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FDR - Shadow of War

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					     FDR
The Shadow of War
Collective Security in 1920s
 VersaillesTreaty & L of N
 Wash. Disarmament Conf.
 Locarno Pact (1926)
 Kellogg-Briand (1928)
 War Debt Repayment
 Great Depression
American Foreign
Policy in the 1930s
London Economic
Conference (1933)
 66 nations meet in summer
 Purpose: Attack depression
  by:
 –Stabilizing currencies
 –Reviving international trade
 FDR   has second thoughts
  about the effect on our own
  recovery & sends a telegram
  killing the conference
 US one-sidedness increased
  global tensions & feelings of
  nationalism
 Shows Hitler & Mussolini that
  US will not intervene in Europe
Recognition of the
Soviet Union (1933)
 FDR   extends full diplomatic
  relations with the USSR
 Believed Russia could aid in
  the containment of Germany &
  Japan
 Plus wanted trade with the
  USSR
 Soviets  promised not to use
  propaganda in the US but
  they lied
 US loans to USSR did not
  materialize: bad credit risk
 US/USSR trade did not
  develop
 Conservatives condemned
  FDR
Philippine
Independence (1933)
 Depression    problems led to
  call for Philippine
  independence
 People tired of the expense
 Organized labor upset over
  low wage Filipino workers
 American   sugar producers
  wanted to restrict
  competition
 1934 bill called for
  Philippine independence
  following a 10-year
  transition period
 US wanted to retain our
  naval bases
Latin America: Good
Neighbor Policy
 Depression  lessened
  economic interest in
  Caribbean & Latin America
 FDR wanted Latin America
  to help guard western
  hemisphere from aggression
 1933: At 7th Pan American
  Conference the US
  repudiates the Roosevelt
  Corollary
 1934: US troops removed
  from Haiti
 1936: Panama given more
  independence from US
  influence
 1938:   Mexico
 –US oil properties seized & oil
  producers call for military
  intervention
 –FDR refuses & negotiates a
  settlement by 1941
 FDR’s Good
 Neighbor
 Policy made
 him very
 popular in
 Latin
 America
Reciprocal Trade
Agreements
 Secretary of State Cordell
 Hull believed in low tariffs
 & free trade
 Reciprocal   Trade Agreement
 Act (1934)
 –Gave president right to
  negotiate trade agreements &
  lower barriers by 50% without
  direct Senate approval
 Usedto chip away at the
 Hawley-Smoot Tariff
 Hullwill negotiate 21 pacts
 by 1939 which will bring
 better foreign relations for
 the US
World Turmoil in the
       1930s
 Rise   of Totalitarianism
 –1922: Mussolini in Italy
 –1924: Stalin in Russia
 –1933: Hitler in Germany
 –1930s: Militarists in Japan
Nazi Germany
Il Duce
Major Events of the
Early 1930s
 1932:   Manchurian Incident
 –Lytton Commission Report
  condemns Japan
 –Japan quits the League of
  Nations
 1934: Japan terminates the
  Washington Naval
  Agreement
 1935: Japan walks out of the
  London Naval Conference &
  begins building battleships
 1935: Italy invades
  Ethiopia & the League of
  Nations does nothing
 1936: Rome-Berlin Axis
  formed
Rome-Berlin Axis
US Isolationism &
    Neutrality
 US  fearful of involvement in
  global troubles
 Angry over the debt
  situation
 Hopeful that the oceans will
  keep us out conflicts
Nye Committee (1934)
 Investigatesrumors that the
  US arms manufacturers had
  made exorbitant profits from
  WW I
 Committee blames the war
  on “merchants of death” not
  German U-boats
The Neutrality Acts
 Congress
 passes a
 series of
 neutrality
 acts in 1935,
 ’36, & ‘37
 When  the president declares
 that a state of war exists no
 American citizen may:
 –sail on a belligerent ship
 –sell or transport munitions to
  either belligerent party
 –loan money to either side
Results of Laws
 Abandoned   the concept of
  “Freedom of the Seas”
 Weakened American foreign
  policy & armed forces
 Strengthened foreign
  dictators
Spanish Civil War
(1936)
 Fascist leader Francisco
  Franco leads a revolt
  against leftist republican
  government of the Loyalists
 War in Spain becomes a
  dress rehearsal for WW II
Death of a Loyalist
 Franco  aided by Nazi
  Germany & Italy
 Loyalists aided by the Soviet
  Union
 Soviet aid turns many
  people in America against
  the Loyalists
 Congress  imposed an
  embargo against both sides
 Franco, with German guns &
  planes, crushed the
  Loyalists
 Depression   & Isolationism
  led to a decline in American
  military strength
 FDR began to call for
  preparedness while
  pledging to keep us out of
  war
 1938 Congress passed a
  major Naval Appropriations
  bill
 Too little, too late
Appeasement Against
    Aggression
Japanese Aggression
 1937: Incident at the Marco
  Polo Bridge & Japanese
  invasion of China
 FDR did not invoke the
  Neutrality Act
 Arms can be sold to both
  sides
The Rape of Nanjing
 1937:FDR makes his
 “quarantine the aggressor”
 speech hinting at the need
 for an embargo against
 Japan
Quarantine the
 Aggressors
 Speech   leads to protests by
  isolationists
 FDR backs down on his
  rhetoric
Panay Incident (1937)
 Japanese  planes strafe &
  sink the American gunship
  Panay in China
 Americans agree to
  Japanese reparations &
  accept their apology
 Remember  the Panay?
 American citizens are
  harassed & beaten in China
German Aggression
 1935: Hitler institutes
  compulsory military service
 1936: German army
  reoccupies & arms the
  Rhineland
Reoccupation of the Rhineland
 1936: Kristal Nacht marks
  the beginning of anti-Jewish
  pogroms in Germany
 1938: Anschluss - Germany
  annexes Austria
  Hitler
Explains…
Munich Conference
(1938)
 Germany  seeks control of
  the Sudetenland in
  Czechoslovakia
 Munich Conference called to
  halt German aggression
The Sudentenland
 Czechoslovakia   is sold out
  at Munich & Germany gets
  the Sudetenland
 Neville Chamberlain of
  Great Britain declares it
  means “peace in our time”
Peace in Our
  Time...
 To history it is seen as
  appeasement & weakness
 1939: Czechoslovakia
  invaded by Germany
Czechs Welcome
   the Nazis
World War II Begins
 August 1939: USSR &
 Germany sign the Molatov-
 Ribbentrop Pact agreeing
 to non-aggression
 –Secret Clause: German-
  Russian division of Poland
Hitler
  &
Stalin
 September
 1, 1939:
 Germany
 invades
 Poland
 beginning
 World War II
Poland Falls
                               POLAND   POLAND


RHINELAND   SUDETENLAND

                       CZECHOSLOVAKIA


             AUSTRIA
 In3 weeks the German
 Blitzkrieg defeats the Polish
 army
  –Luftwaffe, Panzers, Infantry
 France& Great Britain
 declare war on Germany
 FDR  declares the neutrality
 acts are in effect but calls
 Congress into special
 session to seek aid for the
 allies
Neutrality Act of 1939
 European democracies
 would be able to purchase
 American war goods but
 only on a “cash & carry”
 basis
 Roosevelt given the power
 to declare danger zones in
 which Americans could not
 travel & merchant ships
 could not trade
 Sales of US war goods
  bring to an end the
  recession begun in 1937
 December 1939: FDR calls
  US to be “Arsenal of
  Democracy” in fireside chat
The Phony War ends
 From   fall of Poland until
  April 1940, Germany backs
  off & repositions its troops
 Period called the
  “Sitskrieg”
 1939:   Winter War
 –USSR invades Finland
 –US grants $30 million in aid
  but Finland falls to Russia
 April1940: Germany
  invades Norway & Denmark
 May 1940: Germany invades
  Holland & Belgium
 June1940: Germany & Italy
 invade France
 –British forces barely able to
  retreat from the continent at
  Dunkirk
 –France falls
 –“Vichy France” established
Nazis March into Paris
Parisians Welcome the Nazis
 Britain is all that stands in
  the way of Fascist control of
  Western Europe
 September 1940: Tripartite
  Pact signed
  between
  Berlin, Rome,
  & Tokyo
Battle of Britain
London
Burns…
1940: Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium,
Netherlands and France
US Response
 to the War
Neutrality Wanes
 US begins preparing for war
  as Congress appropriates
  $37 billion for military
  expansion
 1940: Selective Service Act
 –1st peacetime draft in America
 –1.2 million troops per year
The Draft Begins
 Havana   Conference (1940)
 –Makes the Monroe Doctrine a
  unilateral declaration of all
  western hemisphere states
 FDR transfers surplus
 American war goods
 through dummy
 corporations to the British
 Committeeto Defend
 America by the Aiding the
 Allies
 –Called for “all aid short of
  war” & sought to help Britain
 America   First Committee
 –Isolationist group whose
  motto was the “yanks are
  not coming”
 –Leading spokesman was
  Charles Lindbergh
 –“Fortress America”
The Yanks
 Aren’t
Coming...
Destroyers for Bases
Swap (1940)
 September   2: FDR
 negotiates to transfer 50
 WW I vintage destroyers to
 Britain for naval bases
 extending from Nova Scotia
 to South America
American Destroyers
 FDR  does this without
  consulting or getting
  approval from Congress
 Many isolationists & anti-
  Roosevelt Republicans
  protest FDR’s tactics
 Publicopinion polls show
 that the majority of
 American’s favor aiding
 the British -- “short of war”
The 1940 Election
 Republican   front runners
 are:
 –Robert Taft of Ohio (son of
  the ex-president)
 –Thomas E. Dewey of NY
The Nomination goes
to:
 Ex-Democrat   Wendell Wilkie
 of Indiana
 –Liberal Wilkie called the
  “rich-man’s Roosevelt”
Roosevelt Shatters the
Precedent
 FDR declares that although
 he yearns for retirement, the
 crisis in Europe requires his
 service
 Wilkieagrees with FDR’s
 policies & so is not a major
 alternative
FDR’s pledge to the Mothers
 Rooseveltmakes a speech
 in which he declares:
   –“Your boys are not going to
    be sent into any foreign
    wars.”
 He had also pledged to balance
  the budget
 Roosevelt  wins another
  landslide: 449 to 82
 Not as great as in ‘32 or ‘36,
  but Congress still remains
  Democratic
 FDR’s real opponent was
  Adolf Hitler
Lend-Lease (1941)
 FDR decided to lend & lease
 American equipment to
 Britain
 –He likened it to giving a
  neighbor your garden hose to
  put out a fire
–Isolationist Robert Taft
 likened it to chewing gum -
 you don’t want it back
 Congress   agrees with FDR’s
  pledge to make America the
  “Arsenal of Democracy”
 America makes an economic
  declaration of war eventually
  totaling $50 billion
Hitler gets the message:
 May21, 1941: German
 submarine torpedoes the
 Robin Moor, a US
 merchant ship
Hitler Invades Russia
 Hitler’sneed for oil & quest
  for lebensraum leads to a full
  scale invasion of the USSR
 June 22, 1941: Hitler
  launches Operation
  Barbarossa - the crushing of
  Russia
Operation Barbarossa:
Hitler’s Biggest Mistake
 FDR   sends aid to the
  Soviets to preserve Russia
  to fight Germany
 We began a lend-lease
  program that would
  eventually top $11 billion
         forces
 Hitler’s
 stopped at the
 gates of
 Moscow
Atlantic Conference
 August  1941: FDR &
  Churchill meet on a
  destroyer off Placentia Bay,
  New Foundland
 Announce the eight-point
  Atlantic Charter
 FDR &
Churchill
The Atlantic Charter
 Called for Self-Determination
  & an end to Imperialism
 Disarmament & the creation
  of system of general
  security: (United Nations)
 1941:  FDR used his powers
  as Commander-in-Chief to
  order navy ships to convoy
  merchant ships as far as
  Iceland
 Hitler orders his ships to
  strike in “self-defense”
The Shootin’ Commences
 September  1941: USS
 Greer fired on
 –FDR orders to “shoot on
  sight”
 October 1941: The Kearney
 lost 11 men
The Reuben James
        30, 1941: The
 October
 Reuben James sunk with
 100 Americans dead
 –Congress votes to end the
  Neutrality Acts
 –Merchants could arm & enter
  war zones
Pearl Harbor
 1940: US sets embargoes
  on Japan
 1941: Japanese assets in
  US frozen & all gasoline
  shipments end
Extent of
Japanese
Control,
  1941
 Japan  sets its sights on
  Southeast Asian oil fields
 Nov-Dec 1941: US & Japan
  negotiate a solution to the
  pending crisis
 State Department insists
  that Japan quit China
 US  cracks Japanese secret
  code & knows an attack is
  imminent
 FDR believes the attack
  will be on the Philippines
Pearl Harbor
 December 7, 1941:
“A day that will live in
      infamy”
 Japan attacks Pearl
       Harbor
 Sunday, 7:55 a.m. -
  Japanese bombers attack
  Pearl Harbor
 19 US ships (6 battleships) &
  150 planes destroyed
 2403 US dead
 Japanese  envoys are
 delayed delivering
 message of war to White
 House & come after word
 has reached Washington
 of the attack
 December   8, 1941: FDR
  appears before joint
  session of Congress
  declaring December 7 "a
  day that will live in infamy”
 Congress votes to declare
  war on Japan
FDR signs
declaration
  of war

				
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