presentation - Toolkit sport for development

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					THE IMPACT OF MEGASPORTS EVENTS ON DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS
The 2010 FIFA World Cup ™ in South Africa 7 March 2008 Protea Hotel Stellenbosch “DREAMFIELDS” Denver J. Hendricks University of Pretoria

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South Africa’s reality: A country of two nations

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Thabo Mbeki (1998) “South Africa is a country of two nations – one white and wealthy, the other black and poor” South African Institute of Race Relations (2007) “the number of people in South Africa living on less than $1 per day has increased from 1,9 million in 1996 to 4,2 million in 2006” www.epi.org “South Africa is ranked as the most unequal country in the world (as measured by the GINI coefficient) having recently overtaken Brazil.” Statistics South Africa (2008) “the wealthiest 10% of South Africans are 94 times richer than the bottom 10%” A strong perception in South Africa of the differences between groups and nondelivery of the espoused benefits of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ can contribute to increased conflict
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The promise of 2010

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The World Cup could be worth as much as R30 – 50 billion to South Africa At least R7 billion will accrue to the South African government in taxes 129 000 to 160 000 jobs will be created Between 400 000 and 500 000 spectators The construction, tourism, telecommunications, broadcasting, housing and employment sectors will be boost and the event will leave a huge social legacy. It will contribute to social cohesion Other benefits: Cultural exchange and development; natural resource enhancement; The cost to the country will be a mere $405,504,540. An excellent return on investment The jubilation the accompanied winning the bid was to be expected

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Great expectations!

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85% optimistic about job creation and economic growth

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33% expect to gain personally from 2010 FIFA World Cup™
78% expect black economic empowerment to improve 75% believe that run-down parts of the locality in which they live will be upgraded (Pillay, 2006)

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Militating influences
• South Africa’s relative isolation: Profile of international football supporters; Cost of travelling to South Africa; Negative exposure for South Africa abroad; Experience of the ICC World Cup in 2003 (18 000 of the expected 50 000 spectators arrive) Spiralling crime rate: Crimeexpo website making a comeback in July. “it will campaign for foreigners to boycott the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ World Cup. It will ask people to stay away…under the slogan „no normal soccer in an abnormal society…it will be much more effective, much more active, much more shocking…There‟s going to be pictures of corpses and stuff” (Juan Uys, 2008) Energy (fuel and electricity) crisis. Foreign athletes training out of the University of Pretoria’s High performance Centre in preparation for the Beijing Olympics and other international events packed up and left South Africa, vowing never to return because of the unacceptable disruption to their programmes HIV and AIDS: “the girls that walk the Durban beachfront are going to send them home with a lot more than they bargained for” (Trevor Philips, 2008) MATCH: FIFA owns the rights to the most lucrative income generating instruments of the event: Marketing, Accommodation, Ticketing, Information Technology, Hospitality. Accommodation establishments pay 30% of their gross income to MATCH when registering in exchange for accreditation, rating, exposure and potential reservations as official vendors Etc.
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Social benefits
Claims about the social benefits of sport • Improved physical and mental health and wellbeing; • HIV and AIDS prevention; • Actualisation of the Millennium Development goals; • Poverty alleviation; • Social change • Enhances education and life-long learning; • Promotes social cohesion by combating crime and anti-social behaviour; • Promotes active citizenship and national pride; • Sport contributes to national integration by giving people of different social classes, ethnicities, races and religions something to share and use as a basis of their ritual solidarity”. (Lever, 1983 on the role of football in Brazil.) • The 1995 IRB World Cup brought “a feeling of unity that…wiped away any doubts that might have lingered about the new democracy.” (Morgan, 2004.)

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Social benefits
An alternative perspective • Sport has contributed to conflict • “Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence. In other words: it is war without the shooting. (Van Drunen, 2006) • “Sport does not primarily aim to prevent conflict. On the contrary, it initiates conflict” (Kvalsund, 2007) • “There is a compelling need for more research in the area of development, in order to validate that…sport programmes are being helpful…” (Henley, 2006) • “Sport alone does not automatically promote the moral development of children…it provides, in principle, a suitable environment for its development.” (Lehman, 2005) • “Sport can contribute to distorting people‟s perspectives and encourage selfdefeating behaviour.” (Coakley, 1986) • “Sport is a means to instil discipline and order in a fledgling working class and offset both idleness and potential unrest.” (Coakley, 1986) • “Football in Brazil may have brought people together, but there must be doubt about whether that had any impact on the political and economic realities of that society…some groups benefit more from unity than others” (Klein, 1986) • Perception of Koreans that many of the claimed benefits of the 2002 World Cup did not materialise and their concerns about the maintenance costs of the stadiums before the World Cup were justified.
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“Dreamfields”
• A sober and realistic attempt to capitalise on the excitement of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ ; • Provides chances to share in the excitement of the event through providing opportunities in indigent communities for sharing the excitement of the event through improving basic, community and school facilities; • Supply community and school clubs with “Dreambags”; • Provides coaching and sports management skills programmes to communities; • Creates sports competitions; • Provides better access to, and opportunities in football for the benefiting communities than has ever been the case previously.
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