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Henry 7 (1485-1509) Henry 8 (1509-1547) Edward 6 (1547-1553) Mary 1 (1553-1558) Elizabeth 1 (1558-1603) Henry Tudor defeated king Richard 3 at the battle of Bosworth in 1485 and became the king.This called and end to the war of the roses (fought between two families Lancaster and York) Many nobles had been killed or lost their power.Henry made sure this continued by killing their private armies for treason against the crown and then took their estate.As well as all this he married the princess of York to bring the families together. Henry 8 became king in 1509 at the age of 17.A short time before that he was betrothed to Catherine of Aragon,youngest daughter of the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella.She had been married to Arthur,Henry’s elder brother,to strengthen the alliance between England and Spain.But Arthur died suddenly ,so Henry 7 decided his younger son should marry Catherine because he was worried that he may have to return her dowry. The marriage was at first forbidden by the Church because were to closely related,but Henry 7 persuaded the pope to allow this. Edward was only 9 when he came to the throne,and the government was in the hands of his uncle,Edward,Duke of Somerset,who had the title protector.Somerset abolished the laws against heresy,removed images and altars from the Churches,and introduced an English- language Book of Common Prayer,which was compiled by Thomas Cranmer.By an Act of Uniformity in 1549,the use of this Prayer Book was made compulsory.In another change,priests were allowed to marry. Mary 1 came to the throne in 1553.She had been unhappy ever since Henry 8 had divorced her mother,Catherine of Aragon.Her greatest wish was to undo the Reformation and restore the Catholic faith.Opposition to the church of Rome was strong and could only be crushed by harsh measures.Mary began by stopping people from reading Prayer Book.In Mary's five-year reign 275 Protestants were put to death for refusing to convert back to Catholicism.Among the victims were nobles and clergy such as the Archbishop Cranmer.Mary has since acquired the nickname “Bloody Mary”. Henry 8’s youngest daughter,Elizabeth,ascended to the throne in 1558,with no opposition.She restored the Protestant religion and gradually established the Church of England.Elizabeth 1 was a remarkable women. She spoke in five different besides English:Greek,Latin, French,Italian and Spanish.She was a talented musician, a graceful dancer and a fine archer.She was also a very skilled politician.Elizabeth said herself that she had “the body of a weak and feeble woman, but the heart and stomach of a king,and a king of England too”. Children’s Encyclopaedia of British History. Clip arts on PowerPoint.
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