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Ammoniak emissie reducties in de melkveehouderij

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Ammoniak emissie reducties in de melkveehouderij Powered By Docstoc
					Milk urea as
indicator for
Low Nitrogen Feed
in
Dairy husbandry
 The new focus is on housing
                emission in kiloton NH3

140
120
100                                              application
80                                               housing
60                                               grazing
40                                               fertilizer
20
 0
  1985   1990   1995        2000          2005
                           predicted reductions in housing emissions

            broilers

     mother animals

        laying hens

            poultry
                                                                        2010
               pigs
                                                                        2003-2010
              sows

              sows

            piglets

        dairy cows


-5                     0            5              10   15         20
                                        kton NH3
Emission factors for Dairy cow housings
  • Ammonia volatilization
     – During winter (200 days):          7.1%
     – During summer (165 days):         17.4%
     – Effectively:                      11.7%


  • According RAINS
     – Option SA

         animal      storage   application   grazing
         house
         10.5%        1.04%         -            -
Low Nitrogen Feeding dairy cattle
  Relates to
  • Nitrate Directive
     – N excretion
     – Max 170/250 kg N per hectare animal manures


  • National Emission Ceiling Directive
     – Ammonia emission
     – Max 128 kiloton NH3 in the Netherlands
Practical policy implication
  N manure per dairy cow ‘by default’

  N = 138.5
       + 0,0055 ( MY– 7482 ) + 2,4 ( MU – 26 )

  Correction for
  • milk yield (MY in kg) and
  • ureum content of milk (MU in mg per 100 g milk)
Emission factors LNF
 Current Milk Ureum average is 26 mg per 100 g milk
 Milk ureum target is 20 mg per 100 g milk
     So, 2,4 * (26-20)=14,4 kg N
     Relatively 14,4/138,5 = ~ 10%


 EB.AIR/WG.5/1999/8 Rev.1 reads
 Removal effiency [%]: 15

         animal       storage        application   grazing
         house
           15            15              15          15
However, farmers find it easier – more economic -
   to shed their cows ‘year-’round
   using ‘milk ureum’ to monitor milk quality and
   environmental pollution


‘year-’round will increase ammonia emissions substantially
Removal effiency [%]: -23

       animal      storage   application   grazing
       house
         -33         -33         -33         100
Low Nitrogen Feeding dairy cattle
  • Potential reduction: 3,7 kiloton NH3
  • In the sandy soil region:
      – 1,7 kiloton NH3 at € 5 million
      – Cost effectiveness
         LNF      ~ € 3 per kg NH3
         housing ~ € 5 per kg NH3


  •   Alternative: increase grazing
  •   Alternative: decrease use of nitrogen fertlizer
  •   Alternative: improve housing
  •   Alternative: …
                       The proceedings
                                       annually averaged concentration

                    30,0



                    27,5
mg per 100 g milk




                                                                                target
                    25,0
                                                                                realisation


                    22,5



                    20,0
                       1998     2000       2002   2004   2006   2008     2010




                     Bron: MCS-Nederland
                       The proceedings
                                       annually averaged concentration

                    30,0



                    27,5
mg per 100 g milk




                                                                                target
                    25,0                                                        realisation
                                                                                K&K

                    22,5



                    20,0
                       1998     2000       2002   2004   2006   2008     2010




                     Bron: MCS-Nederland
                                 ureum 2002
            Legenda
            pc2004_cov polygon
            ureum.ureum_2002
                23.20 - 24.00
                24.01 - 25.00
                25.01 - 26.00
                26.01 - 27.00
                27.01 - 28.00
                28.01 - 29.00
                29.01 - 30.00
                30.01 - 31.00
                31.01 - 32.00




Bron: MCS
                                 ureum 2005
            Legenda
            pc2004_cov polygon
            ureum.ureum_2005
                22.60 - 24.00
                24.01 - 25.00
                25.01 - 26.00
                26.01 - 27.00
                27.01 - 28.00
                28.01 - 29.00
                29.01 - 30.00
                30.01 - 31.00
                31.01 - 32.00




Bron: MCS
         32


         30


         28
  2005




         26


         24


         22


         20
              20   22          24    26    28   30   32
                                    2002
MU(2005) = 0,9571 x MU(2002)
       32

       30

       28
2005




                                                 peat/clay region
       26
                                                 sand/loam region

       24

       22

       20
            20   22   24   26     28   30   32
                           2002
              prognose ureum 2010
Legenda
pc2004_cov polygon
prog_2010
    19 - 20
    20 - 21
    21 - 29
conclusion
 • National target for Low Nitrogen Feed seems
   out of reach
       Sandy soil easier than peat/clay region


 • Low Nitrogen Feed should not lead to ‘year-
   ’round shedding of cows
       Ammonia up by 23% in stead of down 15%
Legenda
    zand

    zeeklei

    rivierklei

    veen

    leem

    onbekend
removal efficiency of the abatement option 'low nitrogen feed' in the dairy cow sector
                                                                                          calculation
per animal per year

                                  nitrogen manure (kg N)                  ammonia volatilization (kg NH3)
option                           total     house meadow                house  storage      appl    grazing   total

                                                                        14%          5%   34%         7%
current                           126        81        46                 14          4     27         4       49
LNF and no grazing                107       107         0                 18          6     36         0       60
LNF and current grazing           107        68        39                 12          4     23         3       42



removal efficiency
LNF and no grazing               15%       -33%     100%               -33%        -33%   -33%      100%     -23%
LNF and current grazing          15%        15%      15%                15%         15%    15%       15%      15%



based on RAINS data for the Netherlands

				
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