Age of Exploration Reasons for Exploration ► Demand for spices ► Halting of the expansion of Islam ► Ending Europe’s isolation Why did the Age of Exploration happen? ► Better navigational devices, like the compass & the astrolabe, a device to plot location using the stars ► Better ships w/multiple masts made travel faster (caravels) Treaty of Tordesillas ► the line of demarcation (or division) in 1494 was an imaginary line drawn by the pope to separate Portuguese & Spanish claims in the New World (North & South Americas) w/the Treaty of Tordesillas ► Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian mapmaker who claimed Columbus had discovered a “New World” & America was named in his honor Slavery in the New World ► during the 1600s & 1700s, the triangular trade was established between Europe, Africa, & the Americas ► this was the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade when African chiefs would sell members of other tribes to ship captains for guns & alcohol ► between 10 –24 million Africans were brought to America & 1 in 5 did not survive the Middle Passage (journey to America) Colombian Exchange ► Europeans carried unknown diseases to the native Americans which killed millions (Small Pox) ► many products were carried to and from the New World like: ► to the New World: horses, cows, wheat, rice, & oranges ► from the New World: corn, sweet potatoes, tobacco, cacao (chocolate) Changing Ways of Life Commercial Revolution ► new business methods for investing money, speeding the flow of wealth, & reducing risks: result of Age of Exploration ► rise of free enterprise (modern capitalism), economic system in which money is invested in business to make profits More Commercial Revolution ► people who wanted to invest in exploration combined resources in joint-stock companies, or organizations that sold stock & shared in profits & losses ► rise of entrepreneurs, or individuals who combined money, ideas, raw materials, & labor to make goods & services Mercantilism ► a nation’s wealth depended on the amount of gold & silver, that it owned ► nations sought to create a favorable balance of trade by exporting more than it imported ► so European countries (known as mother countries) would establish colonies around the world & would restrict trading in the colonies with any other mother country ► the colony would provide raw materials to the mother country, which would produce manufactured goods which the mother country would sell to the colony Boats and Ships Review ► Trireme: Greek ship, levels of Greek rowers Trireme ► Dhow: Used in the Indian Ocean trade Lateen Sail: Triangular sail, can sail into the Monsoons ► Junk: Huge Chinese ship with Dhows many masts ► Caravel: Smaller European ship with three masts, used in Age of Exploration Junk Caravel and Junk Comparison Caravel Dailies: Exploration 1. What were three reasons for Exploration? 2. Describe the line of Demarcation? 3. Why is the triangular trade called triangular? 4. Where did most African slaves go? 5. What is the rhyme about Columbus? Dailies: Mercantilism ► Describe Capitalism. ► Who wrote a book about it? ► What is the goal of mercantilism? ► Why do the mother countries need colonies? ► Describe an entrepreneur.
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