 275m² Bulk used: 12 786m² Full bulk cannot be achieved in view of Building Line / Envelope setbacks. Note the retention of historic facades.

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
Waterfront Package of plans approach. Development Framework / Precinct Plans / Site Development Plans / Building Plans. Bulk Register Infra-structure Development at key stages. Approximately 40% of bulk still available. Biggest challenge (Traffic / Parking)

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
Century City Approved as Sub-divisional Area in terms of LUPO. Package of plans approach. Sub-divisional Area / Site Development Plan / Building Plan. Bulk Register. Bulk permitted is limited by the conditions approved by Council and conditions in Title Deed. Additional bulk can be purchased – Assessment.

(Based on approvals issued by the Municipality) SUMMARY OF CENTURY CITY BULK ALLOCATION
299720m²(TFA) 591180m²(TFA) 101000v.p.d 6000v.p.d 20000 seats 1000 bedrooms 1800 seats 3110 dwelling units

154160m²(TFA) 322808m²(TFA) 101000v.p.d 0v.p.d 2624 seats 273 bedrooms 0 seats 1801 dwelling units

145560m²(TFA) 268373m²(TFA) 0v.p.d 6000v.p.d 17376 seats 727 bedrooms 1800 seats 1309 dwelling units

(Based on approvals issued by the Municipality) SUMMARY OF CUMULATIVE BULK ALLOCATION
154160m²(TFA) CONVERSION EXISTING DEEMED TOTAL DEEMED DEEMED BULK FACTOR BULK ALLOCATION BULK APPROVED AVAILABLE (TFA) (TFA) (TFA) N.A. N.A. 101000v.p.d 0v.p.d 2624seats 273bedrooms 0seats N.A. N.A. 1 55 4.6 100 154160m² 322808m² 46535m² 0m² 2624m² 15015m² 0m² 180100m² 721242m² 299720m² 591180m² 46535m² 8429m² 20000m² 55000m² 8280m² 311000m² 1340144m² 145560m² 268373m² 0m² 8429m² 17376m² 39985m² 8280m² 130900m² 618903m²


RESIDENTIAL 1801dwellingunits TOTAL
NOTES: Note1: The following abbreviations are used: V.P.D refers to Visitors per Day. TFA refers to Total Floor Area. GLA refers to Gross Leasable Area.

Note2: These figures do not relate to the area West of Ratanga Road. Note3: Bulk is released in phases and the construction of specified infrastructure is required before additional bulk for a new phase may be released. The transport infrastructure & release of cumulative bulk for each phase is as stipulated in the following table.

CODE ERFNO DESCRIPTION APPROVED BULK/ FLOOR SPACE(MPFS) Source: City of CapeTown 4795 SHELL SERVICE STATION NOT APPLICABLE No bulk specified in the subdivision approval. Bulk allocation provided NOTES





2 Office:1504m

5029 5153 (Formerly 5033) 5037


Item (with notional FAF of 1.0)


Item (with notional FAF of 4.0)



Office: 3880m2


2 Office: 25000m



Office: 3425m 2 2 Retail: 130m Res: 1 Unit


5958 Formerly5173 &5508


2 2 118205m GLA (139065m TFA) 2 7848m GLA 2 GLA (10744m2 TFA) 9132m 2 3227m GLA 2 1600m GLA

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
Nedbank Foreshore Buildings that achieved prescribed bulk. Parking is bulk free. Offices require parking / office bulk being “sacrificed” for onsite, secure parking.

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
Shell House Buildings that achieved prescribed bulk. Parking is bulk free. Offices require parking / office bulk being “sacrificed” for onsite, secure parking.

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
2 Long Street Buildings that achieved prescribed bulk. Parking is bulk free. Offices require parking / office bulk being “sacrificed” for on-site, secure parking.

Application of Bulk in the City: Examples
Pier Place 2 Floors extra parking built. Indicative of parking demand to satisfy modern office requirements.

New York City
Zoning system: Incentive zoning / reward based system to meet urban development goals. Base level of limitations on development. Incentive criteria e.g. far bonuses for housing height bonuses for public amenities. Incentive zoning is complex to administer - can become discretionary. Revision of balance between incentive and value given.

New York City (cont.)
Definition of Bulk Bulk Regulations: Combination of controls that determine the maximum size and placement of a building on a zoning lot. Unused Development Rights (Air Rights): Difference between permissible and actual floor area. Transfer of Development Rights: Preservation of historic buildings Open space Cultural resources Usually across streets.

New York City (cont.)
Definition of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) Principal Bulk Regulation controlling the size of buildings. It is total building floor area to area of zoning lot. Flexibility in building design (combination of vertical and horizontal limits into single figure. The impact of floor area (parking / services) tends to be constant regardless of how that area is distributed horizontally and vertically.

Planning system uses Performance Zoning (effects based planning) Use is made of goal-oriented criteria to achieve credits public amenities building affordable housing Advantages: High level of flexibility, rationality, transparency and accountability. Performance zoning accommodates market principles / property rights with environmental protection. Disadvantages: Difficult to implement. Requires high level of discretion.

London (cont.)
Definition of Bulk Bulk is the combined effect of the arrangement, volume and shape of a building. Also called massing combined effect of: Height bulk and silhouette of a building (or) 3-dimensional expression of the amount of development on a given piece of land.

London (cont.)
Method of Control: Bulk controlled by Plot Ratios. Measurement on the overall dimensions of building or part of building below and above ground and includes internal and external walls. It includes stairs / lift shafts, corridors, halls, basements but excludes car / cycle parking accommodation. Inner urban areas Max. Plot Ratio 1,0 : 1 Outer urban areas Max Plot Ratio 0,6 : 1 Exceptions Townscape reasons. Contribute sustainable development Travel patterns

London (cont.)
Key Considerations: Massing should contribute to distinctive skylines. Overshadowing Local climatic conditions Views / vistas / landmarks Relationship with street Re-use of retained buildings / character of area.

London (cont.)
Future of London: Tall Buildings High buildings are part of regeneration. Relevant to master planning of areas with good public transport and capacity. Long distance orientation points. Criteria-based approach to the assessment of planning applications for the buildings.

Broader Challenges Relating to Bulk
Spatial Planning / Ordering: Urbanization Strategy / Growth Management / Regional Cooperation Densification Policy Urban Edge Policy Urban Design Policy Guidelines Creating Certainty and Consistency: Legislative Uniformity (Integrated Zoning Scheme) Political Endorsement / Public Participation Incentivization: Community Facilities Housing Public Places Upgrade Historic Precinct Upgrade Bulk Transfer (from Historical Precincts to Central City / Foreshore) Spatial Market Analysis (Market trends / tenant mix / nodes) Services Infrastructure Public Transportation

It is quite evident that maximum bulk is seldom achieved in the CBD environs of major South African cities; this largely being because of the lack of effective and efficient public transport systems and our reliance on private vehicle space at or close to places of employ. How many people can you effectively bring into the city without extending the peak flow of traffic beyond all reason. Currently 120 000 people converge on the city daily. (50% rail / 50% road) Previously bulk rates could be achieved as parking was not in such demand. Now 3,2 – 6,0 parking bays / 100 m² is required in order to tenant buildings in the CBD. What is however, encouraging is seeing the numerous buildings being re-developed with a significant emphasis on residential accommodation.

Conclusion (cont.)
Furthermore, heritage buildings form an important aspect of our rich culture in Cape Town and preservation of conservation-worthy buildings and facades must be factored into the future bulking of our city. Development is generally constrained by the Mountain Chain and Sea, this together with relatively small building blocks available for achieving big / tall buildings all adds to the challenge. The Central City Development Strategy involving both private and public sector and which encompasses, inter alia, infra-structure, urban design, public transport, city management of the public realm and planning requires rapid finalization and implementation in order to sustain the future economic growth of the City.

Conclusion (cont.)
Given the impetus of 2010 in the development and investment in the City – R30 billion over the next 3 – 5 years – it is essential that strategies be finalised and related guidelines / projects implemented. The compilation of an integrated zoning scheme incorporating the philosophies contained in policy / strategy will rationalise and standardize development zones and parameters and enable bulk regulations to be set which facilitate better urban form: whilst encouraging the re-development and/or protection of areas through overlay zones. Whereas the achievement of existing or increased bulk rights is certainly feasible and supported this should not be at the expense of our heritage resources, good urban design or sound spatial / locational criteria. An integrated and pragmatic approach is needed to integrate and balance the sustainable development of our City in achieving its strategic objectives – key in all of this with respect to bulk is PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS.

For more information:
Sydney Holden Cell: 084 629 3328 E-mail: Gregory September Cell: 084 499 4923

Transportation Initiatives
With respect to Public Transportation initiatives, the following is evident: Challenges: Improving public transport for the FIFA 2010 World Cup is the City‟s main priority in this five year plan. To improve and promote public transport the City plans large-scale investment in public transport infrastructure and an implementation action plan for the City is in the final stages of production. Existing public transport priority lanes will be enforced and new ones introduced.

Transportation Initiatives
Achievements: The following statutory plans have been approved: Public Transport Plan (PTP) 2006 – 2011, Integrated Transport Plan (ITP) 2006 – 2011; strategic transport plans aligned to the City‟s 5-year Integrated Development Plan. Public Transport Implementation Action Plan has been developed. Plan outlines a list of projects, timeframes, budgets and responsibilities in 3 phases: catalytic projects for 2007 – 2010, 2010 – 2014 and 2014 – 2020. External Funding: the City has allocated R766 m from Public Transport Infrastructure & Systems Fund (PTISF) for the next 3 years. Priority on improvements in public transport, non-motorized transport and 2010 Event transport supporting infrastructure, systems and services.

Transportation Initiatives
Achievements (cont.): A Transport Capital Investment Management System has been developed to co-ordinate and manage all transport projects being implemented by key stakeholders – airports, rail, road upgrades, etc. Projects under construction include: Metropolitan Transport Information Centre (MTI)Upgrade; Symphony Way Corridor; Airport – City Link projects which include N2 freeway upgrade, Klipfontein Corridor, Stadium and CBD link projects. Current Secured funding for all transport infrastructure including rail, airport, strategic road upgrades is approximately at R5,5 bn.

Transportation Initiatives
Public Sector Collaboration: An obstacle is the current fragmentation of roles and functions between the different spheres of government and other agencies. An Intergovernmental Transport Committee has been established to address current fragmentation of roles and functions and to facilitate integrated collaborative approach to service deliver. Single Point of Authority for transport is in progress with the main focus on public transport operations and the establishment of a public transport entity.

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