Honey in Non-Alcoholic Juice Beverages

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					N a t i o n a l

H o n e y

B o a r d

F o o d

T e c h n o l o g y

P r o g r a m

Honey in Non-Alcoholic Juice Beverages
Summary of a research project funded by the National Honey Board and conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Investigator: M.B. Preston

Background Ergogenic, organic, “all-natural”, nutraceutical–these buzzwords often bring success to products whose labels display them. In this age of ever-growing awareness of functional, natural foods, both honey and herbs are favorites among consumers interested in health. Teas, herbal drinks, fruitbased drinks and sodas sweetened with honey are growing in popularity. In these nonalcoholic beverages, honey serves as a carbohydrate/high energy source and provides flavor, sweetness, color and mouthfeel. However, the market for combining honey with botanical ingredients remains relatively untapped. Objectives The goal of this project was to develop two fruit juice beverages containing honey and botanicals. Juice beverages containing ginseng or chamomile and sweetened with honey would have great appeal to today’s consumers. The two main objectives of this project were 1) to formulate two different types of non-alcoholic beverages utilizing honey as the sole sweetener source and 2) to characterize the effects of the addition of liquid clover honey on non-alcoholic juice beverages. Specific objectives were as follows:




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To formulate two nonalcoholic beverages: a cranberry juicebased beverage and a lemon juice-based beverage each containing a botanical ingredient To determine the effect of honey on bitterness and acidity in juice beverages over time To determine the effect of honey on the modification or intensification of desirable flavors in nonalcoholic juice beverages over time To determine the effect of honey on maintaining color stability over time To determine processing parameters which produce microbiologically stable products To describe (where possible) the mechanism(s) by which honey may affect mouthfeel, flavors, flavor modification or potentiation, clarity, color and microbial stability and potential methods to overcome any adverse effects encountered in product formulation To determine consumer acceptance through sensory analysis

Phase 1: Formulation Beverage Formulation Cranberry juice and lemonadetype beverages were developed. Both beverages were formulated with fruit juice as a base. Each juice drink contained vitamin C and the tart flavors were a pleasant complement to the sweetness of honey. The botanicals used in the cranberry juice-based beverage were guarana and ginseng. Guarana has a high caffeine content, providing a “boost” to the central nervous system, while ginseng provides a counter effect and produces an adaptogenic effect. The lemon juice beverage contained chamomile, which produces a calming effect. The juice-based beverages were diluted to a lower percent soluble solids content (oBrix) with distilled water. Concentrated, unsweetened cranberry juice (oBrix: 50 + 0.1) was diluted to standard strength (oBrix: 7.5). Unsweetened, single-strength lemon juice was used. Both beverages were sweetened with liquid, grade A, white clover honey and combined with botanical extracts. Extensive flavor development in both beverages was necessary. Several flavors were evaluated before finalizing

The processing parameters utilized for this project may be feasible for any size of manufacturer, from the entrepreneur to the large food processor.

the finished prototypes (Tables 1 and 2). Table 1. Honey Cranberry Juice Beverage Formulation
Ingredient Cranberry Juice (7.5° Brix) Liquid, Grade A, Clover Honey Water Ginseng Stock (1x) Cranberry Flavor Guarana Stock (1.0 percent) Percent 56.00 28.25 14.12 0.99 0.50 0.14

Table 2. Honey Lemon Juice Beverage Formulation
Ingredient Water Liquid, Grade A, White Clover Honey Lemon Juice (Single Strength) Chamomile Fluid Extract Lemon Flavor Chamomile Flavor Percent 66.73 17.36 14.67 0.99 0.20 0.05

Shelf-life studies were conducted to evaluate color, pH, percent soluble solids, clarity, sedimentation and microbial stability. The two honey-sweetened juice-based products were processed and stored for 6 months at 70 °F in the dark. Samples were evaluated and analyzed in triplicate at day 0, 3 months (90 days) and 6 months (180 days). Color analysis and results Beverage color was evaluated using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-300 programmed for the Hunter Lab Color System (Minolta Corporation, Instrument Systems, Ramsey, NJ). The Hunter Lab Color system determines values for perceived color. Lightness is expressed as a “L” value, while “a” and “b” values indicate chromaticity coordinates. Lightness was expressed as dark to light with 0=black and 100=white. Green to red was expressed by the “a” value. A more positive value represented red, while a more negative value represented green (-80=green, 100=red). Blue to yellow was expressed by the “b” value. A more positive value represented yellow and a more negative value represented blue (Tables 3 and 4). Table 3. Color Analysis Results for Honey Lemon Beverage
Day 0 90 180 Lvalue 22.77 15.27 24.28 aValue 1.13 2.13 0.45 bValue 1.77 4.95 2.80

Lemon juice beverage pH=2.95 and percent soluble solids (°Brix)=16.00 Standard guarana extract contains 10% caffeine. The target level for guarana is 250 to 500 milligrams per serving, or 2.5 milligrams to 10milligrams of caffeine per serving. Therefore, the guarana was diluted to !% caffeine (1 part standard extract to 9 parts water). The amount of stock solution used was based upon the dilution and desired target levels. Beverage production During the formulation phase, the beverages were mixed cold and held refrigerated until evaluation. However, for shelf life studies the beverages were mixed and pasteurized. Prior to mixing with water, flavors and botanicals, the honey was heated to facilitate blending. The blended beverages were pumped through a coil pasteurizer, using a Masterflex pump, and heated to 165 °F. The processing temperature of 165 °F was determined in relation to the pH of the prototypes and was sufficient for pasteurizing both beverages. The pasteurized product was filled hot into clean, eight-ounce glass jars. The jars were capped using a plastisol-lined cap, inverted and allowed to cool. The processed samples were stored upright in the dark at 70 ºF. Phase II: Shelf-Life Studies

Cranberry juice beverage pH=2.70 and percent soluble solids (°Brix)=27.50 The colors of the guarana and ginseng extracts were very dark and did not present a problem in the dark-colored cranberry juice. However, in the lighter-colored lemon juice beverage, the chamomile extract turned the beverage a dark, gray-brown color. A fluid extract of chamomile (a much lighter-colored extract) was obtained and the color problem was resolved. The standard extracts of guarana and ginseng were extremely concentrated, requiring preparation of stock solutions to facilitate handling and weighing. Concentration of standard ginseng extract is 5:1 or 5x. According to recommendations from the botanical manufacturer, the target level for ginseng is 3000 milligrams per 10 ounce serving of juice beverage. Therefore, a 1x concentration stock solution was developed (four parts water were added to one part extract).

Table 4. Color Analysis Results for Honey Cranberry Beverage
Day 0 90 180 Lvalue 15.46 20.10 14.17 aValue 4.88 0.81 7.83 bValue 3.55 1.59 1.33

of refraction defines the concentration of a solute in a solution. The refractive index of the lemon and cranberry juices did not change in both beverage systems during storage (Table 6). Table 6. Percent Soluble Solids for Honey Lemon and Honey Cranberry Beverages
Day 0 90 180 Lemon °Brix Value 15.84 15.50 15.94 Cranberry °Brix Value 27.13 28.14 27.91

amount of sedimentation increased for lemon and cranberry samples over time (Table 8). The greatest amount of sedimentation was observed on day 180 for both beverages. However, less sedimentation was found in the lemon-based beverage. Table 8. Sedimentation for Honey Lemon and Honey Cranberry Beverages
Day 0 90 180 Lemon (mm) 0.00 2.83 3.50 Cranberry (mm) 0.00 6.16 7.33

pH analysis and results An Orion ionAnalyzer, model EA 920, with a Ross Sure-flow combination glass body electrode, was used for pH studies (Table 5). The Ross Sure-flow electrode provided a free-flowing sleeve junction designed for measurements of viscous or colloidal samples. The pH meter was calibrated utilizing standard solutions of pH 7.0 and 4.01. As expected, pH of the beverage systems did not change during storage. Table 5. pH Results For Honey Lemon and Honey Cranberry Beverages
Day 0 90 180 Lemon Beverage pH Value 2.93 2.91 2.77 Cranberry Beverage pH Value 2.70 2.68 2.56

Clarity analysis and results Clarity of juice samples was evaluated with a Lambda 3 DoubleBeam UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (a electoroptical mechanical instrument utilizing a reflecting Littrow monochromator, Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT). The spectrophotometer was set at 650 nm wavelength. Distilled water was used as a reference for zeroing. Samples were placed in cuvettes, inserted into the sample port and measurements were recorded. Clarity was not effected in the lemon and cranberry beverages during storage (Table 7). Table 7. Clarity of Honey Lemon and Honey Cranberry Beverages
Day 0 90 180 Lemon (absorbency) 0.54 0.63 0.59 Cranberry absorbency) 1.14 1.66 1.22

Percent Soluble Solids Analysis and Results Percent soluble solids (refractive index) of the beverages samples were measured in °Brix using a ReicherJung hand-held refractometer (model 10431, Cambridge Instruments, Buffalo, NY). Brix (range 0-50 degrees) was measured in sucrose equivalents by placing a drop of sample on a prism. Refractometry is when a ray of electromagnetic radiation strikes a flat surface at an angle. The ray may be bent upward (reflected) or bent downward (refracted). The amount

Microbial Analysis and Results Beverage samples were analyzed for lactic acid content and yeast and mold growth during six-month storage. Microbial analysis provides valuable information about the effectiveness of pasteurization in beverage production and the effect of time on beverage stability. As expected, microbial counts for all test dates were below detectable levels, indicating the beverage systems were stable during storage. Results revealed there was minimal microbial load present in the fruit beverages (Tables 9 and 10).

Table 9. Microbial Analysis Sedimentation Analysis and Day Results Sedimentation was analyzed by measuring the thickness of 0 sediment at the bottom of 90 180 beverage containers (beverage samples were stored in eightounce clear glass containers). The
Lactic Acid (CFU/ml) zero zero zero Mold Counts (CFU/ml) <10 <10 <10 Yeast Counts (CFU/ml) *3.3 x 101 zero zero

Results for Honey Lemon Beverage *One of the triplicate samples resulted in an unusually high value. The other two samples resulted in zero yeast growth. Table 10. Microbial Analysis Results for Honey Cranberry Beverage

*Where 9=like extremely, 5=neither like nor dislike and 0=dislike extremely. Means with different number superscripts in a column are significantly different at p=0.05.

Appearance was the only attribute that indicated a significant loss (p<0.05) of acceptability over storage time in the cranberry beverage. Day Lactic Mold Yeast All other attributes Acid Counts Counts demonstrated the same trend (CFU/ml) (CFU/ml) (CFU/ml) as seen in the lemon0 <10 <10 <10 chamomile beverage 1 90 zero zero 1.0x10 Acceptability was optimal on 180 zero zero <10 day 90 of storage. The differences in the cranberry Phase III: Sensory Analysis beverage were all significant (p<0.05) A modified hedonic scale was over time (Table 12). used to determine overall liking Conclusions and acceptability of appearance, texture, flavor and overall acceptability in the lemon and *Where 9=like extremely, 5=neither cranberry beverages. Beverage like nor dislike and 0=dislike samples were also evaluated for extremely. Means with different specific attributes such as lemon number superscripts in a column are and chamomile flavors (lemonsignificantly different at p=0.05. chamomile beverage) or cranberry flavor (cranberry Honey-sweetened, nonalcoholic beverage). Two sensory panels beverages combined with botanicals analyzed 2 samples of each were successfully produced. Shelf-life beverage on test days–giving a studies revealed very little change in total of 4 replications. Significant beverage color, pH, percent soluble differences (p<0.05) were found in solids and clarity during six month the general flavor and the storage. The amount of sedimentation chamomile flavor for the honey, increased in both beverages over lemon-chamomile beverage. The time. However the lemon-chamomile flavor attribute was found to be beverage had less sedimentation more acceptable on day 90. On compared to the cranberry beverage. day 180 the flavor acceptability Both beverages were decreased to that found on day 0. microbiologically stable during The acceptability of the chamomile storage. Sensory analysis revealed the lemonflavor increased (p<0.05) on day chamomile and cranberry juice drinks 90 and this level of acceptability were acceptable for 180 days, with was still present on day 180. All the highest degree of acceptability at other attributes increased 90 days. numerically on day 90 and then decreased on day 180. However, the values were not significantly different (Table 11). The data indicate optimum storage time at 70 °F for the lemon-chamomile beverage was 90 days.

Table 11. Least Square Means for Attribute Acceptability of Honey Lemon Beverage
Appearance Day 0 90 180 6.12 6.31 6.22 Texture 6.49 6.81 6.68

Flavor 5.801 6.442 6.181, 2

Lemon 5.97 6.43 6.24

Chamomile 5.641 6.222 6.232

Overall 6.02 6.47 6.27

Table 12. Least Square Means for Attribute Acceptability of Honey Cranberry Beverage
Day 0 90 180 Appearance 7.131 6.562 6.163 Texture 6.521 6.822 6.291

Flavor 5.581 6.572 6.031

Cranberry Flavor 5.791 6.922 6.231

Overall 5.681 6.532 6.132

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