1950 sCold War

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					The 1950s, The Cold War and
      Korea…oh my!
     Lovingly presented by…
   Mr. Mosqueda (and of course,
           Mrs. Drake)
                     The Costs of WWII
•   50-70 million dead worldwide, 400,000
    American deaths
•   An estimated $ 1 trillion dollars =
    financial cost of WWII ($341 billion
    spent by U.S.
•   Soviet Union suffered the greatest
    losses (20+ million deaths) but was
    united by Joseph Stalin under a
    communist regime.
•   Much of Europe and Japan lay in ruins
    and required rebuilding.
     –   5 billion cubic yards of rubble lay in
         Germany
•   Britain, France, Germany, and Japan
    no longer great military powers
•   United States and Soviet Union (two
    nations best at defeating Hitler)
    become two competing world powers
     –   Democracy vs. Communism
 Potsdam Conference (1945)
• President Truman meets with
  Joseph Stalin (USSR) and
  other world leaders to discuss
  what to do with defeated
  Germany.
• Decided the German economy
  must recover, or else total
  devastation across Europe
• Truman was afraid of
  Communism spreading across
  Europe.
• Germany divided into four
  temporary zones of occupation
  administered by the United
  States, USSR, Britain, and
  France until Germany was
  rebuilt.
Potsdam Conference (1945)
• Joseph Stalin wanted revenge on
  Germany and demanded severe
  reparations.
• Truman offered Stalin a deal
  where he could get some
  reparations but he would have to
  donate food and supplies to the
  German people.
• Truman learned of the successful
  test of the atomic bomb (Trinity
  Test) and told Stalin about it.
   – Stalin felt bullied into accepting
     the deal.
   – Created tension between USA
     and USSR.
United Nations
• Replaced the League of Nations,
  which failed after WWI because
  the United States did not join.
• Purpose: “bring all nations of the
  world together to work for peace
  and development, based on the
  principles of justice, human dignity
  and the well-being of all people.”
• The United Nations came into
  existence on Oct. 24, 1945, with
  51 member countries and its
  headquarters in New York City.
• By 2007, the UN was made up of
  192 countries who all agree to
  abide by its rules and support its
  goals.
The Marshall Plan
• Europe was facing major
  economic problems.
• U.S. Secretary of State
  George Marshall
• Plan to rebuild Europe
  (1947)
  – Restore a working
    economy and fight against
    hunger and poverty
  – U.S. contributed $13
    billion in aide.
Rebuilding of Japan
•   All major cities (except Kyoto) in
    Japan were devastated with food
    shortages lasting years.
•   The United States temporarily
    occupied Japan until 1952 to
    oversee recovery efforts and the
    writing of a new Japanese
    constitution.
     – Japanese Emperor Hirohito lost all
       political and military power; made
       a mere symbol of the country
     – Right to vote given to all Japanese
       citizens
     – Human rights guaranteed
     – No army or warfare allowed
•   War crimes trials held with
    hundreds executed for war crimes
                   Nuremberg Trials
•   An International Military Tribunal
    was set up by the U.S., USSR,
    Britain, and France to try former
    Nazis for war crimes committed
    during the war.
•   24 Nazis were accused and
    tried for such things as crimes
    against peace, waging
    aggressive warfare, and war
    crimes.
•   These trials established the fact
    that, even in war, murder, rape,
    and unnecessary force are
    crimes.
Creation of Israel
• UN recommends a new country
  (state) to be created near Palestine
  as a Jewish homeland.
    – Occupied by British troops
    – Arab lands taken when new
      boundaries are drawn
• Arab countries did not allow new
  nation and promised war.
• State of Israel declared May 14,
  1948
    – David Ben-Gurion becomes Prime
      Minister
    – USA (Truman) immediately
      recognized Israel’s independence
      as a new nation.
        • US remains a strong supporter
          of Israel, angering many Islamic
          nations.
Creation of Israel – UN Plan
              •   Israel to be divided between Arabs
                  (Muslims) and Israeli Jews
                  according to map at left with the
                  holy city of Jerusalem being
                  administered by a neutral
                  international commission.
              •   In spite of plan, the territories are
                  disputed by both Arabs and Jews.
              •   1967 – In the Six Day War, Israel
                  seized the West Bank and Gaza
                  Strip from Palestinians, causing
                  ongoing violence between the
                  groups. These regions were
                  occupied by Israel until 2005 when
                  Israel gave up the Gaza Strip and
                  the northern part of the West Bank
                  to Palestians.
Dewey Defeats Truman
• 1948, Truman wins re-
  election
  – NY Gov. Thomas Dewey
    was “unbeatable”
     • “Your future is ahead of you!”
     • Last POTUS candidate with
       facial hair
• Truman was supportive of
  civil rights and the
  desegregation of the
  military
• Seen as weak
• Vocal critic of Marines
1948 Election
     NATO and the Warsaw Pact
•   North Atlantic Treaty Organization   •   Warsaw Pact formed in response
    (NATO) formed by treaty on April         to NATO by eight Communist
    4, 1949                                  nations: Albania, Bulgaria,
•   Alliance formed between the U.S.,        Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
    Belgium, Canada, Denmark,                Hungary, Poland, Romania, and
    France, Iceland, Italy,                  the USSR.
    Luxembourg, The Netherlands,         •   Member nations agreed to defend
    Norway, Portugal, The UK, and            each other if attacked.
    Greece.                              •   In 1956, however, the USSR took
•   Designed to prevent possible             military action against Hungary,
    attacks by Communist nations.            one of its own member nations,
•   Members agree to defend one              killing thousands.
    another if attacked.                 •   The break up of the Soviet Union
                                             (USSR) and the fall of the Berlin
                                             Wall in 1991, greatly weakened
                                             the Pact.
NATO/Warsaw Pact
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  – If one country is attacked, then the rest would provide
    assistance
     • West Germany allowed to join
• Communist Countries (Eastern Europe) signed
  the Warsaw Pact
         Berlin Crisis/ Rebuilding of Germany
•   Truman believed that if Germany was
    restored, the rest of Europe would be
    OK.
•   By 1948, US realized that USSR was
    trying to sabotage the Marshall Plan in
    Germany.
•   1/3rd of Germany (East) was under
    Soviet control, the rest (West) was
    “free.”
•   Germany separated into 2 countries
    when USSR cut off all ties to West
    Germany.
•   Truman sent supplies to Berlin,
    Germany in an event called the Berlin
    Airlift.
      – 80 tons of food carried into Berlin
          over 11 months sustained 2.5
          million residents
      – One of the greatest aviation feats
          in history
Today’s Secret Word…
Communism
 A system of government
 where all citizens contribute
 equally to society and have
 equal ownership in
 everything produced.

 Eventually capitalism would
 be destroyed and turn into
 communism
                 Karl Marx 
       Least Fair                 Fair             Most Fair



     Capitalism              Socialism
“free county” where     The government               Communism
     people own        controls everything    Idealistic self-government
     Businesses       To ensure everything     where people contribute
   to make money         is fair and equal       equally for the good
 “American Dream”                                of the entire country
                         (“communist”
(USA since 1787)      Countries during Cold      (never happened)
                              War)
 Workers of
  the world,
 unite! You
have nothing
 to lose but
your chains!
  The Iron Curtain
                                 From the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic
• The presence of the           Sea, an iron curtain has descended
  Soviet Army in Eastern       across Europe. Behind that line all the
  Europe ensured pro-           capitals of Central Europe…All are
  communist governments         subject to Soviet influence and are
                                      controlled by Moscow.
  would be established
• Satellite Nations
  – Followed policies of
    USSR (Soviet Union)
  – Separated communist
    nations in East from the
    capitalistic nations in
    West
  – Tension with USA and
    Western Europe
  – Japan is allied with USA
Asian Conflicts
• 1949 Communists win the
  Chinese Civil War
  – Mao Zedong (Chairman of
    the Communist Party)
    becomes leader of China
  – Chang Kai-shek flees to
    Taiwan
  – American fear of
    communism grows
 The Iron Curtain/Truman Doctrine
• The USA started a policy of
  containment
   – Prevent communism from
     spreading across the globe
• Stalin and communists
  leaders try and push
  communism across the
  middle east
• President Truman made a
  speech
   – USA will not allow communism
     to spread any further, will
     attack if necessary
   – Socialistic countries attack
     “free” countries, destroying
     peace (disease)
   – Truman Doctrine
   The Cold War
• Rivalry between USA
  (Western Europe) and Soviet
  Union (Eastern Europe)
   – Both sides began developing
     weapons (arms race)
   – No actual fighting actually took
     place
   – People scared that attack was
     imminent
   – Lasted from 1945-1990
       • Built bomb shelters in back yards
         Video Clips:
           – Do It Yourself Fallout Shelter
           – Happy Days
High school students plan for impending
  attack
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7RHj15wVXec
Duck and Cover! (Video)
(http://www.archive.org/details/duck_and_cover_ipod)
US/USSR/Russian Nuclear
Weapon Stockpile
Changed in 2007 due to North Korea’s
recent nuclear tests, Iran’s nuclear ambitions
and the more than 26,000 weapons owned
by USA and Russia
Countries with Nuclear
Weapons
•   United States (NPT) 1945 (9,938)
•   Russia (NPT) 1949 (16,000)
•   England (NPT) 1952 (200)
•   France (NPT) 1960 (350)
•   China (NPT) 1964 (200)
•   India 1974 (70-120)
•   Israel (undeclared) (75-200)
•   Pakistan 1998 (30-80)
•   North Korea (withdrew from NPT) 2006 (1-10)
•   South Africa (disassembled)
•   Iran (in development)
• Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey,
  Canada, Greece (share weapons, borrowed from USA)
 The Korean War
• At the end of WWII, the
  USA sent troops to disarm
  the Japanese troops
  stationed there
• Pushed troops to the 38th
  Parallel
• North: Communist (Soviet)
• South: Nationalists (USA)
• Two governments
  organized, each wanted
  power of the whole country
• June 25, 1950: North
  Korea invades South Korea
• Video Clip: Truman justifies
  invasion and asks for war
  powers
 38th Parallel
• Divided N and S Korea
• Line of demarcation: most heavily armed border in
  the world
Korean DMZ
155 Miles long, 2.5 Miles Wide




        From the South
                                           From the North




                                 Soldiers from both sides patrol the
                                 area and occasional violence
                                 happens
Kim Jong il
Tallest flagpole in the world (525 ft)
 Korean War
• President Truman calls on the
  UN to act
• With UN approval, Truman
  sends Douglas MacArthur to
  Korea, pushes troops back to
  38th Parallel to Chinese border
• China enters the war, fighting
  with the communists, sending
  US/UN troops back across the
  38th Parallel
• MacArthur angry, wants to block
  China’s ports and drop the
  Atomic Bomb
• Truman fires MacArthur (Video
  Clip)
   – Keep peace, show who is
     Commander-in-Chief
   – Truman: MacArthur a “Prima
     Donna”
MacArthur’s Farewell Address
“I have just left your sons
   fighting in Korea…”
“Old soldiers never die; they
   just fade away." "And like
   the old soldier of that
   ballad, I now close my
   military career and just
   fade away — an old
   soldier who tried to do his
   duty as God gave him the
   light to see that duty.
   Good-bye."
Korean War
• War continued through
  July, 1953
• More than 33,600 US
  solders died (battles)
• More than 20,600 died
  from accidents and
  disease
• “Police Action”
• Expanded Cold War to
  Asia
   – Japan, South Korea,
     Taiwan Philippines,
     Australia             M*A*S*H
   – China, Vietnam
     (Communist)
Affluent Society
• After the war, the economy
  grew quickly
• Income tripled
• GI Bill  College and $ for
  soldiers returning from the
  war
• Consumerism
  – Spend money on luxury items
     • Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners,
       coffee makers. Blenders, etc
The Baby Boom
• Baby Boom…when men came home from the war,
  they started having babies
• One child born every seven seconds
Suburbia
• Families began
  moving to the suburbs
• “Idealistic” lifestyle
• Mass-produced
  homes
• Phoenix began
  growing
• Leave it to Beaver
• Happy Days
• VIDEO CLIP
Gender Roles
• Women started staying
  home with kids
   – Reversed progress
• “Happy Housewife”
• Women encouraged to
  learn how to cook, clean
  and look beautiful for their
  husbands
• Video clip: Lifestyles
Gender Roles
 “Let’s face it, that
 wonderful man in your
 house is providing you
 with many opportunities for
 you and your children…all
 young married women
 should set their sights on a
 happy home, a host of
 happy friends and a bright
 future by helping minimize
 your husband’s stress and
 supportive of his job.”
New Technology
• Televisions became
  affordable
  – 80% of homes had a TV
• Variety shows,
  Kids/Family Shows and
  Westerns were popular
• Video Clip: Technology
Music
• Rock and Roll
  – Elvis Presley, Bill
    Haley “Rock Around
    the Clock” is
    considered the first
    Rock and Roll Song
• R&B
  – Chuck Berry, Little
    Richard, Fats Domino

  – Video Clip:
    Entertainment
Elvis gets drafted
• 1957: Elvis Presley gets drafted into the
  US Army and serves 2 years
   Juvenile Delinquents/Bad Guys
• Cool to be
  bad/rebellious
• James Dean
• The Fonz
• Teenagers seek
  their identity and
  independence
   The Red Menace
• Beginning in the 1940s,
  Truman was accused of
  harboring spies in the highest
  level of government
• Thousands of people were fired
   – Alger Hiss
      • Denied being a communist, sent
        to prison for perjury (5 yrs)
      • Controversy: guilty or not?
      • Stationary salesman,
      • Died in 1996
     Joseph McCarthy
•   Republican Senator from Wisconsin
•   Made a list of people whom he
    accused of being communist spies
     – Celebrities, reporters, etc…
•   Became a national figure
     – Explosive allegations became national
       headlines
•   Played into people’s fears
     – USSR nuclear technology
     – Fall of China

     •   Feud with Edward R. Murrow
     •   Movie Clip: Good Night and Good Luck
     • http://www.americanrhetoric.co
       m/MovieSpeeches/moviespeec
       hgoodnightandgoodluckmcarth
       y.html
McCarthyism
• Reckless and
  unsubstantiated method
  of “seek and destroy” at
  all costs
• Intense paranoia against
  communism and personal
  character
• Video Clips:
   – McCarthyism
   – Have You No Sense of
     Decency?
HUAC
• House Un-American
  Activities Committee
  – Investigative
    committee in the
    House of
    Representatives
  – Investigate
    “suspicious” behavior
  – Investigated
    Hollywood Celebrities
     • “Hollywood 10” Blacklist
Hollywood Blacklist
• Movie stars were “blacklisted” based on political
  beliefs and associations
  – Accused of being communists after refusing to assist
    HUAC investigations
  "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the
    communist party?"
• Many had a difficult time finding work afterwards
• Some gave names to the committee to take
  pressure off themselves
Larry Adler, actor and musician              Howard Da Silva, actor
Luther Adler, actor and director             Roger De Koven, actor                      Rose Hobart, actress
Stella Adler, actress and teacher            Dean Dixon, conductor                      Judy Holliday, actress
Edith Atwater, actress                       Olin Downes, music critic                  Roderick B. Holmgren,
Howard Bay, scenic designer                  Alfred Drake, actor                        journalist
Ralph Bell, actor                            Paul Draper, actor and dancer              Lena Horne, singer and
Leonard Bernstein, composer and conductor    Howard Duff, actor                         actress
Walter Bernstein, screenwriter               Clifford J. Durr, attorney                 Langston Hughes, writer
Michael Blankfort, screenwriter              Richard Dyer-Bennett, folk singer          Marsha Hunt, actress
Marc Blitzstein, composer                    José Ferrer, actor                         Leo Hurwitz, director
True Boardman, screenwriter                  Louise Fitch (Lewis), actress              Charles Irving, actor
Millen Brand, writer                         Martin Gabel, actor                        Burl Ives, folk singer and
Oscar Brand, folk singer                     Arthur Gaeth, radio commentator            actor
Joseph Edward Bromberg, actor                William S. Gailmor, journalist and radio   Sam Jaffe, actor
Himan Brown, producer and director           commentator                                Leon Janney, actor
John Brown, actor                            John Garfield, actor                       Joseph Julian, actor
Abe Burrows, playwright and lyricist         Will Geer, actor                           Garson Kanin, writer and
Morris Carnovsky, actor                      Jack Gilford, actor                        director
Vera Caspary, writer                         Tom Glazer, folk singer                    George Keane, actor
Edward Chodorov, screenwriter and producer   Ruth Gordon, actress and screenwriter      Donna Keath
Jerome Chodorov, writer                      Lloyd Gough, actor                         Pert Kelton, actress
Mady Christians, actress                     Morton Gould, pianist and composer         Alexander Kendrick
Lee J. Cobb, actor                           Shirley Graham, writer                     Adelaide Klein, actress
Marc Connelly, playwright                    Ben Grauer, radio and TV personality       Felix Knight, singer and actor
Aaron Copland, composer                      Mitchell Grayson, radio producer and       Howard Koch screenwriter
Norman Corwin, writer                        director                                   Tony Kraber, actor
Alan Lomax, folklorist and musicologist      Horace Grenell, conductor and music        Millard Lampell, screenwriter
Avon Long, actor and singer                  producer                                   John La Touche, lyricist
Joseph Losey, director                       Uta Hagen, actress and teacher             Arthur Laurents, writer
Peter Lyon, television writer                                                           Gypsy Rose Lee, actress and
                                             Dashiell Hammett, writer                   ecdysiast
Aline MacMahon, actress
                                             E. Y. "Yip" Harburg, composer              Madeline Lee, actress1
Paul Mann, director and teacher
                                             Robert P. Heller, television journalist    Ray Lev, classical pianist
Waldo Salt, screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner
                                             Lillian Hellman, playwright and            Philip Loeb, actor
2003: 208)
                                             screenwriter                               Ella Logan, actress and
Bill Scott, voice actor (Cohen 2004: 178)
                                             Nat Hiken, writer and producer             singer
Art Smith, actor (Schwartz 1999)
                                             Michael Wilson, screenwriter
Lionel Stander, actor
Margo, actress and dancer                                          Gale Sondergaard, actress
Myron McCormick, actor                                             Hester Sondergaard, actress
Paul McGrath, radio actor                                          Lionel Stander, actor
Burgess Meredith, actor                                            Johannes Steel, journalist
Arthur Miller, playwright                                          Paul Stewart, actor
Henry Morgan, radio and TV comedian                                Elliott Sullivan, actor
Zero Mostel, actor                                                 William Sweets, radio personality
Jean Muir, actress                                                 Helen Tamiris, choreographer
Meg Mundy, actress                                                 Betty Todd, director
Lynn Murray                                                        Louis Untermeyer, poet
Ben Myers                                                          Hilda Vaughn, actress
Dorothy Parker, writer                                             J. Raymond Walsh, radio commentator
Arnold Perl, radio writer                                          Sam Wanamaker, actor
Minerva Pious, actress                                             Theodore Ward, playwright
Samson Raphaelson, screenwriter and playwright                     Fredi Washington, actress
Bernard Reis                                                       Margaret Webster, actress, director and producer
Anne Revere, actress                                               Orson Welles, actor, writer and director
Kenneth Roberts, writer                                            Josh White, blues musician
Earl Robinson, composer and lyricist                               Irene Wicker, singer and actress
Edward G. Robinson, actor                                          Betty Winkler (Keane), actress
William N. Robson, radio and TV writer                             Martin Wolfson, actor
Harold Rome, composer and lyricist                                 Lesley Woods, actress
Norman Rosten, writer                                              Richard Yaffe, journalis
Selena Royle, actress                                              Phoebe Brand, actress (Schwartz 1999; Buhle and
Coby Ruskin, TV director                                           Wagner 2003: 50)
Robert St. John, journalist                                        Charles Dagget, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
Hazel Scott, jazz and classical musician                           Phil Eastman, cartoon writer (Cohen 2004: 178)
Pete Seeger, folk singer                                           Carl Foreman, producer and screenwriter (Buhle and
Lisa Sergio, radio personality                                     Wagner 2003: xi)
Artie Shaw, jazz musician                                          Michael Gordon, director (Dick 1982: 80)
Irwin Shaw, writer                                                 John Hubley, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
Robert Louis Shayon, former president of radio and TV directors'   Lester Koenig, producer (Herman 1997: 356)
      guild                                                        Lewis Leverett, actor (Schwartz 1999)
Ann Shepherd, actress                                              John McGrew, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
William L. Shirer, journalist                                      Bill Melendez, animator (Cohen 2004: 178)
Allan Sloane, radio and TV writer                                  Paula Miller, actress (Schwartz 1999)
Howard K. Smith, journalist
I Like Ike
• 1952 Presidential
  Election
• General Dwight
  Eisenhower elected
  (Republican)
   – Campaigns against “Korea,
     Communism and
     Corruption”
   – Promises to personally visit
     Korea
   – First soldier since US Grant
     (Civil War) to be elected
     president
End of Korean War
• Eisenhower fulfills his
  promise to visit Korea
• Considers using nuclear
  weapons to end the war,
  finds that they would not
  be effective
• UN signs an armistice to
  end fighting.
• 38th Parallel remains
  most heavily fortified
  border in the world
National Interstate and Defense
Highways Act
• Spend $25B to
  create 41,000 miles
  of highways across
  the United States in
  10 years
• Assists with
  transportation and
  defense
• Even #s E/W
• Odd #s N/S
Review McCarthyism
• Video clip (McCarthyism and Segregation)
 Earl Warren
• President Eisenhower
  appointed Earl Warren to
  be chief justice
  – Wanted to run for president
  – Conservative/Republican
    governor of California
Brown v. Board of Education
• Schools were segregated
   – The system of “separate but
     equal” in public schools is not
     adequate because of inferior
     schools
• Oliver Brown was concerned
  about his daughter’s (Linda)
  school. Not only did it receive
  less funding, but there was a
  “white” school much closer to
  his house
• Hired famous lawyer Thurgood
  Marshall of the NAACP
• Challenged Jim Crow Laws
  (video clip)
• Video Clip
  Brown v. Board of Education
• Unanimous decision:
     Segregation of students in public
     schools violates the Equal Protection
     Clause of the Fourteenth
     Amendment, because separate
     facilities are inherently unequal.
     District Court of Kansas reversed.
   Ended Segregation
• Thurgood Marshall eventually
  becomes the first African
  American on the Supreme Court
End of Segregation
• Decision of the courts
  outlawed segregation in
  all public schools
  immediately
 Desegregation
• Not everyone was happy
  with the decision
• Senator Henry Byrd (D-
  VA) organized a program
  to close schools, rather
  than desegregate
• Governor Orval Faubus
  of Arkansas
• George Wallace (1963)
• Eisenhower called
  Warren “the biggest
  mistake of my
  presidency” (too liberal)
   – Eisenhower enforces law
 Little Rock Nine
• Governor Orval Faubus
  (Arkansas) called the
  National Guard to stop nine
  African American students
  from entering Little Rock
  High School
• Showdown with President
  Eisenhower who ordered
  the national guards to stand
  down
• Sent additional troops to
  Arkansas for protection
• Faubus shut down the
  schools for two years
  afterwards in retaliation
• Video Clip: BvB and Little
  Rock Nine
Rosa Parks
• One year after BvB, an African American
  woman named Rosa Parks was riding in a
  bus…
• Refused to give up her seat to a white man
  “People always say that I didn't give up my
  seat because I was tired, but that isn't true. I
  was not tired physically, or no more tired
  than I usually was at the end of a working
  day. I was not old, although some people
  have an image of me as being old then. I
  was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was
  tired of giving in.”
Montgomery Bus Boycott

• African Americans began
  boycotting the busses
• Help from Martin Luther
  King
• Successful protest,
  segregation on public
  transportation declared
  unconstitutional
• Beginning of the Civil
  Rights Movement

				
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