Answers to Question about the Chapter

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					Answers to Question about
      the Chapter
        Nosebleeds
        [Epistaxis]
                   Nosebleeds
• 60% occurrence –
  ruptured blood vessels

• Most common cause:
  increased blood
  pressure

• Cure: waiting for blood
  to clot
  – Pinch nostrils together
    (Little’s Area)
            Nosebleed Factors
Blunt trauma
Nose-picking
Allergies
Drugs (snorting/Aspirin)
Alcohol
Nasal Sprays
Heart Problems
Dry/Not Humid Air
            Otic Barotrauma
• Damage to body
  tissues from
  difference in pressure
• Ex. An airplane
  landing
• Underwater in a deep
  pool

• Going from high
  pressure to low
  pressure 
  nosebleed!
Disorders of the Blood
                      Hemostasis
•   Hemostasis – Stoppage of Blood Flow
•   Three Stages:
    1. Platelet Plug Formation (platelets activated)
    2. Vascular Spasms (serotonin) – Blood vessels
      •   Decreases blood loss until clotting
    3. Coagulation (clotting – platelets and fibrinogen)
      •   Can take 3-6 minutes
Not Enough Hemostasis!!!

     Hemophilia and
    Thrombocytopenia
                    Hemophilia
• When cut, your blood is
  unable to clot
  – Lacks platelets or
    fibrinogen
• Hereditary
• Only found in males
• Carrier females ONLY

• Popularly found in royal
  family members
  (England and Russia)
Queen Victoria’s Lineage
          Thrombocytopenia
• Not enough circulating
  PLATELETS (blood clotting)
• Small purplish blotches on
  skin (spontaneous bleeding)
• Can be due to lack of
  Vitamin K (leafy greens)
• Negatively affect liver
  function (clotting factors)
          Quick Quiz 1 of 2
• What is the MAIN GOAL of hemostasis?

• How is hemophilia different from
  thrombocytopenia (hint: how do you get
  it?)

• What can you do to prevent getting
  thrombocytopenia in your diet?
   When Clotting Goes Too Far…
          THROMBUS
• Persistent clotting in blood vessels

• Can lead to heart attack (pulmonary thrombus)
• Embolus = free-floating clot
   – Can cause heart attack or stroke!


• Common in immobilized patients (people in
  comas)
   – Slowly flowing blood
     Heart Attacks and Tylenol
• Heart attack (Myocardial
  Infarction) – when blood
  supply to heart blocked
  off

• Tylenol = anti-coagulant

• Taking one/two pills can
  increase chances of
  surviving heart attack
          Sickle Cell Anemia
• Anemia – Iron-
  deficiency due to lack
  of hemoglobin

• Sickle cells – moon-
  shaped RBCs

• Less surface area =
  less hemoglobin =
  less iron = anemia!
• Hereditary!
       Sickle Cell and Malaria
• High prevalence in African Americans, why?

• Malaria – mosquito-borne infectious disease
  that attacks blood cells
  – Started thousands of years ago
• 90% deaths from Malaria = Sub-Saharan
  Africa

• Sickle cells = immune to malaria
    Leukemia – “White Blood”
• Cancer of the bone marrow
  – Most common cancer in children
• Bone marrow = stem cells
  – Make RBCs, WBCs and platelets

• Stem cells produce immature, abnormal
  and nonfunctional WBCs in large amounts
  – Leaves body open to opportunistic infection

• Cure: Bone Marrow transplant (difficult)
          Leukemia Post- WWII
• 1945 – Atomic Bomb
  in Hiroshima
  – Ending WWII in Japan
• Radiation  Cancer
  (Leukemia)

• Killed 140,000

• Sadako and the
  Thousand Paper
  Cranes – Eleanor
  Coerr
          Quick Quiz 2 of 2
• What is the name of the free-floating clot
  resulting from a thrombus?

• Which cells are DIRECTLY AFFECTED by
  Leukemia (test question)

• If something is an anti-coagulant (Tylenol),
  what does that mean?
Artificial Blood Substitutes

      An Ethical Dilemma
      Problems with Donating
           Human Blood
• Short lifespan (RBCs = 3-7 days)

• Antibodies  unwanted clotting
  between blood types
  – (Type A  Type B)
       Solution?: Cow Blood
Hemopure:
Purified hemoglobin (oxygen carrier)
No problems with antibodies

BUT…

It’s Bovine (Cow) – based!
Mad Cow Disease!!

				
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posted:4/24/2013
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