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HISTORY OF WOMEN IN ENGINEERING (PowerPoint)

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					HISTORY OF WOMEN IN ENGINEERING
Kauser Jahan1, Beena Sukumaran1, Jennifer Kadlowec2 and Harriet Hartman3
1 Civil and Environmental Engineering 2 Mechanical Engineering 3 Sociology

Objectives
 Overview of history of women in science

and engineering in ancient times
 Women have made many contributions and

advancements to science and engineering
 Women have fought hard to gain equality  Current status of women in engineering

WOMEN OF ANCIENT TIMES

Miriam the Alchemist
 Born in Alexandria, Egypt during the 1st or 2nd

century A.D.  Developed an early distillation process
 Developed a high temperature double boiler

 Inventions used primarily in the process of

trying to turn metals into gold
 Founded a school of Chemistry in Alexandria

Hypatia of Alexandria
 Lived in Ancient Egypt from 350-415 A.D.  One of the most respected women of her time  Many interests – Philosophy – Mathematics – Astronomy

Hypatia of Alexandria
 Inventor – Instrument used in water distillation – Device to measure gravity of water – Planisphere (still used today)
• Shows where constellations will be on any given night


Killed by fanatical Christian Monks who were threatened by her popularity

Name Miriam the Alchemist Hypatia

Period Egypt (1st or 2nd Century A.D.) Egypt Circa 360-415

Expertise Chemical Processing Mathematics Philosophy Physics Mathematics Ph.D. in Physics Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics Astronomy Computer Programming

Emilie de Breteuil du Châtelet Laura Bassi Maria Gaetana Agnesi Sophie Germain Mary Fairfax Somerville Ada Byron Lovelace

France 1706-1749 Italy 1711-1778 Italy 1718-1799 France 1776-1831 Great Britain 1780-1872 Great Britain 1815-1852

WOMENS’ RIGHTS
AGE OF REFORM

Seneca Falls Convention of 1848
 Designed/organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton

 Convention advocated women’s equality
 “Declaration of Sentiments” outlined injustices that

women suffered

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Injustices Suffered By Women
 Married women were legally dead in the eyes of

the law  Not allowed to vote  No voice in formation of laws
– Had to abide by them

 Husbands had legal power over and responsibility

for their wives
– Could beat and punish their wives without fear of punishment

 Divorce and child custody laws favored men

Injustices Suffered By Women
 Women had to pay property taxes – no representation in the levying of these taxes  Most occupations closed to women – When women did work, they were paid a fraction of what men earned  Professions such as medicine, engineering

or law were denied  No college or university would accept female students

Declaration of Sentiments
 Document written during the convention that was

based on the Declaration of Independence  In the document Stanton wrote,
"We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness..."

Mary Kies
 May 5, 1809

 Recipient of 1st US patent awarded to a

female  Developed a method for weaving straw with silk

WOMEN IN ENGINEERING

Engineering Education
 Engineering schools for men were established

with the advent of the Industrial Revolution  1802 USMA, West Point (Military school)  1824, RPI, Troy, NY (Civilian school)  1821 Troy Female Seminary Age of Reform  1837 Mt. Holyoke Seminary 1840-1860  1865 Vassar College Equal Rights  1875 Smith, Wellesley Right to Vote Rights for Education  1885 Bryn Mawr
Morrill Act of 1862

Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards
 First woman admitted to MIT

 1876: Successfully lobbied to open the

Women’s Laboratory at MIT  Worked as a Sanitation Chemistry Assistant at MIT
– Tested home furnishings and foods for toxic contaminants – Investigated water pollution and designed safe sewage systems
 1879: First female member of the American Institute

of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers

Elizabeth Bragg
 1876: First engineering degree awarded to an

American woman
– Civil Engineering, UC Berkeley

 1884 Kate Gleason, Cornell University
• Gear Technology Gleason Works

 1892 Elmina Wilson, Iowa State College
• First female instructor

 1893 Berta Lamme, Ohio State University
• Electrical engineering focus

Rosalind Franklin
Born: London, England, July 25, 1920
Died: London, England, April 16, 1958

Pioneer Molecular Biologist
Franklin was responsible for much of the research and discovery work that led to the understanding of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. The story of DNA is a tale of competition and intrigue, told one way in James Watson's book The Double Helix, and quite another in Anne Sayre's study, Rosalind Franklin and DNA. James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins received a Nobel Prize for the doublehelix model of DNA in 1962, four years after Franklin's death at age 37 from ovarian cancer.

Maria Sklodowska Curie
 First woman to win a Nobel Prize – 1903: Physics
• Discovery of radium and polonium

– 1911: Chemistry
• Isolation of radium and its chemical properties

 World War I – Believed that X-rays could help locate bullets and facilitate surgery – Invented X-ray vans and trained 150 female attendants

Rachel Louise Carson
 1936: First woman to pass the civil

service test  U.S. Bureau of Fisheries
– Worked as junior biologist – After 15 years, she was the chief editor of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Publications

 Has been called the mother of the modern

environmental movement

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES

Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education
 Formed in 1893  Later named American Society for

Engineering Education  At the time of formation, only 3 women had received engineering degrees

American Society of Civil Engineers
 First woman to address was Emily Warren

Roebling, in 1852  Nora Blatch de Forest inducted as “junior member” in 1909.
– Was not allowed further advancement – Granddaughter of Cady Stanton

 Elsie Eaves became the first female member

in 1957

Society of Women Engineers
 Established in 1950  First President was Beatrice Hicks (chemical

engineering)  SWE Objectives
– To inform young women, their parents, counselors, and the public in general of the qualifications and achievements of women engineers and the opportunities open to them. – To assist women engineers in readying themselves for a return to active work after temporary retirement. – To serve as a center of information on women in engineering. – To encourage women engineers to attain high

Tau Beta Pi
 Established at Lehigh University in 1885

 Limited to men until 1969
 Badges were authorized for women as an

alternative to membership
– In 84 years, only 619 badges were awarded by 98 chapters

 Women were allowed full membership in

1969

Engineering WorkPlace
 Only 16% of scientists, 9% of engineers and

4% of computer scientists in the U.S. are women.  Women leave science and engineering careers twice as frequently as men.  Women's salaries in science and engineering lag behind men's by 12 to 15 percent.
* AWSEM

Women in Academia - % of Female Faculty in Engineering
 Full Professors

1.4%  Associate Professors 6.3%  Assistant Professors 13.7%

Female Deans of Engineering Colleges
 Dr. Eleanor Baum - Cooper Union  Dr. Kristina M. Johnson - Duke University  Dr. Ilene Busch-Vishniac - Johns Hopkins University

 Dr. Janie M. Fouke - Michigan State University
 Dr. Dianne Dorland - Rowan University  Dr. Zorica Pantic-Tanner - San Francisco State University

 Dr. Stacie Swingle Nunes - SUNY-New Paltz
 Dr. Linda C. Lucas - University of Alabama-Birmingham  Dr. Jane C.S. Long - University of Nevada-Reno  Dr. Denice D. Denton - University of Washington  Dr. Nancy Jannik - Winona State University  Dr. Linda Katehi – Purdue University  Dr. Maria Klawe – Princeton University  Dr. Belle W. Y. Wei-San Jose State University

CURRENT STATUS

Undergraduate Enrolment in Engineering Programs
Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1999 % Males 84.6 84.3 84.1 83.7 83.3 82.7 82.3 81.9 81.5 81.0 80.6 80.2
Source: NSF

% Females 15.4 15.7 15.9 16.3 16.7 17.3 17.7 18.1 18.5 19.0 19.4 19.8

Edith M. Flanigen
 Earned over 102 U.S. patents – Innovations in petroleum refining and research  Made gasoline production cleaner and safer  Same filtering devices used to purify water

and clean up the environment  Elected to the National Academy of Engineering

Why do we have lower numbers of women in Engineering?
 Gender differences in preparation for science and mathematics  Lack of female role models  Lack of Advancement
 Glass Ceiling in the Management

 Lack of Mentoring
 Guidance and Encouragement from peers

 Lack of Training Opportunities  Family Issues

Acknowledgements
 Crystal Mattson, Sophomore in Civil and

Environmental Engineering, Rowan University  Betty Reynolds and Jill Tietjen (2001) “Setting the Record Straight: The History and Evolution of Women’s Professional Achievement in Engineering”, White Apple Press.


				
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