Federal Courts by dffhrtcv3

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									Federal Courts

What is the structure and
function of the Federal Courts
Federal Courts: General Info
   Three main levels of federal courts
    (LOWEST TO HIGHEST)
     U.S. District Courts (Trial Courts: Civil and
      Criminal Cases)  94
     U.S. Courts of Appeals (Appellate)  11
     U.S. Supreme Court  1
        Original Jurisdiction  Very few cases
        Appellate Jurisdiction  Majority
True About All Federal Courts
 Only Supreme Court is mentioned in the
  Constitution, but structure and power was
  virtually undefined
 All federal judges are APPOINTED by the
  President and must be CONFIRMED by
  the U.S. Senate
 All federal judges serve for an unlimited
  term, subject to good behavior
Role of federal courts have evolved
over time
 Marbury v. Madison: Supreme Court
  under John Marshall rules act of Congress
  unconstitutional, establishing
  PRECEDENT of JUDICIAL REVIEW
 Over time federal courts have reviewed
  presidential actions as well
MODERN JUDICIAL ROLE
   Doctrine of Incorporation: Role of 14th
    Amendment [Does Federal Bill of Rights apply to
    the states?
     Barron   v. Baltimore-

     Gitlow   v. New York-

     “SUBSTANTIVE      DUE PROCESS” FUNDAMENTAL
      FAIRNESS
          IMPACT:
QUESTIONS FOR US TO
PONDER IN NEXT FEW
CLASSES
   How do cases make it to the Supreme Court?
   How does the court hear and decide a case?
   What are the various judicial philosophies used
    to develop decisions?
   What are the impact of court decisions on public
    policy?
   Why has the federal courts, especially the
    Supreme Court, become surrounded with
    controversy?
   Why has the nomination process become so
    politicized and controversial?

								
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