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Modal verbs

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					                                     In the name of Allah
                                          Modal verbs
   Functions of modal verbs :-                              ‫ًظائف األفؼال انناقصت‬

   1- Ability : ) ‫(انقذسة ًانقابهْت‬

   we use ( can – could – able to ) to this function )‫(َسخخذو األفؼال املزكٌسة هلزا انغشض‬

   * Can & Could take verb (1) ) ً‫( انفؼهني املزكٌسٍّ ّأخزًا انخصشّف األًل بؼذمها يباششا‬



   Eg / 1- I can carry the heavy bag

       The modal
                         Verb (1)



   * able to :-
   verb to be + able to + inf ) ‫ + املصذس‬able to + ‫(فؼم انكْنٌَت‬
   2- I was able to carry a heavy bag

Verb to be        The modal         Inf


   this is example expresses the ability to do sth so we use can – could – able to
) ‫( األيثهت انسابقت ػربث ػٍ انقذسة ػهَ ػًم شِء نزا اسخخذينا األفؼال املزكٌسة‬

2- necessity : ) ‫( انضشًسة‬
we use the following when the sentence talk about sth that we must do it
) ‫( َسخخذو ىزه انٌظْفت ًاالفؼال انخانْت ػنذيا حؼرب اجلًهت ػٍ شِء جيب انقْاو بو‬

* we use this modal for this function ) ‫( َسخخذو ىزه األفؼال هلزا انغشض‬
( must – have to – need to – have got to – are to )
* Present : ) ‫( يف املضاسع‬
eg :/ 1- You must get up early

       Modal       Verb (1)


 2- you have to come to the meeting

  Modal         Verb (1)


3- you are to solve the problem

  Modal         Verb (1)



* past :) ِ‫(يف املاض‬
in the past we can’t say must , have to , …..ect because we just use these modal in
the present , & in the past we use ( Had to ) to express the action which we must
‫( يف املاضِ ال ميكننا اسخخذاو األفؼال انسانف ركشىا ألَنا َسخخذييا فقط نهًضاسع ًنهخؼبري ‪do it‬‬

‫)‪ (Had to‬ػٍ املاضِ نألحذاد املخٌجب فؼهيا َسخخذو‬
‫‪eg / 1- You had to come early yesterday‬‬
        ‫‪Modal‬‬           ‫)1( ‪Verb‬‬



‫..‪the meaning of the sentence when we said it in the past form‬‬
‫( املؼنَ املسخفاد يٍ انخحذد بصْغت املاضِ ػٍ ىزه انٌظْفت ىٌ انخؼبري ػٍ احلذد انزُ مت ًكنج‬

‫يهزو نهقْاو نفؼهو ًمل حفؼهو فًؼنَ املثال انسابق ىٌ كاٌ ّخٌجب ػهْك االحْاٌ يبكشاً باأليس )‬

‫( املنغ ًاحلظش ) : ‪3- prohibition‬‬
‫) ‪( mustn’t – can’t – are not allowed to‬‬
‫‪we use this Modal to express the action that we mustn’t do it‬‬
‫( َسخخذو األفؼال انسابقت نهخؼبري ػٍ األيٌس انٌاجب أال َفؼهيا "املًنٌع فؼهيا" )‬
‫‪eg / 1- you mustn’t make so much noise‬‬

      ‫‪Modal‬‬            ‫)1( ‪Verb‬‬


‫‪2- you can’t pass this exam if you do as this‬‬

   ‫‪Modal‬‬         ‫)1( ‪Verb‬‬



‫( اَؼذاو انضشًسة ) : ‪4- lack of necessity‬‬
( don’t have to – needn’t ) >>>>> ‫ىادًل يف املضاسع‬

( didn’t have to + inf – needn’t have + verb (3) ) >>>> ِ‫ىادًل نهًاض‬

‫َسخخذو األفؼال انسابقت نهخؼبري ػٍ األيٌس انيت ال ٌّجذ انزاو نهقْاو هبا‬
eg /1- you don’t have to wear the sweater today

    Modal             Verb (1)



2- you needn’t have worked last night ( ِ‫(ياض‬
    Modal             Verb (3 ) ‫الن الجملة ماضي‬


5- advice : ) ‫( اننصْحت‬
( should – shouldn’t – ought to – oughtn’t to – had better – had better not – are
supposed – are not supposed ) ) ‫( األفؼال انسابقت يزكٌسة يغ طشّقت َفْيا‬

‫حسخخذو ىزه األفؼال نخقذّى اننصْحت يف املضاسع‬

eg / 1- you should go to the doctor ) ‫( حانت االثباث‬

 2- you had better not wear this T-shirt ) ِ‫( حانت اننف‬

‫نخقذّى اننصْحت يف املاضِ َسخخذو‬
( should have + verb (3) – ought to have + verb (3) – should not have + verb (3 ) –
ought not have + verb (3) )
‫أُ أَو كاٌ يٍ املفرتض ينك أٌ حفؼم كزا ًاحلذد مل ّخى‬

eg / 1- you should have studied hard yesterday ) ‫( حانت االثباث‬

   2- you ought not to have watched the match last Monday ) ِ‫( حانت اننف‬

6- probability :- ) ‫( االحخًاالث‬
( may – might )
‫حسخخذو نهخؼبري ػٍ احخًال فؼم شِء يؼني‬

1 – I may visit you tomorrow ) ‫( احخًال ضؼْف‬

2- I might visit you tomorrow ) ٌُ‫( احخًال ق‬




Notices :1- we use ( may – might - can - could ) for permission too

) ٌ‫( ّسخخذيٌا اّضا نألر‬
eg / 1- May I leave now ???
     2- Can I leave now ???

 2- we use Modal verbs for another important functions
) ِ‫)َسخخذو األفؼال اجلايذة نٌظائف أخشٍ ييًت ًى‬
   A – Offer : ) ‫( انؼشض‬
   ( shall – what about …..ect )
   eg:/ 1- Shall I visit you tomorrow ?

      Modal          Verb (1)


      2- What about visiting you tomorrow ???

Not modal but             Verb + ing
we use it in Offer



   we can use ( How about – Why not – let me ) for Offer
   B – Request : ) ‫(انطهب‬
   ( Could – Would you mind - can )
   eg:/ 1- Could you give me an example about present simple , please ?
         Modal           Verb (1)




                                Could have & Should have

   Could have + verb (3) : ً‫كاٌ بإيكاَك أٌ حفؼم كزا ًىِ أقم انزايا‬

   Should have + verb (3) : ً‫كاٌ يٍ األفضم أٌ حفؼم كزا ًىِ أكثش انزايا‬
   eg : /1- I should have taken my vest and shorts but I didn’t

           Modal           Verb (3)
2- The other team could have won but I scored ten points in the last 5 minutes


          Modal           Verb (3)




Done by : Hashem Humiad “ AssAssino “
The summary was made by : T.Ashraf Qwaider
Uploaded to : www.sef.ps/vb ( Educational Multka )

				
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posted:4/25/2013
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