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Medication

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									Medikasi
   Isma Yuniar
                A Medication
 A subtance administered for the
  diagnosis,cure, reatment, or relief of a
  symptom or to prevention of disease (
  Kozier, Erb, Berman & Synder,2004)

             Medication drugs
                 Names
 The chemical name
    ◦ Asam asetilsalisilat
   The generic name
    ◦ Aspirin
   The official name
    ◦ The united states pharmacopenia
   The trade / brand name
    ◦ Hidrochlorothiazid-----Esidrix
                  Drug standars :
   @   Purity
   @   Potency
   @   Bioavailability
   @   Efficiacy
   @   Safety
                    Kerja obat :

 Initially : 100%
 After
    ◦   8 hrs        : 50%
    ◦   16 hrs : 25%
    ◦   24 hrs : 12,5%
    ◦   32 hrs : 6,25%
       Factor Influencing Drug Action
   Physiological
   Pathological
   Environmental
   Psychological factors
   Genetik
Legal Aspect of Drug Administration
◦ knowing the regulation of DA
◦ be able to recognize the limits of their
  knowledge and skill
◦ responsible for their own action
◦ responsible for the proper storage &
  distribution of “controlled subtance “ such as
  narcotics
◦ Pemberian obat yang aman
                  Effect of Drugs
 the terapheutic effect
 side effect
    ◦   secondary effect
    ◦   unintended
    ◦   harmless of or potentially
    ◦   contoh : codein----konstipasi
   drug toxicity
    ◦ result from overdose
    ◦ contoh : morphine sulfate----respiratory depression
   allergic reactions
    ◦ unpredictable response
    ◦ an immunology reaction
    ◦ mild to severe ( skin rash to rhinitis) ----anaphilatic Rx (
      acute shortness of breath, hypotension )
   drug tolerance
    ◦ an increase in dosage maybe needed to cause a
      therapeutic effect
                   Pharmacokinetics
1. Absorption
  ◦       Masuknya molekul obat --- aliran darah
  ◦       Influencing by : route of administration
          ability of the drug to dissolve condition at
          the site
2. Distribution
  ◦       Distribusi di dalam tubuh --- organ / jar
           Body size
           Circulatory dynamic vasoconstriction : penurunan
            distribusi
           Protein binding; albumin dalam darah : penurunan
            drug distribution
3. Metabolism
  ◦   Reached site if action ; drug is metabolized
4. Excretion
  ◦   Kidney, liver, bowel, lungs and exocrine
      glands
              Drug Administration
   Five Rights of Drug adm :
   Right drug
   Right patient
   Right dose
   Right route
   Right time
                Route of adm
 oral
 sublingual
 buccal
 parenteral : SQ, IM, ID, IV
 topical : kulit, mata, hidung, telinga,
  rectum, vagina
 inhalation
 Hak klien, terkait dengan pemberian obat :
 Diberitahu ; nama, tujuan, kerja dan efek
  samping
 Menolak pengobatan
 Informasi lengkap ttg obat ; percobaan,
  dsb
 Mendapat pengobatan yang sesuai
 Tidak mendapat pengobatan yang tidak
  perlu
       Langkah dalam pemberian obat

   Dx keperawatan
   Cara kerja
   Efek samping
   Kontraindikasi / penyakit yang harus
    mendapat perhatian
   Dosis dan cara pemberian
   Farmakokinetik cara kerja obat
   Tindakan kep
    ◦ Ukur N,TD sebelum pemberian obat
                 Prescriber :

   Nama obat
   Dosis
   Frekuensi
   Cara pemberian
   Lama pemberian
   Tanggal dan tandatangan
     Usaha menurunkan kesalahan :

 Double check
 Meningkatkan keterampilan
 Standar prosedur
 Pencatatan
                # Pengkajian #
 riwayat medik
 riwayat alergi
 tujuan obat diberikan
 keadaan pasien saat pengkajian
 riwayat diet
 persepsi klien dan koordinasi motorik
 pengetahuan dan pengertian klien thd
  pengobatan
 sikap klien thd pengobatan
 data obat


PROSES KEPERAWATAN
               # Implementasi #

   benar tulisan
   benar dosis
   benar cara
   pencatatan
   penyuluhan
               # Evaluasi #

 respon klien thd pengobatan
 cara kerja dan efek samping obat
Dosage order     x Amount of hand
Dosage in hand




Dosage Calculation

								
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