America’s Beverages Bottled Water and Water Beverages Many Americans appreciate the convenience and portability of bottled water and water beverages. In fact, they are now an intrinsic part of the nation’s beverage consumption patterns. Products made by the beverage industry include bottled waters, such as spring, purified, sparkling and mineral waters, as well as flavored waters, enhanced waters, fortified waters and fitness waters. While all of these products are convenient due to their portability, each also provides the consumer with something essential—hydration. www.ameribev.org History The origins of bottled water products can be traced back to the earliest civilizations. Well aware of water’s health benefits, the Romans searched for and developed drinking water sources as they set about establishing their empire. According to legend, after crossing the Pyrenees, Hannibal, the famous general of the Carthaginian army, rested his troops and elephants at Les Bouillens in France, the location of the Perrier mineral water spring. Our nation has its own long tradition of bottled water with brands such as Mountain Valley, Poland Spring,® Deer Park® and Arrowhead® dating back more than 100 years. Additionally, leading bottled waters such as Aquafina® and Dasani® were introduced in 1997 and 1999, respectively. With the bottled water category constantly growing, other brands currently available include Dejà Blue and Nestlé Pure Life.® As more and more people are recognizing the health benefits and convenience of bottled water, the market for these products has grown substantially. From 1997 to 2005, per capita consumption of bottled water increased by 90 percent to 25.4 gallons—17 percent of nonalcoholic beverage consumption.1 As people continue to choose convenient and portable beverages to maintain hydration, beverage companies have introduced innovative products such as flavored waters, enhanced waters, fortified waters, vitamin waters and fitness waters to meet growing consumer demand. Ingredients Bottled water isn’t born that way. So just how does it get into the beverage container? There are many different answers because there are different types of bottled water. To comply with government regulations, bottled waters must meet certain well-defined standards. For example, purified waters (such as Aquafina® from PepsiCo, Dasani® from The Coca-Cola Company and Nestlé Pure Life® from Nestlé Waters North America) start mainly with municipal sources and are created through highly sophisticated purification systems, such as distillation, deionization and reverse osmosis, all of which are designed to remove impurities and enhance the taste and flavor profile. Likewise, a significant investment is made in developing, maintaining and testing spring water sources for bottled spring water, examples of which are products from Nestlé Waters North America, including Poland Spring,® Arrowhead,® Ozarka,® Zephyrhills,® Deer Park® and Ice Mountain.® Did you know that... 70 percent of what people drink today comes in bottles or cans. Bottled water is part of that, providing a healthful and convenient way to stay hydrated. Additional Resources • American Beverage Association http://www.ameribev.org • International Bottled Water Association http://www.bottledwater.org • International Life Sciences Institute http://www.ilsi.org • Institute of Medicine http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3788/3969/18495.aspx Additionally, many bottled water companies provide information on the label or through the company’s toll-free number or Web site for information on original sources of their water. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a Standard of Identity so consumers will understand the different categories of bottled water. They include: Type of Water Spring Water Standard of Identity Bottled water derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth. Spring water must be collected only at the spring or through a borehole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. Water that has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes while meeting the definition of purified water in the United States Pharmacopoeia may be labeled as purified bottled water. Other suitable product names for bottled water treated by one of the above processes may include “distilled water” if it is produced by distillation, “deionized water” if it is produced by deionization or “reverse osmosis water” if the process used is reverse osmosis. Bottled water containing not less than 250 parts per million total dissolved solids may be labeled as mineral water. Mineral water is distinguished from other types of bottled water by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source. Water that after treatment, and possible replacement with carbon dioxide, contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had as it emerged from the source. Bottled water from a well that taps a confined aquifer (a water-bearing underground layer of rock or sand) in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer. Bottled water from a hole bored, drilled or otherwise constructed in the ground, which taps the water aquifer. Did you know that... Benjamin Franklin was the first to import bottled water to the United States, placing his order in 1785. Purified Water Mineral Water Sparkling Bottled Water Artesian Water Well Water *The above definitions are found in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 165.110(a). Gaining in popularity, some bottled waters are enhanced with flavors or added vitamins and minerals, such as Fruit20, Aquafina® Alive,™ VitaminWater and Dasani® Flavors. Role in a balanced diet The human body is estimated to be between 60 and 70 percent water. To work properly, our bodies need adequate water and we can get it from the many foods and beverages we consume. According to the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER), some functions of water in the body include regulating body temperature, lubricating joints, carrying nutrients and oxygen to cells and helping to dissolve minerals and other nutrients to make them accessible to the body. Most healthy people adequately meet their daily hydration needs by letting thirst be their guide. About 80 percent of people’s total water intake comes from drinking water and beverages and the other 20 percent comes from food.2 Bottled water and water beverages can be ideal for everyone and fit into any balanced diet in appropriate portion sizes and calories. Calories Bottled waters have zero calories. However, some bottled water beverages, such as fitness, flavored or enhanced waters, may contain 10 to 60 calories per serving. As with any beverage, the calories contained in a bottled water beverage are listed on the nutrition facts panel. Questions & Answers Q: What is the difference between tap or municipal water and purified bottled water? A: Purified water is much more than just tap water. While purified water starts mainly with municipal sources, it is put through a rigorous purification process to remove any impurities, such as salts and chlorides, and enhance its freshness. The highly sophisticated purification process can include distillation, deionization and reverse osmosis. Bottled under sanitary conditions, purified water delivers safe, consistent and high-quality taste. Q: Is bottled water safe? A: The U.S. FDA strictly regulates bottled water, as do state agencies. FDA standards meet those set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public water systems, meaning all bottled water sold in the United States meets stringent standards regarding safety, quality and labeling. According to an article in FDA Consumer magazine, Henry Kim, Ph.D., a supervisory chemist at the FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages, said, “One thing consumers can depend on is that the FDA sets regulations specifically for bottled water to ensure that the bottled water they buy is safe.” Kim further added, “Generally, over the years, the FDA has adopted EPA standards for tap water as standards for bottled water. As a result, standards for contaminants in tap water and bottled water are very similar.” Q: Why is water so important? A: The human body is estimated to be between 60 and 70 percent water. Water plays a critical role in our overall health and wellness by helping to transport oxygen to our cells, regulate our body temperature, remove waste and move nutrients throughout our bodies, just to name a few. To work properly, our bodies need adequate water, which we can get from the many foods and beverages we consume. Q: Is there a recommendation for drinking fluids? A: Water is essential to life. In fact, at a 2007 conference of experts in the science of hydration, a consensus statement was agreed to that stated just that. Furthermore, this group agreed that consuming a variety of beverages, including bottled water and water beverages, can contribute to meeting the body’s daily water requirement. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the vast majority of healthy people adequately meet their daily hydration needs by letting thirst be their guide. In the 2004 IOM Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, the report did not specify exact requirements for water, but set general recommendations for women at approximately 2.7 liters (91 ounces) of total water— from all beverages and foods— each day, and men an average of approximately 3.7 liters (125 ounces daily) of total water. The panel did not set an upper level for water. Q: Do bottled water and water beverages contain nutrients such as vitamins and minerals? A: Depending on the source of the water contained in the product, as well as the processing methods (mineral water, distilled water, etc.), bottled water does not naturally contain vitamins. However, bottled water and water beverages may naturally, or by addition, have minerals present. Some water beverages also are fortified with various vitamins and other nutrients. Further, some varieties of bottled water and water beverages have added fluoride, which is beneficial to dental health. Q: Do bottled water beverages, such as fortified waters, offer health benefits? A: Some studies suggest that waters fortified with vitamins and minerals provide a ready source of needed nutrients. For example, bottled water and water beverages with added calcium may provide health benefits such as preventing bone loss.3,4,5,6 Q: What are examples of water beverages? A: Water beverages are bottled water products that may contain ingredients such as vitamins and minerals, flavoring, sweeteners, coloring, caffeine, herbs or additional ingredients. Q: Don’t bottled water containers have an environmental impact? A: Bottled water containers are 100 percent recyclable and account for less than one-third of one percent of the nation’s total municipal waste. Nevertheless, the beverage industry is making continued improvements to reduce its environmental footprint. For example, we are incorporating more recycled content into our packaging, reducing the plastic content of bottles and working to improve recycling rates. 1 U.S. Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Service. Amber Waves, June 2007. www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/June07/Findings/SoftDrink.htm 2 Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, 2004 http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3788/3969/18495.aspx 3 Bacciottini L, Brandi ML. Foods and new foods: the role of nutrition in skeletal health. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2004l;38(6 Suppl):S115-7. 4 Heaney RP. Absorbability and utility of calcium in mineral waters. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;84(2):371-4. 5 Bacciottini L, Tanini A, Falchetti A, Masi L, Franceschelli F, Pampaloni B, Giorgi G, Brandi ML. Calcium bioavailability from a calcium-rich mineral water, with some observations on method. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2004;38(9):761-6. 6 Garzon P, Eisenberg MJ. Variation in the mineral content of commercially available bottled waters: implications for health and disease. American Journal of Medicine. 1998;105(2):125-30. www.ameribev.org The beverage industry is committed to providing clear, consistent and factual information on all of its products and ingredients.